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References ABER, J. L., M. A. GEPHART, J. BRooKs-GuNN, AND J. P. CONNEEE (19974: "Devel- opment in Context: Implications for Studying Neighborhood Effects," in Neighbor- hood Poverty, ed. by J. Brooks-Gunn, G. J. Duncan, and J. L. Aber, vol. I: Context and Consequences for Children, pp. 44-61. Russell Sage Foundation, New York. ABERS, R. (2001~: "Learning Democratic Practice: Distributing Government Resources Through Popular Participation in Porto Alegre, Brazil," in The Challenge of Urban Government: Policies and Practices, ed. by M. Freire, and R. Stren, pp. 129-143. The World Bank, Washington, DC. ADAIR, L. S., B. M. POPKIN, AND D. GUTEKEY (19934: "The Duration of Breast- Feeding: How Is It Affected by Biological, Sociodemographic, Health Sector, and Food Industry Factors?" Demography, 30~1), 63-80. ADAMS, J. S. (19954: "Classifying Settled Areas of the United States: Conceptual Issues and Proposals for New Approaches," in Metropolitan and Non-metropolitan Areas: New Approaches to Geographical Definition, ed. by D. C. Dahmann, and J. Fitzsim- mons, no. 12 in Working Paper series, pp. 9-83. Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC. ADEEMAN, I., AND S. Ros1NsoN (1978~: Income Distribution Policy in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Korea. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. ADES, A. F., AND E. L. GLAESER (1995~: "Trade and Circuses: Explaining Urban Gi- ants," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110~1), 195-228. AFoEAsl BAMBGOYE, E., AND O. A. LADIPO (19924: "Oral Contraceptive Marketing in Ibadan, Nigeria," Social Science and Medicine, 35~7), 903-906. AFR1cA DEMOS (1991~: Newsletter, volume 1, number 4. AFRICAN POPULATION AND HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER (20024: "Population and Health Dynamics in Nairobi's Informal Settlements: Report of the Nairobi Cross- Sectional Slums Survey (NCSS) 2000," African Population and Health Research Cen- ter, Nairobi, Kenya. AFSAR, R. (1999~: "Rural-Urban Dichotomy and Convergence: Emerging Realities in Bangladesh," Environment and Urbanization, 1 1 ~l' AGso~A, T. (19974: The Architecture of Fear: Urban Design and Construction Response to Urban Violence in Lagos, Nigeria. IFRA/African Book Builders, Ibadan. AGENCE FRANCE-PRESS (2001~: Excerpt from Hong Kong service, January 5. AGHA, S. (19984: "Sexual Activity and Condom Use in Lusaka, Zambia," International Family Planning Perspectives, 24~1), 32-37. 419

420 CITIES TRANSFORMED AGHA, S., A. KARLYN, AND D. MEEKERS (2001~: "The Promotion of Condom Use in Non-Regular Sexual Partnerships in Urban Mozambique," Health Policy and Plan- ning, 16~2), 144-151. AGHON, G., AND C. CASAS (1999~: "Strengthening Municipal Financing: Difficulties and New Challenges for Latin America," in Fiscal Decentralisation in Emerging Economies. Governance Issues, ed. by K. Fukusaku, and L. R. de Mello Jr., pp. 75- 85. OECD, Paris. AGRAwA~, R. (1999~: Street Children. Shipra Publications, Delhi. AGYET, W. K., R. B. BIRTRWUM, A. G. ASHITEY, AND R. B. HlEE (20004: "Sexual Behaviour and Contraception among Unmarried Adolescents and Young Adults in Greater Accra and Eastern Regions of Ghana," Journal of Biosocial Science, 32~4), 495-512. AGYET, W. K., J. MuK1zA-GApERE, AND E. J. EPEMA (1994~: "Sexual Behaviour, Re- productive Health and Contraceptive Use among Adolescents and Young Adults in Mb ale District, Uganda," Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 97~4), 219-227. AGyEl-MENsAH, S . (2002~: "Fertility Transition in West Africa," Journal of African Pol- icy Studies, 12~2~. AlDoo, M., AND T. HARPHAM (20014: "The Explanatory Models of Mental Health Amongst Low-Income Women and Health Care Practitioners in Lusaka, Zambia," Health Policy and Planning, 16~2), 206-213. AITKEN, I. (19994: "Implementation and Integration of Reproductive Health Services in a Decentralized System," in Myths and Realities about the Decentralization of Health Systems, ed. by R.-L. Kolehmainen-Aitken, pp. 111-136. Management Sciences for Health, Boston, MA. AKIN, J., P. HITCHINSON, AND K. STRUMPF (2001~: "Decentralization and Government Provision of Public Goods: The Public Health Sector in Uganda," MEASURE Eval- uation Project Working Paper No. WP-01-35 (March). Carolina Population Center, Chapel Hill, NC. AKIN, J. S., AND P. HUTCHINSON (19994: "Health-Care Facility Choice and the Phe- nomenon of Bypassing," Health Policy and Planning, 14~2), 135-151. AEAN GUTTMACHER INSTITUTE (1998~: Into a New World: Young Women's Sexual and Reproductive Lives. Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York. ALDERMAN, H. (20014: "Multi-Tier Targeting of Social Assistance: The Role of Inter- governmental Transfers," The World Bank Economic Review, 15~1), 33-53. A~ESslE, R., AND A. KAPTEYN (19914: "Habit Formation, Interdependent Preferences and Demographic Effects in the Almost Ideal Demand System," Economic Journal, 101, 404-419. AEEAIN, T. J., A. O. WIESON, Z. A. GOMO, E. MUSHANG1, B. SENZANIE, D. J. ADAMCHAK, AND J. A. MATENGA (19974: "Morbidity and Disability in Elderly Zimbabweans,"Age and Ageing,26~2), 115-121. AEVARADO, R., A. ZEPEDA, S. RIVERO, N. R1co, S. LOPEZ, AND S. DlAz (19994: "In- tegrated Maternal and Infant Health Care in the Postpartum Period in a Poor Neigh- borhood in Santiago, Chile," Studies in Family Planning, 30~2), 133-141. A~vEs, M. H. M. (20034: "Sao Paulo: The Political and Socio-Economic Transformations Wrought by the New Labor," in World Cities in Poor Countries, ed. by J. Gugler. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

REFERENCES 421 Am, K., AND R. WONG (1993~: "Income Aspirations and Migrant Women's Labour Force Activity in Malaysia," in Internal Migration of Women in Developing Countries: Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Meeting on the Feminization of Internal Migration, ed. by United Nations, pp. 290-300. United Nations, New York. AMIN, S., I. DIAMOND, R. T. HAYED, AND M. NEWBY (1998~: "Transition to Adult- hood of Female Garment-Factory Workers in Bangladesh," Studies in Family Plan- ning, 29~2), 185-200. AM1s, P. (1995~: "Making Sense of Urban Poverty," Environment and Urbanization, 7~1), 145-157. AM1s, P., AND S. KUMAR (2000~: "Urban Economic Growth, Infrastructure and Poverty in India: Lessons from Visakhapatnam," Environment and Urbanization, 12~1), 185- 197. ANAS, A., R. ARNOTT, AND K. A. SMALL (1998~: "Urban Spatial Structure," Journal of Economic Literature, 36(September), 1426-1464. ANDERSEN, L. E. (20014: "Social Mobility in Latin America," Paper prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank Research Network Project on Adolescents and Young Adults: Critical Decisions at a Critical Age. ANDERSEN, R. M. (19954: "Revisiting the Behavioural Model and Access to Medical Care: Does It Matter?" Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 36, 1-10. ANDERSON, K., AND C. M. BECKER (20014: "Spatial Patterns of Poverty and Prosperity During Transition: Kyrgyzstan 1993-1997," Paper prepared for the Panel on Urban Population Dynamics, Committee on Population, National Research Council. Uni- versity of Colorado at Boulder Institute of Behavioral Science, Program in Population Processes. ANGEL, S. (2000~: Housing Policy Matters: A Global Analysis. Oxford University Press, New York. ANNABLE, J. (19724: "Internal Migration and Urban Unemployment in Low-Income Countries: A Problem in Simultaneous Equations," Oxford Economic Papers, 24~3), 399-412. ANTOINE, P., D. OUEDRAOGO, AND V. FICHE (eds.) (19994: Trois Generations de Citadins au Sahel. Trente Ans d 'Histoire Sociale a Dakar, et a Bamako. L'Harmattan, Paris. ANTOINE, P., M. RAZAFINDRAKOTO, AND F. ROUBAUD (20014: "Contraints de Rester Jeunes? Evolution de L' Insertion Urbaine Dans Trois Capitales Africaines, Dakar et Yaounde, Antananarivo," Les jeunes, hantise de l'espace public dans les socie'te's du Sud, Autre part, 18. IRD/Editions de l'Aube, Paris. ANZORENA, J., J. BOENICK, S. BOONYABANCHA, Y. CABANNES, A. HARDOY, A. HASAN, C. LEVY, D. MITEIN, ET AK. (19984: "Reducing Urban Poverty: Some Lessons from Experience," Environment and Urbanization, 10~1), 167-186. APPADURAT, A. (2001~: "Deep Democracy: Urban Governmentality and the Horizon of Politics," Environment and Urbanization, 13~2), 23-43. APPEETON, S., A. BIGSTEN, AND D. K. MANDA (19994: "Educational Expansion and Economic Decline: Returns to Education in Kenya, 1978-1995," Working Paper WPS/99-6, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford. APTEKAR, L. (19944: "Street Children in the Developing World: A Review of Their Con- dition," Cross-Cultural Research, 28~4), 195-224.

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Virtually all of the growth in the world’s population for the foreseeable future will take place in the cities and towns of the developing world. Over the next twenty years, most developing countries will for the first time become more urban than rural. The benefits from urbanization cannot be overlooked, but the speed and sheer scale of this transformation present many challenges. A new cast of policy makers is emerging to take up the many responsibilities of urban governance—as many national governments decentralize and devolve their functions, programs in poverty, health, education, and public services are increasingly being deposited in the hands of untested municipal and regional governments. Demographers have been surprisingly slow to devote attention to the implications of the urban transformation.

Drawing from a wide variety of data sources, many of them previously inaccessible, Cities Transformed explores the implications of various urban contexts for marriage, fertility, health, schooling, and children’s lives. It should be of interest to all involved in city-level research, policy, planning, and investment decisions.

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