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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
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Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences

A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street, N.W.Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by the Research Corporation under Grant No. GG0066, the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation under Grant Nos. SG-00-094 and SG-02-025, the National Institutes of Standards and Technology under Grant No. NA1341-01-W-1098, the U.S. Department of Defense under Grant No. MDA-972-01-M-0038, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Grant No. R-82823201, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CHE-000778, the National Institutes of Health under Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, and the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-95ER14556. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expre ssed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 0-309-08734-1

Additional copies of this report are available from the
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×

CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE

ALEXIS T.BELL (Chair),

University of California, Berkeley

MARY L.MANDICH (Vice Chair),

Bell Laboratories

PAUL ANASTAS,

Office of Science and Technology Policy

MICHAEL R.BERMAN,

Air Force Office of Science Research

MICHELLE V.BUCHANAN,

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

LEONARD J.BUCKLEY,

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DONALD M.BURLAND,

National Science Foundation

THOMAS W.CHAPMAN,

National Science Foundation

F.FLEMING CRIM,

University of Wisconsin

MICHAEL P.DOYLE,

University of Arizona

ARTHUR B.ELLIS,

National Science Foundation

BRUCE A.FINLAYSON,

University of Washington

JOSEPH S.FRANCISCO,

Purdue University

NED D.HEINDEL,

Lehigh University

CAROL J.HENRY,

American Chemistry Council

MICHAEL J.HOLLAND,

Office of Science and Technology Policy

FLINT LEWIS,

American Chemical Society

TOBIN J.MARKS,

Northwestern University

PARRY M.NORLING,

RAND

NANCY L.PARENTEAU,

Amaranth Bio, Inc.

ELI M.PEARCE,

Polytechnic University

EDWIN P.PRZYBYLOWICZ,

Eastman Kodak (retired)

DAVID R.REA,

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (retired)

GERALDINE RICHMOND,

University of Oregon

MICHAEL E.ROGERS,

National Institutes of Health

PETER J.STANG,

University of Utah

ELLEN B.STECHEL,

Ford Motor Company

WALTER J.STEVENS,

U.S. Department of Energy

JEANETTE M.VAN EMON,

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

FRANKIE WOOD-BLACK,

ConocoPhillips

Staff

JENNIFER J.JACKIW, Program Officer

DOUGLAS J.RABER, Senior Scholar

SYBIL A.PAIGE, Administrative Associate

DAVID C.RASMUSSEN, Project Assistant

DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director,

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×

BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

ALICE P.GAST (Co-Chair),

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

WILLIAM KLEMPERER (Co-Chair),

Harvard University

ARTHUR I.BIENENSTOCK,

Stanford University

A.WELFORD CASTLEMAN, JR.,

The Pennsylvania State University

ANDREA W.CHOW,

Caliper Technologies Corporation

THOMAS M.CONNELLY, JR.,

E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company

JEANDE GRAEVE,

Institut de Pathologie, Liège, Belgium

JOSEPH M.DESIMONE,

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and North Carolina State University

CATHERINE C.FENSELAU,

University of Maryland, College Park

MARY L.GOOD,

University of Arkansas, Little Rock

RICHARD M.GROSS,

The Dow Chemical Company

NANCY B.JACKSON,

Sandia National Laboratories

SANGTAE KIM,

Eli Lilly and Company

THOMAS J.MEYER,

Los Alamos National Laboratory

PAUL J.REIDER,

Amgen, Inc.

ARNOLD F.STANCELL,

Georgia Institute of Technology

ROBERT M.SUSSMAN,

Latham & Watkins

JOHN C.TULLY,

Yale University

CHI-HUEY WONG,

The Scripps Research Institute

Staff

JENNIFER J.JACKIW, Program Officer

CHRISTOPHER K.MURPHY, Program Officer

SYBIL A.PAIGE, Administrative Associate

DOUGLAS J.RABER, Senior Scholar

DAVID C.RASMUSSEN, Project Assistant

ERIC L.SHIPP, Postdoctoral Associate

DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×

Preface

The Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) was established in 1997 by the National Research Council (NRC). It provides a science-oriented apolitical forum for leaders in the chemical sciences to discuss chemically related issues affecting government, industry, and universities. Organized by the NRC’s Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, the CSR aims to strengthen the chemical sciences by fostering communication among the people and organizations—spanning industry, government, universities, and professional associations—involved with the chemical enterprise. The CSR does this primarily by organizing workshops that address issues in chemical science and technology that require national attention.

Innovation, the process by which fundamental research becomes a commercial product, is increasingly important in the chemical sciences and is changing the nature of research and development (R&D) efforts in the United States. The workshop “Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences” was held in response to pressures to speed the R&D process and to rapidly evolving patterns of interaction among industry, academe, and national laboratories. The aim of the workshop was to identify and discuss approaches that might speed the innovation process by which basic research leads to innovation.

The papers in this volume are the authors’ own versions of their presentations. The discussion comments were taken from a transcript of the workshop. In accordance with the policies of the CSR, the workshop did not attempt to establish any conclusions or recommendations about needs and future directions, focusing instead on issues identified by the speakers.

Ned D.Heindel and Andrew Kaldor

Workshop Organizers

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Christopher T.Hill, George Mason University

George E.Keller II, Union Carbide Corporation (retired)

David E.Nikles, University of Alabama

David J.Soderberg, BP Chemicals

Kimberly W.Thomas, Los Alamos National Laboratory

Francis A.Via, Fairfield Resources, Inc.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Louis C.Glasgow, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the organizers and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×

Contents

 

 

Summary

 

1

1

 

Overview of Trends in Innovation in the Chemical Industry
Richard M.Gross (The Dow Chemical Company)

 

7

2

 

Techniques for Structured Innovation
Allen Clamen (ExxonMobil, retired)

 

18

3

 

The Chemistry Innovation Process: Breakthroughs for Electronics and Photonics
Elsa Reichmanis (Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies)

 

28

4

 

DARPA’s Approach to Innovation and Its Reflection in Industry
Lawrence H.Dubois (SRI International)

 

37

5

 

Comments on the Advanced Technology Program
Mary L.Good (University of Arkansas, Little Rock)

 

49

6

 

What Have We Learned from Hot Topics?
James R.Heath (University of California, Los Angeles)

 

56

7

 

Industrial Innovation with External R&D Programs
Francis A.Via (Fairfield Resources International)

 

64

8

 

Some New Ideas for Speeding Up the Development of Products from University Research
Kenneth A.Pickar (California Institute of Technology)

 

73

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
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Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
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Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Reducing the Time from Basic Research to Innovation in the Chemical Sciences: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10676.
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Page R12
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Innovation, the process by which fundamental research becomes a commercial product, is increasingly important in the chemical sciences and is changing the nature of research and development efforts in the United States. The workshop was held in response to requests to speed the R&D process and to rapidly evolve the patterns of interaction among industry, academe, and national laboratories. The report contains the authors' written version of the workshop presentations along with audience reaction.

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