Committee and Staff Biographies
MARGARET A. HAMBURG, M.D. (co-chair), is Vice President for Biological Programs, Nuclear Threat Initiative, Washington, D.C. Before taking on her current position, Dr. Hamburg was the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, serving as principal policy advisor to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Prior to this, she served for almost six years as the Commissioner of Health for the City of New York. As chief health officer in the nation’s largest city, Dr. Hamburg’s many accomplishments included the design and implementation of an internationally recognized tuberculosis control program that produced dramatic declines in tuberculosis cases; the development of initiatives that raised childhood immunization rates to record levels; and the creation of the first public health bioterrorism preparedness program in the nation. She is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School and completed her residency in Internal Medicine at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center. She currently serves on the Harvard College Board of Overseers. She has been elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine (IOM), the New York Academy of Medicine, the Council on Foreign Relations, and is a Fellow of the American Association of the Advancement of Science and the American College of Physicians.
JOSHUA LEDERBERG, PH.D. (co-chair), is Professor emeritus of molecular genetics and informatics and Sackler Foundation Scholar at the Rockefeller University, New York. His lifelong research, for which he re-
ceived the Nobel Prize in 1958, has been in genetic structure and function in micro-organisms. He has a keen interest in international health and was co-chair of the previous Institute of Medicine study (1990–1992) on Emerging Infections. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957 and is a charter member of the Institute of Medicine.
BARRY J. BEATY, PH.D., is Professor of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology at Colorado State University. He is a University Distinguished Professor and founder and former Director of the Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, a center of excellence in training and research in vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. Dr. Beaty’s research interests include arbovirology, vector biology, and the epidemiology and control of zoonotic diseases. He has published more than 200 scientific papers, with emphases on the genetic and molecular bases of vector-pathogen and rodent-pathogen interactions, molecular manipulation of mosquitoes, development of clinically relevant diagnostics, and investigations of novel approaches to predict and prevent zoonotic disease emergence. Dr. Beaty is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the WHO Steering Committee on the Biology and Control of Vectors (Molecular Entomology), and is one of the Program Leaders of the MacArthur Foundation Network on the Biology of Parasite Vectors. He has numerous research and training activities ongoing in vector-borne disease endemic countries.
RUTH L. BERKELMAN, M.D., is the Rollins Professor and Director, Center for Public Health Preparedness and Research at the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University. She came to Emory University in 2000 following 20 years with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where she had served as an Assistant Surgeon General both in the position as Sr. Adviser to the Director, CDC, and as Deputy Director, National Center for Infectious Diseases. In the mid-1990s, she led CDC’s efforts to address the threat of emerging infectious diseases. Her career began as an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Officer, and her expertise is primarily in infectious diseases and disease surveillance. Dr. Berkelman is board certified in pediatrics and internal medicine, and is a graduate of Harvard Medical School. She is active in the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Epidemiologic Society, and she currently serves on the Policy and Scientific Affairs Board of the American Society of Microbiology. She also consults with the Nuclear Threat Initiative on reduction of the threat of biologic weapons.
DONALD S. BURKE, M.D., is Professor of International Health and Epidemiology and Director of the Center for Immunization Research at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Previously he served 23
years at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, including 6 years at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences in Bangkok, Thailand. His research focuses on the epidemiology and prevention of human epidemic virus diseases including HIV/AIDS, dengue, flavivirus encephalitis, and hepatitis. He is past President of the American Society of Tropical Medicine. He has served on the NRC Roundtable for the Development of Drugs and Vaccines Against AIDS, the NRC Committee on Climate, Ecology, Infectious Diseases, and Human Health (as Chairman), the IOM Committee to Review the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, and currently serves on Board of the IOM Medical Follow-up Agency.
GAIL H. CASSELL, PH.D., is Vice President of Scientific Affairs and Distinguished Research Scholar in Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly and Company, former Vice President, Infectious Diseases Research, Drug Discovery Research, and Clinical Investigation, at Eli Lilly & Company. Previously, she was the Charles H. McCauley Professor and (since 1987) Chair, Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department that, under her leadership, has ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health since 1989. She is a member of the Director’s Advisory Committee of the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell is past President of the American Society for Microbiology, a former member of the National Institutes of Health Director’s Advisory Committee, and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She has also served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office on Science and Technology and was previously Chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell served 8 years on the Bacteriology-Mycology-II Study Section and served as its chair for 3 years. She serves on the editorial boards of several prestigious scientific journals and has authored more than 250 articles and book chapters. She has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research on infectious diseases.
JIM YONG KIM, M.D., PH.D., a physician–anthropologist, is a Founding Trustee of Partners in Health (PIH), a Harvard-affiliated non-profit organization that supports health projects in poor communities in Peru, Mexico, Guatemala, Haiti, Russia, and the United States. His main areas of expertise are infectious diseases and access to pharmaceuticals in poor popula-
tions and he chairs a WHO Working Group on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Dr. Kim also serves as Director of the Program in Infectious Disease and Social Change at Harvard Medical School and is Chief of the Division of Social Medicine and Health Inequalities at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston. He was lead editor of Dying for Growth: Global Inequality and the Health of the Poor, a volume that examines the socioeconomic forces that impact health outcomes of the poor throughout the world. He has recently edited, along with the WHO, The Global Plan to Stop TB, the first consensus business plan for the global TB control community.
KEITH P. KLUGMAN, MBBCH, PH.D., is Professor of International Health, the Rollins School of Public Health, and Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. He is a Visiting Researcher at the Respiratory Diseases Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He is currently Director of the Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit of the Medical Research Council and the National Health Laboratory Service at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. Dr. Klugman has a Ph.D. in physiology and specialist qualifications from South Africa and the United Kingdom in pathology and microbiology. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of South Africa, a member of the Wellcome Trust Tropical Diseases Interest Group, the Executive Committee of the International Society of Chemotherapy, the U.S. National Committee of the International Union of Microbiological Societies, and has authored more than 250 publications in peer-reviewed journals. He is internationally known for his research on antibiotic-resistant bacteria, opportunistic respiratory infections associated with HIV, and bacterial vaccines.
ADEL A.F. MAHMOUD. M.D., PH.D., is President of Merck Vaccines at Merck & Co., Inc. He formerly served Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland as Chairman of Medicine and Physician-in-Chief from 1987 to 1998. Born in Cairo, Egypt, Dr. Mahmoud received his M.D. degree from the University of Cairo. He was selected a WHO fellow to study for the Ph.D. degree at the University of London, School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, which he was awarded in 1971. Dr. Mahmoud prepared the first specific anti-eosinophil serum, which was used to define the role of these cells in host resistance to helminthic infections. Dr. Mahmoud’s work to examine the determinants of infection and disease in schistosomiasis and other infectious agents led to the development of innovative strategies to control those infections, which have been adopted by the World Health Organization as selective population chemotherapy. Dr. Mahmoud was elected to membership of the American Society for Clinical Investigation in 1978, the Association of American Physicians
in 1980 and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 1987. Dr. Mahmoud is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, and a member of the Expert Advisory Panel on Parasitic Diseases of the World Health Organization. He is a past-President of the Central Society for Clinical Research and the International Society for Infectious Diseases. Dr. Mahmoud currently serves as Chair of the Forum on Emerging Infections and is a member of the Board on Global Health, both of the Institute of Medicine. He also chairs the U.S. delegation to the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program.
LINDA O. MEARNS, PH.D., is a Senior Scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado and Deputy Director of the Environmental and Societal Impacts Group (ESIG). She holds a Ph.D. in Geography/Climatology from UCLA. She has performed research and published in the areas of crop–climate interactions, climate change scenario formation, climate change impacts on agro-ecosystems, and analysis of climate variability and extreme climate events in both observations and climate models. She is a member of the IPCC Task Group on Scenarios for Climate Impact Assessment, and was co-convening Lead Author for the chapter on Climate Scenario Development in IPCC Working Group I for the IPCC Third Assessment Report (2001), and a Lead Author on two other chapters in Working Groups I and II: one on Regional Projections of Climatic Change and the other in WGII on Scenarios. She has just completed an integrated assessment project on the effects of changes in climate variability on crop production in the southeastern United States. Her current projects include an Integrated Assessment of Environmental Problems on the North Slope of Alaska, Climate Change Effects on Crops in the Yangtze River Area of China (funded by NASA), and Uncertainty in Datasets used for Agricultural Assessments (NSF-MMIA). She also served on the National Academy Panel on Climate, Ecosystems, Infectious Diseases, and Human Health, March 1999–June 2001. She also leads the NCAR Climate Impacts Assessment Science Initiative, which includes plans to form a climate/health research and educational program.
FREDERICK MURPHY, D.V.M., PH.D., is Dean-Emeritus and Professor in the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California Davis. Formerly, he was the director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases at CDC. He is recipient of the Presidential Rank Award and is a member of the German Academy of Natural Sciences. He has been a leader in viral pathogenesis, viral characterization, and taxonomy; his interests include public health policy, vaccine development, and new, emerging, and reemerging diseases. Dr. Murphy is a member of the Institute of Medicine. He is co-chair on the Institute of Medicine Committee on Occupational Health
and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on International Security and Arms Control/Institute of Medicine Board on International Health, Committee for Russian/U. S. Collaborative Program for Research and Monitoring of Pathogens of Global Importance, and the Institute of Medicine Committee on Prion Diseases.
MICHAEL T. OSTERHOLM, Ph.D., M.P.H., is the Director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) at the University of Minnesota where he is also Professor, School of Public Health. Previously, Dr. Osterholm was the state epidemiologist and Chief of the Acute Disease Epidemiology Section for the Minnesota Department of Health. Following the September 11 terrorist attacks, Dr. Osterholm has served as an advisor to the U.S. Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on issues related to bioterrorism and public health preparedness. He has received numerous research awards from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He served as principal investigator for the CDC-sponsored Emerging Infections Program in Minnesota. He has published more that 240 articles and abstracts on various emerging infectious disease problems and is the author of the best selling book Living Terrors: What America Needs to Know to Survive the Coming Bioterrorist Catastrophe. He is past president of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. He serves on the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine Forum on Emerging Infections. He has also served on the IOM Committee on Food Safety, Production to Consumption, and as a reviewer for the IOM report on chemical and biological terrorism.
CLARENCE J. PETERS, M.D., is the John Sealy Distinguished University Chair in Tropical and Emerging Virology at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston and is Director for Biodefense in the Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases at that institution. Before moving to Galveston in 2001, he worked in the field of infectious diseases for three decades with NIH, CDC, and the U.S. Army. He has been Chief of Special Pathogens Branch at the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia and previous to that, Chief of the Disease Assessment Division and Deputy Commander at USAMRIID. He was the head of the group that contained the outbreak of Ebola at Reston, Virginia and led the scientists who identified hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the southwestern United States in 1993. He has worked on global epidemics of emerging zoonotic virus diseases including Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, and Nipah virus. He received his M.D. from Johns Hopkins University and has more than 275 publications in the area of virology and viral immunology.
Dr. Peters is currently also a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Research Standards and Practices to Prevent the Destructive Application of Biotechnology.
PATRICIA QUINLISK, M.D., M.P.H., is a medical epidemiologist practicing at the Iowa Department of Public Health where she functions as the Medical Director and the State Epidemiologist. Her background includes training as an clinical microbiologist (MT(ASCP)), training microbiologists while a Peace Corps Volunteer in Nepal, a Master’s of Public Health from Johns Hopkins with a emphasis in infectious disease epidemiology, medical school at the University of Wisconsin, and training as an field epidemiologist in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Epidemic Intelligence Service. For the last ten years, she has conducted annual epidemiologic training courses in Europe, and teaches regularly at the University of Iowa, Des Moines University (Medicine and Health Sciences), Iowa State University, and other educational institutes around Iowa. She serves, or has served, on several national advisory committees including the National Vaccine Advisory Committee, the Sub-Committee for Vaccine Safety and Communication, the Advisory Committee of the U.S. Marine Corps Chemical/Biological Incident Response Force, the Department of Defense’s Panel to Assess the Capabilities for Domestic Response to Terrorist Acts Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction (the Gilmore Commission), and as President of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). In addition to the present committee, she is a member of the IOM Committee on the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism.
P. FREDERICK SPARLING, M.D., is the J. Herbert Bate Professor of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology Emeritus at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill and is Director of the North Carolina Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Center. Previously he served as Chair of the Department of Medicine and Chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UNC. He was President of the Infectious Disease Society of America in 1996–1997. He was also a member of the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Microbial Threats to Health (1991– 1992). Dr. Sparling’s laboratory research is in the molecular biology of bacterial outer membrane proteins involved in pathogenesis, with a major emphasis on gonococci and meningococci. He is pursuing the goal of a vaccine for gonorrhea. Dr. Sparling is an active committee member for the Forum on Emerging Infections.
ROBERT G. WEBSTER, PH.D., holds the Rose Marie Thomas Chair of Virology in the Department of Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. He was admitted to the Royal Society of London in
1989, in recognition for his contribution to influenza virus research. In 1998 he was appointed to the National Academy of Sciences. In addition to his position at St. Jude, Dr. Webster is Director of the U.S. Collaborating Center of the World Health Organization dealing with the ecology of animal influenza viruses. Dr. Webster’s interests include the structure and function of influenza virus proteins and the development of new vaccines and antivirals. His work extends from characterization of the natural history of influenza in wild birds to the emergence of influenza pandemics in humans and domestic animals.
MARK L. WILSON, SC.D., is currently Director of the Global Health Program and Associate Professor of Epidemiology at the University of Michigan, where his research and teaching cover the broad area of ecology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. After earning his doctoral degree from Harvard University in 1985, he worked at the Pasteur Institute in Dakar Senegal (1986–1990), was on the faculty at the Yale University School of Medicine (1991–1996), and then joined the University of Michigan. Dr. Wilson’s research addresses the environmental determinants of zoonotic and arthropod-borne diseases, the evolution of vector–host–parasite systems, and the analysis of transmission dynamics. He is an author of more than 100 journal articles, book chapters and research reports, and has served on numerous governmental advisory groups concerned with environmental change and infectious disease epidemiology. He recently served as a member of the NRC Panel on Climate, Ecosystems, Infectious Diseases and Human Health.
MARY E. WILSON, M.D., is Associate Professor of Medicine at the Harvard Medical School and Associate Professor in the Department of Population and International Health at Harvard School of Public Health. She received an M.D. from the University of Wisconsin in 1971, and was chief of infectious diseases at Mount Auburn Hospital in Cambridge for more than 20 years. She co-edited the book Disease in Evolution: Global Changes and Emergence of Infectious Diseases. Dr. Wilson has long been interested in infections in travelers and immigrants, and has studied the role of migration and movement of materials in the appearance and expression of infectious diseases. Other interests include tuberculosis and use of vaccines, especially in travelers. She was recently a member of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Strategy for Minimizing the Impact of Naturally Occurring Infectious Diseases of Military Importance: Vaccine Issues in the U.S. Military.
MARK S. SMOLINSKI, M.D., M.P.H., is Senior Program Officer at the Institute of Medicine and Study Director for Microbial Threats to Health. Mark received his medical degree from the University of Michigan, training in Internal Medicine at Oakwood Hospital in Dearborn, Michigan, and training in Preventive Medicine at the University of Arizona where he received his Master’s in Public Health. He was a member of the investigation team during the hantavirus discovery in Southwestern United States. Mark was stationed as a CDC Epidemic Intelligence Officer in San Diego, and the principal public health investigator on an outbreak of pertussis among adults in a correctional facility, tetrodotoxin poisoning from puffer fish in California, and sexual behavior surveillance in the San Diego core STD prevalence areas. His experience includes epidemiologic field work in the Republic of Georgia. Most recently, Mark was the Luther Terry Fellow at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in the Office of Public Health and Science where he was a member of the Healthy People 2010 development team and had primary responsibility for Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health, which focuses on the Leading Health Indicators and a community health framework. Mark joined the Institute of Medicine in May 2001.
PATRICIA A. CUFF, M.S.,R.D., M.P.H., is Research Associate for the Institute of Medicine study on Microbial Threats to Health. She received an M.S. in Nutrition and an M.P.H. in Population and Family Health from Columbia University in 1995. Patricia has worked extensively in the field of HIV nutrition as a counselor, researcher, and lecturer on the topics of adult and pediatric HIV for 13 years. She has also participated in research projects of HIV-infected youths in Romania. Patricia joined the staff at the Institute of Medicine in April 2001.
KATHERINE A. OBERHOLTZER, is Project Assistant for the Institute of Medicine study on Microbial Threats to Health. Katherine received her B.S. in Integrated Science and Technology with a concentration in Biotechnology from James Madison University in 2000. She is currently pursuing her Professional Editing Certificate at the George Washington University. Katherine has worked as the Meeting Coordinator for the Maryland AIDS Education and Training Center of the Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. Katherine joined the staff at the Institute of Medicine in December 2000.