COMMITTEE ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF UNINSURANCE
SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE SOCIETAL COSTS OF UNINSURED POPULATIONS
Mary Sue Coleman, Ph.D.,Co-chair, is president of the University of Michigan. She is professor of biological chemistry in the University of Michigan Medical School and professor of chemistry in the College of Literature, Science and the Arts. She previously was president of the University of Iowa and president of the University of Iowa Health Systems (1995–2002). Dr. Coleman served as provost and vice president for academic affairs at the University of New Mexico (1993– 1995) and dean of research and vice chancellor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1990–1992). For 19 years, she was both faculty member and Cancer Center administrator at the University of Kentucky in Lexington, where her research focused on the immune system and malignancies. Dr. Coleman is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She serves on the Life Sciences Corridor Steering Committee for the State of Michigan, the Executive Committee of the American Association of Universities, and other voluntary advisory bodies and corporate boards.
Arthur L. Kellermann, M.D., M.P.H.,Co-chair, is professor and director, Center for Injury Control, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University,
and professor and chairman, Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Emory University. Dr. Kellermann has served as principal investigator or co-investigator on several research grants, including federally funded studies of handgun-related violence and injury, emergency cardiac care, and the use of emergency room services. Among many awards and distinctions, he is a fellow of the American College of Emergency Physicians (1992), is the recipient of a meritorious service award from the Tennessee State Legislature (1993) and the Hal Jayne Academic Excellence Award from the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (1997), and was elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine (1999). In addition, Dr. Kellermann is a member of the Editorial Board of the journal Annals of Emergency Medicine, and has served as a reviewer for the New England Journal of Medicine, the Journal of the American Medical Association, and the American Journal of Public Health.
Ronald M. Andersen, Ph.D. is the Fred W. and Pamela K. Wasserman Professor of Health Services and professor of sociology at the University of California at Los Angeles School of Public Health. He teaches courses in health services organization, research methods, evaluation, and leadership. Dr. Andersen received his Ph.D. in sociology at Purdue University. He has studied access to medical care for his entire professional career of 30 years. Dr. Andersen developed the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use that has been used extensively nationally and internationally as a framework for utilization and cost studies of general populations as well as special studies of minorities, low-income populations, children, women, the elderly, the homeless, the HIV-positive population, and oral health. He has directed three national surveys of access to care and has led numerous evaluations of local and regional populations and programs designed to promote access to medical care. Dr. Andersen’s other research interests include international comparisons of health services systems, graduate medical education curricula, physician health services organization integration, and evaluations of geriatric and primary care delivery. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and was on the founding board of the Association for Health Services Research. He has been chair of the Medical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association. In 1994 he received the association’s Leo G. Reeder Award for Distinguished Service to Medical Sociology; in 1996 he received the Distinguished Investigator Award from the Association for Health Services Research; and in 1999 he received the Baxter Allegiance Health Services Research Prize.
John Z. Ayanian, M.D., M.P.P. is associate professor of medicine and health care policy at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, where he practices general internal medicine. His research focuses on quality of care and access to care for major medical conditions, including colorectal cancer and myocardial infarction. He has extensive experience in the use of cancer registries to assess outcomes and evaluate the quality of cancer care. In addition, he has studied the effects of race and gender on access to kidney transplants and on
quality of care for other medical conditions. Dr. Ayanian is deputy editor of the journal Medical Care, director of the general internal medicine fellowship at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and a fellow of the American College of Physicians.
Norman Daniels, Ph.D.* is professor of ethics and population health at Harvard School of Public Health, formerly having served as Goldthwaite professor and former chair of the Tufts Philosophy Department and professor of medical ethics at Tufts Medical School. He has written widely in the philosophy of science, ethics, political and social philosophy, and medical ethics. His most recent books include Seeking Fair Treatment: From the AIDS Epidemic to National Health Care Reform (Oxford, 1995); (with Donald Light and Ronald Caplan) Benchmarks of Fairness for Health Care Reform (Oxford, 1996); (with Allen Buchanan, Dan Brock, and Dan Wikler) From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice (Cambridge, 2000); (with Bruce Kennedy and Ichiro Kawachi) Is Inequality Bad for Our Health? (Beacon Press, 2000); and (with James Sabin) Setting Limits Fairly: Can We Learn to Share Medical Resources? (Oxford, 2002). He is also working on Just Health, a substantial revision and expansion of Just Health Care. Professor Daniels is a fellow of the Hastings Center, a member of the Institute of Medicine, and a founding member of the National Academy of Social Insurance and of the International Society for Equity in Health.
Sheila P. Davis, B.S.N., M.S.N., Ph.D. is associate professor in the School of Nursing at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. She is also vice president of Davis, Davis & Associates, a health maintenance consultant company. Her research focuses on minority health issues, especially cardiovascular risk among ethnic populations. Dr. Davis is the founder and chair of the Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Children Committee at the University of Mississippi. This is a multidisciplinary committee committed to reducing cardiovascular risks in children. Dr. Davis is a member of the American Nurses Association and has written numerous publications on the profession and the experiences of ethnic minorities in the health professions. She is author of a faith-based program, Healthy Kid’s Seminar, which is used to promote adoption of healthy lifestyle choices by children. Dr. Davis serves on the editorial review board of the Journal of Cultural Diversity and the Association of Black Nursing Faculty Journal. She is also founder and editor in chief of the Online Journal of Health Ethics.
George C. Eads, Ph.D. is vice president of Charles River Associates (CRA) Washington, D.C., office and is an internationally known expert in the economics of the automotive and airlines industries. Prior to joining CRA, Dr. Eads was vice
president and chief economist at General Motors Corporation. He frequently represented the corporation before congressional committees and federal regulatory agencies. He has served as a member of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers and as a special assistant to the assistant attorney general in the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. Dr. Eads has published numerous books and articles on the impact of government on business and has taught at several major universities, including Harvard and Princeton.
Sherry Glied, Ph.D.* is associate professor and chair of the Department of Health Policy and Management of Columbia University’s Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health. In 1992–1993, she served as a senior economist for health care and labor market policy to the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. Dr. Glied’s principal areas of research are health policy reform and mental health care policy. Her research on health policy has focused on the financing of health care services in the United States. She is an author of recently published articles and reports on managed care, women’s health, child health, and health insurance expansions. Her book on health care reform, Chronic Condition, was published by Harvard University Press in 1998. She is a recipient of a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Investigator Award through which she is currently studying the U.S. employer-based health insurance system. Dr. Glied is also conducting research sponsored by the Commonwealth Fund on the characteristics of uninsured Americans and on strategies to expand health insurance coverage.
Jack Hadley, Ph.D.* is a senior fellow at the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) and a principal research associate at The Urban Institute. He is a past president of the Association for Health Services Research and a former editor of the journal Inquiry. His work with HSC focuses on studies of the market for health insurance and of physicians’ behavior. His research emphasizes the application of econometric analysis to health care problems in physician and hospital payment, medical education financing, hospital efficiency, access to care, assessment of the outcomes of medical treatment, and effects of managed care on health delivery systems. Much of his work has analyzed large databases such as Medicare claims and national hospital data in order to understand patient, provider, or system responses to policy changes.
Ruby Hearn, Ph.D.* recently retired from her position as senior vice president of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation after 25 years. For most of her career, her efforts have focused on children’s health. She was the leading developer of the Infant Health and Development Program, the first randomized trial to look for
interventions to improve outcomes for low-birthweight infants. Dr. Hearn also played a key role in formulating Foundation programs on AIDS, substance abuse, and minority medical education. Her interests and influence have helped inform the Foundation’s approach to health. Dr. Hearn is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. She currently serves on the IOM Board on Health Care Services, the Board of Directors of the Council on Foundations, and the Science Board for the Food and Drug Administration.
Sandra R. Hernández, M.D. is chief executive officer of the San Francisco Foundation, a community foundation serving California’s five Bay Area counties. It is one of the largest community foundations in the country. Dr. Hernández is a primary care internist who previously held a number of positions within the San Francisco Department of Public Health, including director of the AIDS Office, director of community public health, county health officer, and director of health for the City and County of San Francisco. She was appointed to and served on President Clinton’s Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Healthcare Industry. She currently serves on the boards of the National Alliance for Hispanic Health and the California Managed Risk Medical Insurance Board, which is the governing body for the California Children’s Health Insurance Program. Among the many honors and awards bestowed on her, Dr. Hernández was named by Modern Healthcare magazine as one of the top ten health care leaders for the next century. Dr. Hernández is a graduate of Yale University, Tufts School of Medicine, and the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. She is on the faculty of the University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine and maintains an active clinical practice at San Francisco General Hospital in the AIDS Clinic.
Emmett B. Keeler, Ph.D.* is a senior mathematician who joined RAND in 1968. He is currently leading a large study of 40 organizations to evaluate interventions to improve care for chronic illness. He also leads a project that supplies cost-effectiveness analyses to a variety of University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) geriatric interventions. Dr. Keeler teaches health economics for physicians at UCLA and analytic methods at The RAND Graduate School and has taught at Harvard and the University of Chicago. Together with his RAND co-authors, he has received article-of-the-year awards three times from the Association for Health Services Research for papers on outlier payments, on the costs to others of bad health habits, and on whether poor medical patients receive worse care in hospitals than other patients. Dr. Keeler presently serves on the National Research Council’s Panel to Review the Scientific Evidence on the Polygraph.
Willard G. Manning, Ph.D.* is professor in the Department of Health Studies, Pritzker School of Medicine, and in the Harris School of Public Policy at The University of Chicago. His primary research focus has been the effects of health insurance and alternative delivery systems on the use of health services and health status. He is an expert in statistical issues in cost-effectiveness analysis and small area variations. His recent work has included examination of mental health services use and outcomes in a Medicaid population, and cost-effectiveness analysis of screening and treating depression in primary care. Dr. Manning is a member of the Institute of Medicine.
James J. Mongan, M.D.† is president and chief executive officer of Partners HealthCare, Inc., and was previously president of Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Mongan served as assistant surgeon general in the Department of Health and Human Services; as former associate director for health and human resources, domestic policy staff, the White House; and as former deputy assistant secretary for health policy, Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Dr. Mongan is chair of the Task Force on the Future of Health Insurance for Working Americans, a nonpartisan effort of the Commonwealth Fund to address the implications of the changing U.S. workforce and economy for the availability and affordability of health insurance. He is also a member of the Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured and a past board member of the Kaiser Family Foundation.
Jack Needleman, Ph.D.* is assistant professor of economics and health policy in the Department of Health Policy and Management at Harvard University. Dr. Needleman’s research examines the impact of changes in the health care market and regulation on health care providers and consumers. Recent work has focused on whether nonprofit and for-profit hospitals have responded in similar ways to tighter reimbursement; examined the extent and impact of changes in hospital ownership from nonprofit or public to for-profit corporations; and examined the influence of diagnosis and expected payment source on patient flows among hospitals of differing ownership. Dr. Needleman is currently conducting two studies examining nurse staffing and hospital quality issues. He also teaches and conducts program evaluation. Other work under way includes studies of increased competition for Medicaid patients between safety-net and community hospitals in Florida, the impact of market change on hospitalization patterns for patients with psychiatric conditions, and the relationship between nurse staffing and hospital quality.
Christopher Queram, M.A. has been chief executive officer of the Employer Health Care Alliance Cooperative (The Alliance) of Madison, Wisconsin, since
1993. The Alliance is a purchasing cooperative owned by more than 160 member companies that contracts with providers; manages and reports cost and utilization data; performs consumer education and advocacy; and designs employer and provider quality initiatives and reports. Prior to his current position, Mr. Queram served as vice president for programs at Meriter Hospital, a 475-bed hospital in Madison. Mr. Queram is a member of the board of The Leapfrog Group and serves as treasurer. He is also a member and past chair of the board of the National Business Coalition on Health. Mr. Queram was a member of the President’s Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry, served as a member of the Planning Committee for the National Quality Forum, and continues as chair of the Purchaser Council and board member of the Forum. He is a member of the Wisconsin Board on Health Information and the Board of the Wisconsin Private Employer Health Care Coverage program. He holds a master’s degree in health services administration from the University of Wisconsin at Madison and is a fellow in the American College of Healthcare Executives.
Shoshanna Sofaer, Dr.P.H. is the Robert P. Luciano Professor of Health Care Policy at the School of Public Affairs, Baruch College, in New York City. She completed her master’s and doctoral degrees in public health at the University of California, Berkeley; taught for six years at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Public Health; served on the faculty of George Washington University Medical Center, where she was professor, associate dean for research of the School of Public Health and Health Services, and director of the Center for Health Outcomes Improvement Research. Dr. Sofaer’s research interests include providing information to individual consumers on the performance of the health care system; assessing the impact of information on both consumers and the system; developing consumer-relevant performance measures; and improving the responsiveness of the Medicare program to the needs of current and future cohorts of older persons and persons with disabilities. In addition, Dr. Sofaer studies the role of community coalitions in pursuing public health and health care system reform objectives and has extensive experience in the evaluation of community health improvement interventions. She has studied the determinants of health insurance status among the near-elderly, including early retirees. Dr. Sofaer served as co-chair of the Working Group on Coverage for Low Income and Non-Working Families for the White House Task Force on Health Care Reform in 1993 and co-chair of the Task Force on Medicare of the Century Foundation in New York City. She is a member of the Health Systems Study Section of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Gordon R. Trapnell, B.A.* is president of the Actuarial Research Corporation. He is a nationally recognized expert in analyzing the feasibility and estimating the
cost of private and public insurance programs. Mr. Trapnell also has extensive experience in analyzing the actuarial problems of existing public-sector insurance and employee benefit programs, including Medicaid and Medicare. Mr. Trapnell maintains a consulting practice for private health insurance programs, rate setting by health maintenance organizations and other managed care organizations, prescription drug insurance programs, and long-term care insurance. Prior to forming Actuarial Research, Mr. Trapnell was the senior actuary for Medicare in the Social Security Administration.
Stephen J. Trejo, Ph.D.* is associate professor in the Department of Economics at the University of Texas at Austin. His primary research focus has been in the field of labor economics. He has examined the response of labor market participants to the incentives created by market opportunities, government policies, and the institutional environment. Specific research topics include the economic effects of overtime pay regulation; immigrant labor market outcomes and welfare recipiency; the impact of labor unions on compensation, employment, and work schedules; the importance of sector-specific skills; and the relative economic status of Mexican Americans.
Reed V. Tuckson, M.D. is senior vice president of consumer health and medical care advancement at UnitedHealth Group. Formerly, he was senior vice president, professional standards, at the American Medical Association. Dr. Tuckson was president of Charles R. Drew University School of Medicine and Science from 1991 to 1997. From 1986 to 1990, he was commissioner of public health for the District of Columbia. Dr. Tuckson serves on a number of health care, academic, and federal boards and committees and is a nationally known lecturer on topics concerning community-based medicine, the moral responsibilities of health professionals, and physician leadership. He currently serves on the IOM Roundtable on Research and Development of Drugs, Biologics, and Medical Devices and is a member of the Institute of Medicine.
Edward H. Wagner, M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.P. is a general internist–epidemiologist and director of the W.A. (Sandy) MacColl Institute for Healthcare Innovation at the Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative. He is also professor of health services at the University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine. Current research interests include the development and testing of population-based care models for diabetes, frail elderly, and other chronic illnesses; the evaluation of the health and cost impacts of chronic disease and cancer interventions; and interventions to prevent disability and reduce depressive symptoms in older adults. Dr. Wagner has written two books and more than 200 journal articles. He serves on the editorial boards of Health Services
Research and the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology and acts as a consultant to multiple federal agencies and private foundations. He recently completed a stint as senior advisor on managed care initiatives in the Director’s Office of the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Wagner directs Improving Chronic Illness Care (ICIC), a national program of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The overall goal of ICIC is to assist health systems in improving their care of chronic illness through quality improvement and evaluation, research, and dissemination. Dr. Wagner is also principal investigator of the Cancer Research Network, a National Cancer Institute-funded consortium of 10 health maintenance organizations conducting collaborative cancer effectiveness research.
Lawrence Wallack, Dr.P.H. is professor of public health and director, School of Community Health, at Portland State University. He is also professor emeritus of public health, University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Wallack’s primary interest is in the role of mass communications, particularly the news media, in shaping public health issues. His current research is on how public health issues are framed in print and broadcast news. He is principal author of Media Advocacy and Public Health: Power for Prevention and News for a Change: An Advocate’s Guide to Working with the Media. He is also co-editor of Mass Communications and Public Health: Complexities and Conflicts. Dr. Wallack has published extensively on topics related to prevention, health promotion, and community interventions. Specific content areas of his research and intervention work have included alcohol, tobacco, violence, handguns, sexually transmitted diseases, cervical and breast cancer, affirmative action, suicide, and childhood lead poisoning. Dr. Wallack was also a member of the IOM Committee on Communication for Behavior Change in the 21st Century: Improving the Health of Diverse Populations.
Institute of Medicine Staff
Wilhelmine Miller, M.S., Ph.D. is a senior program officer in the Division of Health Care Services. She served as staff to the Committee on Immunization Finance Policy and Practices, conducting and directing case studies of health care financing and public health services. Prior to joining the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Miller was an adjunct faculty member in the Departments of Philosophy at Georgetown University and Trinity College, teaching political philosophy, ethics, and public policy. She received her doctorate from Georgetown, with studies and research in bioethics and issues of social justice. In 1994–1995, Dr. Miller was a consultant to the President’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Miller was a program analyst in the Department of Health and Human Services for 14 years, responsible for policy development and regulatory review in areas including hospital and health maintenance organization payment, prescription drug benefits, and child health. Her M.S. from Harvard University is in health policy and management.
Dianne Miller Wolman, M.G.A. joined the Health Care Services Division of the Institute of Medicine in 1999 as a senior program officer. She directed the study that resulted in the IOM report Medicare Laboratory Payment Policy: Now and in the Future, released in 2000. Her previous work experience in the health field has been varied and extensive, focused on finance and reimbursement in insurance programs. She came to IOM from the U.S. General Accounting Office, where she was a senior evaluator on studies of the Health Care Financing Administration, its management capacity, and its oversight of Medicare contractors. Prior to that, she was a reimbursement policy specialist at a national association representing non-profit providers of long-term care services. Her earlier positions included policy analysis and management in the Office of the Secretary in the Department of Health and Human Services and work with a peer review organization, a governor’s task force on access to health care, and a third-party administrator for very large health plans. In addition, she was policy director for a state Medicaid rate-setting commission. She has a bachelor’s degree in sociology from Brandeis University and a master’s degree in government administration from Wharton Graduate School, University of Pennsylvania.
Lynne Page Snyder, Ph.D., M.P.H. is a program officer in the IOM Division of Health Care Services. She came to IOM from the Department of Health and Human Services, where she worked as a public historian, documenting and writing about past federal activities in medicine, health care, and public health. In addition, she has worked for the Social Science Research Council’s Committee on the Urban Underclass and served as a graduate fellow at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History. She has published on 20th-century health policy, occupational and environmental health, and minority health. Current research interests include health literacy and access to care by low-income seniors. She earned her doctorate in the history and sociology of science from the University of Pennsylvania (1994), working under Rosemary Stevens, and received her M.P.H. from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health (2000).
Tracy McKay, B.A. is a research associate in the IOM Division of Health Care Services. She has worked on several projects, including the National Roundtable on Health Care Quality; Children, Health Insurance, and Access to Care; Quality of Health Care in America; and a study on non-heart-beating organ donors. She has assisted in the research for the National Quality Report on Health Care Delivery, Immunization Finance Policies and Practices, and Extending Medicare Coverage for Preventive and Other Services and helped develop this project on the consequences of uninsurance from its inception. Ms. McKay received her B.A. in sociology from Vassar College in 1996.
Ryan Palugod, B.S. is a senior program assistant in the IOM Division of Health Care Services. Prior to joining the project staff in 2001, he worked as an administrative assistant with the American Association of Homes, Services for the Aging. He graduated with honors from Towson University in 1999 with a degree in health care management.
Consultants to the Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance
Hanns Kuttner, M.A. is a senior research associate with the Economic Research Initiative on the Uninsured, a research program on the causes and consequences of uninsurance funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and located at the University of Michigan. Mr. Kuttner is a Ph.D. candidate in the Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies at the University of Chicago, from which he already holds an M.A. Prior to his graduate studies, Mr. Kuttner was a research affiliate of the Governor’s Task Force on Human Services Reform in Illinois, a member of the domestic policy staff in the Office of Policy Development at the White House during the presidency of George H. W. Bush, and special assistant to the administrator of the Health Care Financing Administration.
M. Eugene Moyer, Ph.D. received his doctorate in economics from the University of Wisconsin. After teaching at the University of Illinois for four years, he joined the Department of Health, Education and Welfare in 1970. He was an economist with the Social Security Administration Office of Research and the Office of the Secretary in the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) until his retirement from federal service in 1999. His work there included the modeling of national health insurance and other programmatic coverage expansions, and analyses of the status of uninsured persons from survey data. He served as a DHHS project officer and managed numerous actuarial and economic research projects for the Office of the Secretary. For several years, he calculated the Federal Medical Assistance Percentage, used to determine the amount of the federal government’s contribution toward state Medicaid expenditures. Recently he has been an economic consultant to DHHS, the University of Southern California, and the Institute of Medicine.
Elizabeth Richardson Vigdor, Ph.D. is assistant professor of public policy studies in the Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy at Duke University. Her research focuses on health economics, public economics, and applied microeconomics. She has co-authored several papers on the measurement and valuation of health in publications such as American Economic Review, Frontiers of Health Policy Research, and Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. Dr. Vigdor has a Ph.D. in Health Policy from Harvard University and a Master of Science in Health Policy and Management from Harvard School of Public Health.