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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
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Index

A

Acceptable exposure levels, establishing for natural and managed ecosystems, 21, 312

Acetaldehyde, 145, 365

Acetamide, 365

Acetonitrile, 365

Acetophenone, 365

2-Acetylaminofluorene, 365

Acid deposition, 111

Acid deposition modeling (ADOM), 64, 110

Acid rain (SO2 and NOx), reducing emissions of species that cause, 33

Acid rain program, 110, 204, 214

NOx provisions, 187

SO2 emissions trading, 196–202

targets for, 64

Acid Rain Title of CAA Amendments, 97

goals set by, 64–65

Acrolein, 365

Acrylamide, 365

Acrylic acid, 365

Acrylonitrile, 365

ADOM. See Acid deposition modeling

Aerometric Information Retrieval System (in EPA) (AIRS), 237

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 308

Agricultural Research Service (in the USDA) (ARS), 259

Agriculture, ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution in, 258–259

Air pollutants

designing, testing, and implementing technologies and systems for efficiently preventing or reducing, 36

impacts of, 28–29

listing potentially dangerous but unregulated for regulatory attention, 21, 306–309

Air Pollution Control Act, 29

Air pollution science, 24–28

enhancing monitoring, 17, 286–287

factors influencing the pollutant mix in the atmosphere and the resultant impacts of pollution, 25

national average emission categories for CO, SO2, NOx, VOCs, PM10, and PM2.5, 27

Air quality management (AQM), 23

challenges ahead, 5, 13–16

current system for, 11–13

designing and implementing control strategies through the SIP process, 88–132

estimating the costs and benefits of, 37–39

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

forecasting in, 239–240

future of improving, 39–41

growth areas and emission trends, 9

implementing emission controls on mobile sources, 133–173

implementing emission controls on stationary sources, 174–216

iterative nature of, 4

long-term objectives for, 10

measuring the progress and assessing the benefits of, 216–267

moving forward, 21–22

progress in, 5

setting goals and standards, 45–87

system adapting to climate change, 277–278

transforming the nation’s system to meet the challenges of the coming decades, 268–315

in the United States, 29–35

Air quality management (AQM) recommendations

for advances in environmental instrumentation, 315

for developing an integrated program for criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutants, 20–21, 304–311

for enhancing protection of ecosystems and other aspects of public welfare, 21, 311–313

for expanding national and multistate performance-oriented control strategies to support local, state, and tribal efforts, 18–19, 291–296

for implementation, 371–374

for meeting the challenges ahead, 6–7, 16–21

for needed research and development, 369–371

for strengthening scientific and technical capacity to assess risk and track progress, 17–18, 284–290

for transforming the SIP process, 19–20, 296–304

Air quality management plan (AQMP), 6, 19–20, 297–307, 310

ensuring a successful transition to, 304

Air quality measurement techniques, 235–236

Air-quality modeling, 103–114

delays in incorporating new scientific insights from models into policy design, 112–113

dynamic partnership between technical and regulatory communities, 112

emerging multipollutant models, 114

emissions-based air quality models, 105–112

empirical rollback model, 104

lessons learned about air quality models, 112–114

model uncertainties, 113

need for regulators to apply model results appropriately, 112

need to subject models to comprehensive performance evaluations, 112

over-reliance on models for O3 SIPs, 113–114

receptor models, 104–105

Air quality monitoring

designing and implementing technologies and methods for documenting pollutant exposures, 36

siting of stations, 233–235

trend analysis techniques, 236–237

Air quality standards, overview of, 46–47

Air Resources Board, 157

AIRMoN. See Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network

AIRNow website, 237, 239

AIRS. See Aerometric Information Retrieval System (EPA)

ALAPCU. See Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials

Allocation of emission allowances, fairness in, 208

Allowable concentration increments (micrograms per cubic meter), for prevention of significant deterioration (PSD), 182

Allyl chloride, 365

Ambient air quality, methods for monitoring in ecosystems, 371

Ambient concentrations used to confirm emission trends, 217–220

emission inventories and changes in average pollutant concentrations derived from air quality monitoring networks, 220

EPA’s trends in estimated nationwide pollutant emissions and average measured concentrations, 218

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

AmeriFlux, 259

4-Aminobiphenyl, 365

Aniline, 365

o-Anisidine, 365

Anthropogenic sources, contributing emissions resulting in the deposition of acidic compounds, 61

Antimony compounds, 367

Applicability issues with NSR and PSD, 181–185

complexity and inefficiency, 182–183

definition of significant, nonroutine modification, 185

grandfathering of facilities, 184

NOx emissions from coal-fired boilers, by vintage, 184

older, dirtier facilities remaining in operation, 183–184

AQIRP. See Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

AQM. See Air quality management

AQM system, recommendations for an enhanced, 283–313

AQMP. See Air quality management plan

ARCO. See Atlantic Richfield Company

Area-source regulations, 212–214

present status of, 214

ARS. See Agricultural Research Service (USDA)

Arsenic compounds (inorganic), 55, 367

Asbestos, 55, 365

Assessing ecosystem benefits from improved air quality, 252–261

Assessing health benefits from improved air quality, 241–252

assessments based on data from short-term air pollution events, 243

assessments using risk functions and exposure estimates, 243–249

monitoring actual human exposure, 249–252

Assessing the economic benefits of air quality improvements, 261–265

economic assessments, 263–265

pollution abatement cost and expenditures (PACE) survey, 265

Assessments based on tracking public health status and criteria pollutant risk over time, 244–246

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 245

National Children’s Study (NCS), 245

Pew Environmental Health Commission, 244–245

Assessments using risk functions and exposure estimates, 243–249

efforts to track the effects of HAP emission reductions, 246–248

other HAP assessments, 248–249

tracking progress in reducing HAPs-related health effects for the future, 249

Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials (ALAPCU), 100, 286

Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO), 157

Atmospheric composition monitoring networks, 220–228

enhanced PM2.5 monitoring networks, 227

gaseous pollutant monitoring program, 226

hazardous air pollutants, 227–228

interagency monitoring of protected visual environments, 226

locations of initial PM25 supersites, 228

major U.S. monitoring networks, 222–223

monitoring visibility, 226

national, state, and local air monitoring stations, 220–224

photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS), 224–226

surface O3 monitoring sites and ozonesonde sites in North America, 224

Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN), 232, 257

Attainment-demonstration SIPs, 92

air-quality modeling, 103–114

emission-control strategy development in an attainment demonstration SIP, 115–120

emission inventories, 97–103

main components of, 96

overemphasis on, 128–130

using the weight-of-evidence approach in the attainment demonstration, 114–115

Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP), 158

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

B

BACT. See Best available control technology

Banking emission allowances

for the future, 207

opportunity for, 201–202

BART. See Best available retrofit technology

Baselines of ecosystem condition, establishing, 372

Behavioral and societal strategies to reduce mobile-source emissions, 162–167

controls on transportation infrastructure planning and investment, 164

linking highway capacity expansion to air quality through the National Environment Policy act, 164–167

regulation of motorists’ vehicle use, 162–163

Benzene, 55, 57, 145, 158, 307, 365

trends in annual concentrations in metropolitan areas, 230

Benzidine, 365

Benzotrichloride, 365

Benzyl chloride, 365

Beryllium compounds, 55, 367

Best available control technology (BACT), 180–183

Best available retrofit technology (BART), 123

Bioaccumulative toxins, 308

Biphenyl, 365

Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 365

1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDE), 365

Bis(chloromethyl) ether, 365

Blood lead concentrations in the U.S. population, 156

Bromoform, 365

Bureaucratic process, 128

1,3-Butadiene, 365

C

CAA. See Clean Air Act (1963)

Cadmium compounds, 367

CAFE. See Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards

Calcium cyanamide, 365

California, unique role in controlling mobile emissions, 137

California Air Resources Board (CARB), 145, 274

California and federal reformulated gasoline programs, 158–159

California Clean Air Act, 157

California Comparative Risk Project (CCRP), 249

Cap-and-trade provisions

acid rain SO2 emissions trading program, 196–202

early trading programs implemented in the U.S., 197–198

for major stationary sources, 196–210

in proposed multipollutant legislation, 204

savings from the SO2 emissions trading program, 200

SO2 emissions from electric utilities in the United States, 199

Caprolactam, 55

Captan, 365

CARB. See California Air Resources Board

Carbaryl, 365

Carbon dioxide (CO2), 73–74, 126, 194, 205, 208

Carbon disulfide, 365

Carbon monoxide (CO), 4, 11, 14, 27, 37, 48, 92–93, 130, 139, 143–144, 151, 158, 172, 194, 217, 268

emissions-based models for, 105

national average emission categories for, 27

Carbon tetrachloride, 365

Carbonyl sulfide, 365

Cardiopulmonary disease. See Pope/ American Cancer Society Study

CASAC. See Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (of EPA)

CASTNet. See Clean Air Status and Trends Network

Catechol, 365

CCRP. See California Comparative Risk Project

CDC. See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CEM. See Continuous emissions monitoring

CENRAP. See Central States Regional Air Partnership

Center for Evaluation of Reproductive Health Risks, 308

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 245, 288

assessment of pollutant risk over time from, 245

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Central States Regional Air Partnership (CENRAP), 123

Certainty of penalties, 201

Certification standards on new vehicles and motors, controlling emissions through, 136–148

CFCs. See Chlorofluorocarbons

CFR. See Code of Federal Regulations

CH4. See Methane

Challenges ahead for AQM, 5, 13–16

climate change, 16

environmental justice, 15

health effects at low pollutant concentrations, 15

multistate, cross-border, and intercontinental transport, 15–16

new standards, 15

protecting ecosystem health, 15

recommendations for meeting, 6–7, 16–21

toxic air pollutants, 15

transforming the nation’s AQM system to meet, 268–315

trends in emissions versus ambient concentrations of various primary pollutants, 14

Chemical transport model (CTM), 106, 110, 239

modern multipollutant, multiscale, 110–111

Chloramben, 365

Chlordane, 365

Chlorine, 365

Chloroacetic acid, 365

2-Chloroacetophenone, 365

Chlorobenzene, 365

Chlorobenzilate, 365

Chlorofluorocarbons (compounds made up of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon) (CFCs), 198

phasing out, 198

Chloroform, 365

Chloromethyl methyl ether, 365

Chloroprene, 365

Chromium compounds, 367

Civil Rights Act of 1964, 65

Classification of nonattainment areas for O3 and CO, as mandated in the CAA Amendments of 1990, 92

Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), 3, 5, 7–15, 19, 21, 29, 32–33, 131, 133, 174, 216, 268, 316, 363–364

goals of, 4, 32–33

Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA) requirements for SIPs, 94–96

for all states, 94

for nonattainment areas, 94–95

for O3 nonattainment areas, 95–96

Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (of EPA) (CASAC), 50–51

Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), 231–232, 257

Climate change, 16

Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL), 241

Clinton administration, 185

CLTRAP. See Convention on the Long-Range Transport of Transboundary Air Pollution

CMDL. See Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory

CO. See Carbon monoxide

CO2. See Carbon dioxide

Cobalt compounds, 367

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 129

Coke oven emissions, 367

Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, 123

Committee on Air Quality Management in the U.S., 9

charge to, 41–43, 363–364

Complexity, of the NSR and PSD requirements, 182–183

Compliance assurance, and CEM, 210

Compliance assurance for traditional control programs, 190–196

cap and trade in proposed multipollutant legislation, 204

compliance monitoring of stationary sources, 192–195

evaluation of cap-and-trade approaches to air regulations, 205–210

government on-site inspections of stationary sources, 192

NOx emissions trading programs, 202–204

off-normal emissions, 195–196

Title V operating permit program, 190–191

Compliance monitoring of stationary sources, 192–195

continuous emissions monitoring, 194–195

economic and emissions performance of the SO2 trading program, 199–202

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

emissions estimation models, 192–193

opportunity for banking emission allowances, 201–202

parametric emissions monitoring, 193–194

periodic source testing, 193

remote sensing, 195

Comprehensive suite of indicators, measuring consistently, 372

Concentration-response estimation on cardiopulmonary disease mortality, 77

Conformity requirement, 170–172

regulations for, 165–167

retaining and improving, 301–303

Consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA), 90

Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), 85

Continuous emissions monitoring (CEM), 97, 192, 194–195, 201, 215, 217, 265

availability of systems for, 97, 201

compliance assurance and, 210

Contribution of nonroad emissions to mobile-source total and to manmade total, 143

Contribution to the sulfate column burden at 00UT (vertical integral of the concentration), 276

Control technique guidelines (CTG), 186, 213

Controls

on atmospheric sources of nitrogen, evaluating, 374

designing and implementing, 12–13, 21, 312–313

of in-use motor-vehicle emissions, 148–162

of mobile-source air toxic emissions, 145

on motorists’ behaviors, 170

strategies for designing and implementing through the SIP process, 88–132

on transportation infrastructure planning and investment, 164

Controls on acid rain precursors before the CAA Amendments of 1990, 61–64

acid rain goals set by the CAA Amendments of 1990, 64–65

anthropogenic sources and natural sources contributing emissions resulting in the deposition of acidic compounds, 61

controls on acid rain precursors before the CAA Amendments of 1990, 61–64

role of NAPAP in shaping the acid rain provisions of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 64

trends in nationwide SO2 and NO2 emissions, 63

Controls on emissions through certification standards on new vehicles and motors, 136–148

California’s unique role in controlling mobile emissions, 137

control of mobile-source air toxic emissions, 145

emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles, 142–143

emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks, 137–142

emission standards for nonroad engines, 143–145

evolution of California and federal tailpipe standards on passenger car exhaust emissions, 138–139

implementation of emission standards for new mobile sources, 145–148

technology innovation and emission controls, 140

Convention on the Long-Range Transport of Transboundary Air Pollution (CLTRAP), 277

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, 136

Cost of fuel, 163

Costs and benefits of the federally mandated AQM system, 37–39

growth areas and emission trends, 38

CPSC. See Consumer Products Safety Commission

Cresols/cresylic acid

m-Cresol, 365

o-Cresol, 365

p-Cresol, 365

Criteria pollutants, 47–48, 304

lack of thresholds for health effects of, 77–78

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

mitigating potentially harmful human and ecosystem exposure to the six, 32

“Critical loads,” and Europe’s approach to setting acid rain goals, 81–82

Critical species, measuring in a regular monitoring mode, 233

Cross-border transport, 15–16

Cross-media pollution, beyond one atmosphere to one environment, 280

CTG. See Control technique guidelines

CTM. See Chemical transport model

Cumene, 365

Current standard-setting procedure for HAPs, 55–58

Current system for AQM, 11–13

assessing status and measuring progress, 13

designing and implementing controls, 12–13

standard-setting, 12

Cyanide compounds, 367

D

DALYs. See Disability-adjusted life-years

Data availability, 237–240

air quality forecasting, 239–240

case study on pollutant trend analysis in O3, 238

Demographic and economic trends, quantifying the expected, with and without air pollution control strategies, 35

Deposition monitoring networks, 228–232

clean air status and trends network, 231–232

National Atmospheric Deposition Program and Mercury Deposition Network (NADP/MDN), 230–231

National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), 228–230

rated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN), 232

trends in wet sulfate deposition in the United States, 231

DIAL. See Differential absorption LIDAR

Diatomic oxygen (O2), 194

Diazomethane, 366

Dibenzofurans, 366

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane, 366

Dibutylphthalate, 366

1,4-Dichlorobenzene(p), 366

3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine, 366

Dichloroethyl ether, 366

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (including salts and esters) (2,4-D), 366

1,3-Dichloropropene, 366

Dichlorvos, 366

Diesel engines, reducing emissions from older and nonroad, 169

Diesel fuels, regulating the content of, 153–162

Diethanolamine, 366

Diethyl sulfate, 366

Differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL), 315

3,3'-Dimethoxy benzidine, 366

p-Dimethyl amino azobenzene, 366

N,N-Dimethyl aniline, 366

3,3'-Dimethyl benzidine, 366

Dimethyl carbamoyl chloride, 366

N,N-Dimethyl formamide, 366

1,1-Dimethyl hydrazine, 366

Dimethyl phthalate, 366

Dimethyl sulfate, 366

4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol (including salts), 366

2,4-Dinitrophenol, 366

2,4-Dinitrotoluene, 366

1,4-Dioxane, 366

1,2-Diphenylhydrazine, 366

Dirtier facilities remaining in operation, and the application of NSR and PSD, 183–184

Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), 264

DOE. See U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

Draft Report on the Environment, 17, 267, 289

E

ECO. See Employee commute options

Ecological Indicators for the Nation, 261

Economic and emissions performance of the SO2 trading program, 199–202

availability of CEM systems, 201

certainty of penalties, 201

simplicity, 201

substantial emission reductions, 201

transparency, 201

Economic assessments, 263–265

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Ecosystem benefits from improved air quality, 252–261

action needed for enhanced ecosystem monitoring, research, and risk assessment, 260–261

integrated ecosystem studies, 259–260

tracking and characterizing ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution, 254–259

tracking ecosystem exposure, 253–254

Ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution

need for a coordinated strategic program to assess, 79–80

tracking and characterizing, 254–259

Ecosystem exposure, tracking, 253–254

Ecosystem health, assessing and protecting, 274–275

Ecosystem studies

of air pollution effects on, 72–76

need for intensive, 373

Ecosystems, need for alternative forms of air quality standards to protect, 80

Effectiveness of the SIP process, 126–132

barriers to addressing multistate airshed pollution, 131

classifications and numbers of nonattainment areas remaining in nonattainment, 127

critical discussion of, 128–130

overemphasis on attainment demonstrations, 128–130

overly bureaucratic, 128

single-pollutant focus of, 130

EGUs. See Electric utility steam-generating units

EIIP. See Emission Inventory Improvement Program

EKMA. See Empirical kinetic modeling approach

Electric utility steam-generating units (EGUs), 189

for HAPs, focusing on mercury, 189

Electricity generation by fuel, in billion kilowatt hours, 40

Emission allowances

fairness in allocating, 208

opportunity for banking, 201–202

Emission-control strategy development in an attainment demonstration SIP, 115–120

federal measures, 115–119

institutional accountability in the SIP process, 124–126

mandatory local measures, 116–120

multistate regional measures, 120–124

relative roles of federal, state, and local controls, 117

technological change versus social or behavioral measures, 116

Emission controls on mobile sources

behavioral and societal strategies to reduce mobile-source emissions, 162–167

controlling emissions through certification standards on new vehicles and motors, 136–148

controlling in-use motor-vehicle emissions, 148–162

critical discussion of mobile-source emission-control programs, 167–172

implementing, 133–173

limitations of the mobile-source emission-control program, 172–173

strengths of the mobile-source emission-control program, 172

types of vehicles and engines regulated by AQM in the United States, 134–135

Emission inventories, 97–103, 131

and changes in average pollutant concentrations derived from air quality monitoring networks, 220

continuous emissions monitoring systems, 97

critical review of, 99–101

development, evaluation, and improvement of, 101

mobile-source, 101–103

Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP), 100–101, 286

Emission-reduction credit (ERC), 197

Emission standards

for heavy-duty vehicles, 142–143

for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks, 137–142

Emission standards for nonroad engines, 143–145

contribution of nonroad emissions to mobile-source total and to manmade total, 143

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Emissions

from existing facilities and vehicles, reducing, 19, 294–295

improving tracking of, 17, 285–286

major and area sources of, 175

spatial redistribution of, 205–207

substantially reducing, 201

Emissions-based air quality models, 105–112

empirical kinetic modeling approach, 109

first-generation 3D CTMs, urban-scale photochemical grid models for O3, 106–110

modern multipollutant, multiscale CTMs, 110–111

observation-based model for O3, 111–112

the VOC, NOx, and O3 challenge, 107–108

Emissions by vehicle model years for medium- and heavy-duty trucks

average NOx, 153

average PM23, 152

Emissions caps, setting and revising, 208–209

Emissions estimation models, 192–193

Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and engines, 150–153

getting the lead out of gasoline, intended and unintended consequences of, 155

regulating the content of gasoline and diesel fuels, 153–162

Empirical kinetic modeling approach (EKMA), 107–109

Empirical rollback model, 104

Employee commute options (ECO), 163

Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, 136

Enhancing the AQM system, 278–282

beyond one atmosphere to one environment, accounting for cross-media pollution, 280

dynamic AQM in a constantly changing technological society, 281

emphasizing performance rather than the process, 282

one atmosphere approach for assessing and controlling air pollutants, 278–279

principles for, 278–282

risk determined by actual exposure, 279–281

Environmental instrumentation, recommendations for advances in, 315

Environmental justice, 15

ensuring, 273–274

greater consideration of, 298

EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Epichlorohydrin, 366

1,2-Epoxybutane, 366

ERC. See Emission-reduction credit

Estuarine systems

ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution on, 257–258

expanding existing monitoring programs, 374

Ethyl acrylate, 366

Ethyl benzene, 366

Ethyl carbamate, 366

Ethyl chloride, 366

Ethylene dibromide, 366

Ethylene dichloride, 366

Ethylene glycol, 366

Ethylene imine, 366

Ethylene oxide, 366

Ethylene thiourea, 366

Ethylidene dichloride, 366

Evaluation of cap-and-trade approaches to air regulations, 205–210

banking emission allowances for the future, 207

compliance assurance and CEM, 210

fairness in allocating emission allowances, 208

implicit emission increases following transition to a trading program, 209–210

regional SO2 emission from electric utilities, 206

setting and revising the emissions cap, 208–209

spatial redistribution of emissions, 205–207

Evaluation of traditional control programs for major stationary sources, 188–190

electric steam-generating units regulation for HAPs, focusing on mercury, 189

Executive Orders, 51

No. 12898, 66

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Exposure to ultrafine particles

enhancing assessment of, 17, 288

and monitoring for health response, 69

F

FACE. See Free air CO2 experiment

Facilities, major, technology-based standards imposed on, 186–188

Fairness, in allocating emission allowances, 208

Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1970, 165

Federal AQM legislation, 30–32

Federal emission-control measures, 115–116

expanding, 18, 292–293

Federal equivalent methods (FEM), 235

Federal implementation plan (FIP), 88, 90, 124–125, 300

Federal reference methods (FRM), 235

Federal Register, 51, 186, 213

Federal test procedure (for vehicle emissions) (FTP), 146

FEM. See Federal equivalent methods

FIA/FHM. See Forest Inventory and Analysis and Forest Health Monitoring Program

FIP. See Federal implementation plan

First-generation 3D CTMs, urban-scale photochemical grid models for O3, 106–110

Foliar injury to cotton, induced by chronic exposure to ozone, 54

Food Security Act, 373

Forest Inventory and Analysis and Forest Health Monitoring Program (FIA/ FHM), 256, 372–373

Forest issues, 254–257

ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution in, 254–257

forest soils, 254–256

forest vegetation, 256–257

Forest survey plots on public lands, releasing exact locations of, 373

Formaldehyde, 145, 366

Four-chamber greenhouse-based exposure system, constructed to study effects of elevated CO2 on plants, 73

Free air CO2 experiment (FACE), 74–75, 259–260

used to elucidate forest ecosystem responses to elevated CO2, 75

FRM. See Federal reference methods

FTP. See Federal test procedure (for vehicle emissions)

Fuels

cost of, 163

regulating the content of, 153–162

timeline of significant federal and state regulations for motor vehicle, 156

Future of improving AQM, 39–41

electricity generation by fuel, in billion kilowatt hours, 40

high cancer risk counties for urban air toxics by county, 41

NAAQS violations in the continental United States, 40

potential violations of the PM2.5 and O3 NAAQS by county, 42

Future reformulated gasoline program, 159

G

GACT. See Generally available control technology

GAO. See U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO)

GAP. See General assistance program

Gas chromatography (GC), 194

Gaseous Pollutant Monitoring Program (of NPS) (GPMP), 226

Gasoline, regulating the content of, 153–162

GC. See Gas chromatography

GCVTC. See Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission

General assistance program (GAP), 90

Generally available control technology (GACT), 56–57, 67, 214

Gila River Indian Community, 89

Globalization, of trade, 281

Glycol ethers, 367

Goals for mitigating visibility degradation, 59

Goals of the Clean Air Act, 4, 32–33

curbing the use of chemicals having the potential to deplete the stratospheric O3 layer, 33

limiting the sources of and risks from exposure to HAPs (air toxics), 32

mitigating potentially harmful human and ecosystem exposure to the six criteria pollutants, 32

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

protecting and improving visibility impairment in wilderness areas and national parks, 33

reducing emissions of species that cause acid rain (SO2 and NOx), 33

Government on-site inspections of stationary sources, 192

GPMP. See Gaseous Pollutant Monitoring Program (NPS)

Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission (GCVTC), 123–124, 275

Grandfathering of facilities, and the application of NSR and PSD, 184

Greenhouse gas emissions, 363

H

H2S. See Hydrogen sulfide

Haagen-Smit diagram, 107

Hammer requirement, 189

Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), 55–58, 227–228, 365–367

assessments, 248–249

current standard-setting procedure for HAPs, 55–58

developing a system to set priorities for, 20

emission reductions, efforts to track the effects of, 246–248

identifying new, 308

limiting the sources of and risks from exposure to air toxics, 32

potential classification scheme for, 307

static list of, 78–79

HCl. See Hydrogen chloride

HDV. See Heavy-duty vehicles and engines

Health-based standards, need for additional strategic planning of research that underpins, 76–77

Health effects studies, 67–72

dose-response relationships between pollutant exposure and human health effects and crop or vegetation effects, 68

exposure to ultrafine particles and monitoring for health response, 69

health impact of ozone on the human respiratory system, 70

at low pollutant concentrations, 15

personal exposure monitor measuring actual exposures to PM and gases during daily activities, 72

Heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) and engines, 47, 133–135, 142–143, 147, 150–151

in-use emissions from, 150–153

Heinz Center, 261

Heptachlor, 366

Hexachlorobenzene, 366

Hexachlorobutadiene, 366

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene, 366

Hexachloroethane, 366

Hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate, 366

Hexamethylphosphoramide, 366

Hexane, 366

High-emitting gasoline vehicles, 167–169

High-occupancy vehicle (HOV), 95

Highway capacity expansion, linked to air quality through the National Environment Policy Act, 164–167

Highway capacity expansion linked to air quality through the National Environment Policy Act, the conformity regulations, 165–167

Historical sequence of the periodic NAAQS reviews, and final decisions carried out by EPA since the passage of the 1970 CAA Amendments, 52

Hot-spot concentrations of HAPs, 263

greater consideration of, 298

need to address health risk associated with exposure in, 83–85

HOV. See High-occupancy vehicle

Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 75

Human and technical resources, investing in, 18, 290

Human exposure to indoor PM pollution, sources of, 84

Human health and welfare

developing and implementing a system to assess and monitor, 17, 288–289

dose-response relationships between pollutant exposure and, 68

protecting in the absence of a threshold exposure, 272–273

Human respiratory system, health impact of ozone on, 70

Hydrazine, 366

Hydrochloric acid, 366

Hydrogen chloride (HCl), 194

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Hydrogen fluoride, 366

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), 194

Hydroquinone, 366

I

I/M. See Vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M)

Identification of new toxicants, 308–309

identifying chemicals for regulatory oversight, 308–309

identifying new HAPs, 308

IM240. See Vehicle emission standards

Implementation of emission controls

continuing to track costs of, 17–18, 289–290

recommendations for, 371–374

See also Planning and implementation process

Implementation of emission controls on mobile sources, 133–173

behavioral and societal strategies to reduce mobile-source emissions, 162–167

controlling emissions through certification standards on new vehicles and motors, 136–148

controlling in-use motor-vehicle emissions, 148–162

critical discussion of mobile-source emission-control programs, 167–172

limitations of the mobile-source emission-control program, 172–173

strengths of the mobile-source emission-control program, 172

types of vehicles and engines regulated by AQM in the United States, 134–135

Implementation of emission controls on stationary sources, 174–216

area-source regulations, 212–214

cap-and-trade provisions for major stationary sources, 196–210

compliance assurance for traditional control programs, 190–196

design versus performance versus cap and trade, 176–177

evaluation of traditional control programs for major stationary sources, 188–190

limitations of stationary-source control programs, 215

major and area sources of emissions, 175

other technology-based standards imposed on major facilities, 186–188

other trading and voluntary stationary-source programs, 210–212

permits and standards for new or modified major stationary sources, 177–186

strengths of stationary-source control programs, 214

Implicit emission increases, following transition to a trading program, 209–210

IMPROVE. See Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments

Improvement of AQM, future of, 39–41

In-use motor-vehicle emissions, 148–162

average NOx emissions by vehicle model years for medium- and heavy-duty trucks, 153

average PM23 emissions by vehicle model years for medium- and heavy-duty trucks, 152

blood lead concentrations in the U.S. population, 156

California and Federal Reformulated Gasoline Programs, 158–159

future reformulated gasoline program, 159

from heavy-duty vehicles and engines, 150–153

light-duty vehicle and truck emissions inspection and maintenance programs, 148–150

percentages of U.S. trucks within selected model years (MY) used for various primary daily driving ranges, 154

remote sensing of in-use vehicle emissions, 150

timeline of significant federal and state regulations for motor vehicle fuels, 156

Incident total solar radiation, adding to National Weather Service meteorological data, 373

Indoor environments, need to address health risk associated with exposure in, 83–85

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Inefficiency

in the application of NSR and PSD, 182–183

of the NSR and PSD requirements, 182–183

Innovative strategies, encouraging, 300–301

Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP), 90

Institutional framework

for accountability in the SIP process, 124–126

for monitoring exposure and ecosystem response, 371–372

Integrated ecosystem studies, 259–260

Integrated multipollutant plan, 298

Integrated program for criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutants, recommendations for developing, 20–21, 304–311

Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE), 226

Intercontinental transport, 15–16

addressing, 275–278

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), 165–166

International Working Group on Environmental Justice (IWG), 67

Isophorone, 366

ISTEA. See Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991

ITEP. See Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals

Iterative nature of AQM, 4

IWG. See International Working Group on Environmental Justice

J

J curve, 108–109

Justice, ensuring environmental, 273–274

K

Kinetic modeling approach, empirical, 109

Knowledge gained, transfer to monitoring programs, 372

L

LAER. See Lowest achievable emissions rate

LDT. See Light-duty truck

LDV. See Light-duty vehicle

Lead (Pb)

compounds of, 367

emissions of, estimated U.S., by major source category, 251

getting it out of gasoline, intended and unintended consequences of, 155

phasing-out, 197–198

Lessons learned about air quality models, 112–114

delays in incorporating new scientific insights from models into policy design, 112–113

dynamic partnership between technical and regulatory communities, 112

need for regulators to apply model results appropriately, 112

need to subject models to comprehensive performance evaluations, 112

LEV. See Low-emissions vehicle

Light-duty truck (LDT), 133–134, 137, 140, 147–150, 155, 172–173

Light-duty vehicle (LDV), 47, 133–134, 137, 140–143, 148, 150, 155, 169–170, 172–173

inspection and maintenance programs, 148–150

Limitations

of establishing standards for one pollutant at a time, 80–83

of goal-setting procedures, 87

of the SIP process, 132

of stationary-source control programs, 215

of techniques for tracking progress in AQM, 266–267

Lindane (all isomers), 366

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), 154

Local measures, mandatory, 116–120

Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), 81

Long-term ecological research (LTER), 260

Long-term monitoring (LTM), 257

Long-term objectives, for challenges that will face AQM in the coming decade, 269

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Low-emissions vehicle (LEV), 121, 141

Lowest achievable emissions rate (LAER), 94, 178, 180–183

LPG. See Liquefied petroleum gas

LRTAP. See Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

LTER. See Long-term ecological research

LTM. See Long-term monitoring

M

MACT. See Maximum achievable control technology

Main components of an attainment-demonstration SIP, 96

Major stationary sources, permits and standards for new or modified, 177–186

Maleic anhydride, 366

MANE-VU. See Mid-Atlantic/Northeast Visibility Union

Manganese compounds, 367

Manmade total, and mobile-source total, 143

Market-based approaches, using whenever practical and effective, 18–19, 294

MATES. See Multiple air toxics exposure study

Maximum achievable control technology (MACT), 56–57, 67, 174, 186–190, 213–214, 272, 298, 304, 310–311

MDN. See Mercury Deposition Network

MDPVs. See Medium-duty passenger vehicles

Measurements of air quality, meteorology, and ecosystem responses, co-locating long-term, 372–373

Measuring the progress and assessing the benefits of AQM, 216–267

assessing ecosystem benefits from improved air quality, 252–261

assessing the economic benefits of air quality improvements, 261–265

limitations of techniques for tracking progress in AQM, 266–267

monitoring air quality, 220–241

monitoring pollutant emissions, 216–220

State of the Environment report as indicating a new paradigm emerging at the EPA, 267

strengths of techniques for tracking progress in AQM, 265–266

Medium- and heavy-duty trucks

average NOx emissions by vehicle model years for, 153

average PM23 emissions by vehicle model years for, 152

Medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs), 134, 141

Mercury compounds, 55, 367, 370

Mercury Deposition Network (MDN), 230–231, 257

Methane (CH4), 205

Methanol, 78, 366

Methoxychlor, 366

Methyl bromide, 366

Methyl chloride, 366

Methyl chloroform, 366

Methyl ethyl ketone, 55n, 366

Methyl hydrazine, 366

Methyl iodide, 366

Methyl isobutyl ketone, 366

Methyl isocyanate, 366

Methyl methacrylate, 366

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), 366

4,4'-Methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline), 366

Methylene chloride, 366

4,4'-Methylene dianiline, 366

4,4'-Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, 366

Metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), 165–166

Metropolitan statistical area (MSA), 90

Mid-Atlantic/Northeast Visibility Union (MANE-VU), 123

Midwest Regional Planning Organization (Midwest RPO), 123

Mineral fibers, fine, 367

MOBILE. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Mobile-source emission-control programs, 167–172

conformity, 170–172

controls on motorists’ behaviors, 170

high-emitting gasoline vehicles, 167–169

promotion of new technologies using vehicle emission standards, 167–168

reducing emissions from older and nonroad diesel engines, 169

regulating the content of gasoline and diesel fuels, 169–170

Mobile-source emission inventories, 101–103

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Mobile-source total and to manmade total, contribution of nonroad emissions to, 143

Mobile sources, implementing emission controls on, 133–173

Model uncertainties, 113

Modeling, improving, 17, 287–288

Modeling analysis, 131

Models

need for comprehensive performance evaluations of, 112

receptor, 104–105

Modification, 178n

definition in the application of NSR and PSD, 185

definition of significant, nonroutine, 185

“significant and nonroutine,” definition in the application of NSR and PSD, 185

Monitoring actual human exposure, 249–252

estimated U.S. lead emissions by major source category, 251

Monitoring air quality, 220–241

air quality measurement techniques, 235–236

air quality monitoring discussion, 232–241

air quality trend analysis techniques, 236–237

atmospheric composition monitoring networks, 220–228

data availability, 237–240

deposition monitoring networks, 228–232

deposition monitoring networks rated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN), 232

monitoring long-distance transport of air pollutants, 241

monitoring objectives, 232–233

monitoring vertical profiles of air pollutants, 240–241

siting of air quality monitoring stations, 233–235

Monitoring objectives, 232–233

assessing program effectiveness, 233

identifying the problem versus finding the solution, 233

measuring critical species in a regular monitoring mode, 233

Monitoring pollutant emissions, 216–220

direct measurement, 216–217

long-distance transport of, 241

using ambient concentrations to confirm emission trends, 217–220

vertical profiles of, 240–241

Monitoring sites in the contiguous 48 United States, 229

Montreal protocol, 198

Motor vehicle fuels, timeline of significant federal and state regulations for, 156

Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Act, 137

Motorcycles, 134–135

Motorists’ vehicle use, regulation of, 162–163

MPOs. See Metropolitan planning organizations

MSA. See Metropolitan statistical area

MTBE. See Methyl tert-butyl ether

Multiple air toxics exposure study (MATES), 249

Multipollutant models

approaches that target the most significant risks, investing in research to facilitate, 18, 290

chronic effects on ecosystems, 369–370

emergence of, 114

and multiscale CTMs, 110–111

in the NAAQS review, and the standard-setting process, 21, 310

Multistate airshed pollution, barriers to addressing, 131

Multistate regional measures, 120–124

EPA’s regional haze rule, 122–123

Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission and the Western Regional Air Partnership, 123–124

O3 Transport Region and O3 Transport Assessment Group, 121–122

Multistate transport problems, 15–16

addressing, 19, 295–296

N

NAAQS. See National Ambient Air Quality Standards

NAAs. See Nonattainment areas

NADP. See National Atmospheric Deposition Program

NAMS. See National air monitoring stations

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

NAPAP. See National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program

Naphthalene, 366

NATA. See National Air Toxics Assessment

National, state, and local air monitoring stations, 220–224

National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), 64–65, 110

role in shaping the acid rain provisions of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 64

National air monitoring stations (NAMS), 93, 221

National Air Quality and Emission Trends Report, 237

National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), 58, 247–248, 272

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), 3, 7, 11–12, 21, 46, 51, 61, 67, 72, 76–80, 86–88, 91–95, 111, 114, 132, 140, 157, 161, 177–178, 219, 270, 275, 295–299, 310–311

in effect as of January 2003, 49

meeting for O3 and PM2.5 and reducing regional haze, 270–271

potential violations of the PM2.5 and O3, 42

violations in the continental United States, 40

National Ambulatory Medical Center Survey, 245

National Atmospheric Deposition Program and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN), 230–231

National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), 228–230

monitoring sites in the contiguous 48 United States, 229

preliminary indications of progress on HAP control, 229

trends in annual benzene concentrations in metropolitan areas, 230

National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), 228–230, 257

National Children’s Study (NCS), assessment of pollutant risk over time from, 245

National Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 85

National Core Monitoring Network (NCore), 232, 287

National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN), 258–259

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAPs), 55, 58

National emission standards mandated by Congress

and foliar injury to cotton induced by chronic exposure to ozone, 54

to help attain NAAQS, 53–54

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 164–167

linking highway capacity expansion to air quality through, 164–167

National Estuaries Program (NEP), 374

National Estuarine Research Reserve System (in NOAA) (NERRS), 374

National Forest System (NFS), 256

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 245, 252

National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 245

National Hospital Discharge Survey, 245

National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS), 250

National low-emission vehicle (NLEV), 141–142

National Research Council (NRC), 3, 9, 23, 76, 103, 150, 271

National Science Foundation, 260

National Toxicology Program, 308

National Toxics Inventory (NTI), 145

National Trends Network (NTN), 228–231

National Tribal Environmental Council (NTEC), 90

National Weather Service (NWS), 237, 239, 373

Natural sources, contributing emissions resulting in the deposition of acidic compounds, 61

NCLAN. See National Crop Loss Assessment Network

NCore. See National Core Monitoring Network

NCS. See National Children’s Study

NEP. See National Estuaries Program

NEPA. See National Environmental Policy Act

NERRS. See National Estuarine Research Reserve System (in NOAA)

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

NESHAPs. See National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

Networks

atmospheric composition monitoring, 220–228

developing and implementing, 21, 312

monitoring, 12

Neuse River Estuary Modeling and Monitoring program, 374

New source performance standards (NSPS), 61, 174

New-source review (NSR), 90, 94–96, 174, 178, 181–185, 188, 212, 214

applicability issues with, 181–185

reforming, 185–186

New-source review (NSR) requirements, 179–185

applicability, 179–185

complexity and inefficiency, 182–183

issues with, 181–185

operation, 180–181

New standards, 15

New technologies, using vehicle emission standards, 167–168

New vehicles, 168

NFS. See National Forest System

NHANES. See National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NHEXAS. See National Human Exposure Assessment Survey

Nickel compounds, 367

Nitrobenzene, 366

4-Nitrobiphenyl, 366

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 4, 48, 126

Nitrogen oxide (NO)

federal, multistate, state, and local emission-reduction measures, 119

national average emission categories for, 27

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

emissions for medium- and heavy-duty trucks by vehicle model years, 153

emissions from coal-fired boilers by vintage, 184

emissions trading programs, 202–204

implementing emission controls on stationary sources, 203–204

national average emission categories for, 27

Northeast O3 transport region NOx budget trading program, 203–204

Regional Clean Air Management, 202–203

SIP call trading program for, 204

4-Nitrophenol, 366

2-Nitropropane, 366

N-Nitroso-N-methylurea, 366

N-Nitrosodimethylamine, 366

N-Nitrosomorpholine, 366

NLEV. See National low-emission vehicle

NMHC. See Nonmethane hydrocarbons

NMOG. See Nonmethane organic gases

NO. See Nitrogen oxide

NO2. See Nitrogen dioxide

NOAA. See U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Nonattainment areas (NAAs), 92

for O3 and CO, classification of, 92

remaining in nonattainment, classifications and numbers of, 127

Nonattainment in the SIP process, 91

classification of nonattainment areas for O3 and CO mandated in the CAA Amendments of 1990, 92

Clean Air Act requirements for SIPs, 94–96

procedures used to designate an area’s attainment status, 93

Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), 26

Nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), 139

NONROAD. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Nonroad emissions, 144

contribution to mobile-source total and to manmade total, 143

Nonroutine modification, definition in the application of NSR and PSD, 185

Northeast O3 transport region NOx budget trading program, 203–204

NOx. See Nitrogen oxides

NPS. See U.S. National Park Service (NPS)

NRC. See National Research Council

NSPS. See New Source Performance Standards

NSR. See New-source review

NTEC. See National Tribal Environmental Council

NTN. See National Trends Network

NWS. See National Weather Service

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

O

O2. See Diatomic oxygen

O3. See Ozone

OAQPS. See Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (of EPA)

OBD. See On-board diagnostics

OBDII, 149

Observation-based model for O3, 111–112

ODPs. See Ozone-depleting potentials

Off-normal emissions, 195–196

Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (of EPA) (OAQPS), 50

Office of Environmental Justice (of EPA), 50

Office of Management and Budget (of the White House) (OMB), 39, 51, 262

Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (of EPA), 78n, 272n

Office of Research and Development (of EPA) (ORD), 48

Office of Science and Technology Policy (of the White House) (OSTP), 39, 261

Older facilities remaining in operation, and the application of NSR and PSD, 183–184

On-board diagnostics (OBD), 149

OBDII, 149

One atmosphere approach, for assessing and controlling air pollutants, 278–279

Open-market

and other forms of trading, 210–212

and other noncapped forms of trading, 211

Operation of the NSR and PSD requirements, 180–181

ORD. See Office of Research and Development (of EPA)

OSHA. See U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

OSTP. See Office of Science and Technology Policy (of the White House)

OTAG. See Ozone Transport Assessment Group

OTC. See Ozone Transport Commission

OTR. See Ozone Transport Region

Over-reliance on models for O3 SIPs, 113–114

Oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2, or Nx). See Nitrogen dioxide;

Nitrogen oxides

Ozone-depleting potentials (ODPs), 198

Ozone Monitoring Sites in the United States, 234

Ozone (O3), 4, 24, 28–29, 33, 37, 41–43, 58, 73–77, 90–96, 107–117, 121, 129, 132, 175, 181, 238, 268

emissions-based models for, 105

foliar injury to cotton induced by chronic exposure to, 54

health impact on the human respiratory system, 70

observation-based model for, 111–112

Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG), 103n, 121–122, 131, 270, 275

Ozone Transport Commission (OTC), 120–121, 131, 137, 214, 255, 275

Ozone Transport Region (the states from Maine to Virginia and Washington, DC) (OTR), 121–122, 203

Ozonesonde sites, in North America, 224

P

PACE. See Pollution Abatement Cost and Expenditures Survey

PAMS. See Photochemical assessment monitoring stations

Parametric emissions monitoring (PEM), 192–194

Parathion, 366

Particulate matter (PM), 4, 26, 37–41, 59, 72, 77, 84, 105, 130–132, 151, 169, 217, 226–227, 235–236

with aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 2.5 micrometers (mm) or less (PM2.5), 27, 41, 48, 52, 91, 93, 111, 115, 168, 173, 227, 235, 275

with aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 10 (mm) or less (PM10), 14, 27, 48, 76, 93, 126, 142, 235, 262

Partnership, between technical and regulatory communities, 112

Passenger car exhaust emissions, evolution of California and federal tailpipe standards on, 138–139

Pb. See Lead

PBDEs. See Polybrominated diphenyl ethers

PCBs. See Polychlorinated biphenyls

PEM. See Parametric emissions monitoring

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Pentachloronitrobenzene, 366

Pentachlorophenol, 366

Performance-oriented control strategies to support local, state, and tribal efforts, recommendations for expanding national and multistate, 18–19, 291–296

Periodic source testing, 193

Permits and standards for new or modified major stationary sources, 177–186

background, 178–179

NSR and PSD requirements, 179–185

reforming NSR, 185–186

voluntary programs to improve, 212

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), 81, 252, 280

Personal exposure monitor, measuring actual exposures to PM and gases during daily activities, 72

Pew Environmental Health Commission, assessment of pollutant risk over time from, 244–245

Phenol, 366

p-Phenylenediamine, 366

Phosgene, 367

Phosphine, 367

Phosphorus, 367

Photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS), 224–226, 234–235

network of, 225

Phthalic anhydride, 367

Planning and implementation process, 20, 298–304

encourage innovative strategies, 300–301

enhance public agency performance and accountability, 303–304

focus on tracking and assessing performance, 299

institute a dynamic, collaborative review, 299–300

reforming, 20, 298–304

retain and improve conformity requirement, 301–303

urban heat islands and other land-use impacts, 302

PM. See Particulate matter

PM2.5. See Particulate matter, with aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 2.5 micrometers (mm) or less

PM10. See Particulate matter, with aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 10 (mm) or less

PM23 emissions, for medium- and heavy-duty trucks, by vehicle model years, 152

PM25 supersites, locations of initial, 228

Policy design, delays in incorporating new scientific insights from models into, 112–113

Political influence, and the cost of fuel, 163

Pollutants

instituting a dynamic review of classifications of, 20, 309

trend analysis in O3, 238

Pollution Abatement Cost and Expenditures survey (PACE), 17, 265, 267, 289

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 79, 280

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 367

Polycyclic organic matter, 367

Pope/American Cancer Society Study, 77

POPs. See Persistent organic pollutants

Prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) requirement, 90, 174, 182–185, 214

applicability issues with, 181–185

complexity and inefficiency, 182–183

operation, 180–181

Priority setting, 84–86

Probability sample designs, for monitoring, 373

Procedure for setting NAAQS, 48–51

NAAQS in effect as of January 2003, 49

process by which the EPA administrator reviews and sets a new NAAQS, 50

Procedures used to designate an area’s attainment status, 93

Process-based models of ecosystem response to pollutants, for regional assessments, 370

Process by which the EPA administrator reviews and sets a new NAAQS, 50

Program effectiveness, assessing, 233

Progress

assessing status and measuring, 13

on HAP control, preliminary indications of, 229

in reducing HAPs-related health effects for the future, 249

Project XL, 210, 212

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

1,3-Propane sultone, 367

b-Propiolactone, 367

Propionaldehyde, 367

Propoxur (Baygon), 367

Propylene dichloride, 367

Propylene oxide, 367

1,2-Propylenimine, 367

Protection of ecosystems

and establishment of secondary NAAQS, 51–53

and other aspects of public welfare, 15

recommendations for enhancing, 21, 311–313

PSD. See Prevention of significant deterioration

Public agency performance and accountability, 303–304

Q

Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), 235–236

Quinoline, 367

Quinone (p-benzoquinone), 367

R

RACT. See Reasonably available control technology

Radiation and Indoor Environments Laboratory, 90

Radionuclides (including radon), 55, 367

RADM. See Regional acid deposition model

Reactive hydrocarbons (RHC), 26

Reactive organic gas (ROG), 26

Reasonably available control technology (RACT), 94, 116, 129, 174, 186, 203

Receptor models, 104–105

RECLAIM. See Regional Clean Air Management Program

Recommendations for developing an integrated program for criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutants, 20–21, 304–311

addressing multiple pollutants in the NAAQS review and standard-setting process, 21, 310

developing a system to set priorities for hazardous air pollutants, 20

enhancing assessment of residual risk, 21, 310–311

findings, 304–305

identifying new toxicants, 308–309

instituting a dynamic review of pollutant classification, 20, 309

listing potentially dangerous but unregulated air pollutants for regulatory attention, 21, 306–309

potential classification scheme for hazardous pollutants, 307

proposed actions, 306–311

Recommendations for enhancing protection of ecosystems and other aspects of public welfare, 21, 311–313

completing a comprehensive review of standards to protect public welfare, 21

designing and implementing controls, 21, 312–313

developing and implementing networks for comprehensive ecosystem monitoring, 21, 312

establishing acceptable exposure levels for natural and managed ecosystems, 21, 312

findings, 311–312

promulgating secondary standards, 21, 312

proposed actions, 312–313

tracking progress toward attainment of secondary standards, 21, 313

Recommendations for expanding national and multistate performance-oriented control strategies to support local, state, and tribal efforts, 18–19, 291–296

addressing multistate transport problems, 19, 295–296

emphasizing technology-neutral standards for emission control, 18, 293–294

expanding federal emission-control measures, 18, 292–293

findings, 291–292

proposed actions, 292–296

reducing emissions from existing facilities and vehicles, 19, 294–295

using market-based approaches whenever practical and effective, 18–19, 294

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Recommendations for implementing AQM, 371–374

adding incident total solar radiation to National Weather Service meteorological data, 373

co-locating long-term measurements of air quality, meteorology, and ecosystem responses, 372–373

establishing baselines of ecosystem condition, 372

evaluating controls on atmospheric sources of nitrogen, 374

expanding EPA’s Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems/Long-Term Monitoring (TIME/LTM), 373–374

expanding existing estuarine monitoring programs, 374

institutional framework for monitoring exposure and ecosystem response, 371–372

intensive ecosystem studies, 373

measuring a comprehensive suite of indicators consistently, 372

probability sample designs for monitoring, 373

releasing exact locations of forest survey plots on public lands, 373

transference of knowledge gained to monitoring programs, 372

Recommendations for needed research and development, 369–371

chronic effects of multiple air pollutants on ecosystems, 369–370

methods for monitoring ambient air quality in ecosystems, 371

process-based models of ecosystem response to pollutants for regional assessments, 370

risk assessment research, 371

tools for assessing impacts of pollutants on biological species, populations, and ecosystems, 370–371

Recommendations for strengthening scientific and technical capacity to assess risk and track progress, 17–18, 284–290

continuing to track implementation costs, 17–18, 289–290

developing and implementing a system to assess and monitor human health and welfare effects, 17, 288–289

enhancing air pollution monitoring, 17, 286–287

enhancing exposure assessment, 17, 288

findings, 284–285

improving emissions tracking, 17, 285–286

improving modeling, 17, 287–288

investing in human and technical resources, 18, 290

investing in research to facilitate multipollutant approaches that target the most significant risks, 18, 290

proposed actions, 285–290

Recommendations for transforming the SIP process, 19–20, 296–304

ensuring a successful transition to AQMP, 304

findings, 296–297

proposed actions, 297–304

reforming the planning and implementation process, 20, 298–304

transforming IT into an AQM plan, 19, 297–298

Reducing emissions from older and nonroad diesel engines, 169

Reforming NSR, 185–186

Reformulated gasoline (RFG), 157–161, 169–170, 173

Regional acid deposition model (RADM), 64, 110

Regional Clean Air Management Program (RECLAIM), 202–203, 206–207, 210

Regional haze rule, 122

Regional planning organizations (RPOs), 120

Regulation

conformity, 165–167

of the content of gasoline and diesel fuels, 153–162, 169–170

of motorists’ vehicle use, 162–163

Regulators, applying model results appropriately, 112

Regulatory oversight, identifying chemicals for, 308–309

Reid vapor pressure (the vapor pressure of a petroleum product at 100°F) (RVP), 157, 160–161, 173

Reinventing Government Program, 212

Remote sensing, 195

of in-use vehicle emissions, 150

technology for, 150

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Research and development, recommendations for needed, 369–371

Residual risk, enhancing assessment of, 21, 310–311

Responses

of plants, to ambient levels of O3, 74

of sensitive ecosystems to acid rain emission controls, ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution in, 255

Reviews needed (dynamic and collaborative), 299–300

RFG. See Reformulated gasoline

RHC. See Reactive hydrocarbons

Risk assessment, 84–86

Risk assessment research, 371

Risk to human health and public welfare

determined by actual exposure, 279–281

over time, from pollutants, assessment of, 244–246

quantifying, 35

ROG. See Reactive organic gas

Rollback model, empirical, 104

RPO. See Regional planning organizations

RVP. See Reid vapor pressure (the vapor pressure of a petroleum product at 100°F)

S

SAB. See Science Advisory Board (of EPA)

Safety factors, 55

Sanctions clock, 125

Savings from the SO2 emissions trading program, 200

SCAQMD. See South Coast Air Quality Management District

Science, role of, 35–37

designing, testing, and implementing technologies and systems for efficiently preventing or reducing air pollutant emissions, 36

designing and implementing air quality monitoring technologies and methods for documenting pollutant exposures, 36

quantifying risks to human health and public welfare, 35

quantifying the expected demographic and economic trends with and without air pollution control strategies, 35

quantifying the source-receptor relationships relating pollutant emission rates to ambient pollutant concentrations, 35

tracking changes in pollutant emissions, pollutant concentrations, and human health and welfare outcomes, 36

Science Advisory Board (of EPA) (SAB), 50

Scientific and technical capacity to assess risk and track progress, recommendations for strengthening, 17–18, 284–290

Scientific basis for setting standards, 67–86

accounting for lack of thresholds for health effects of some criteria pollutants, 77–78

concentration-response estimation on cardiopulmonary disease mortality, 77

“critical loads” and Europe’s approach to setting acid rain goals, 81–82

health effects studies, 67–72

limitations of establishing standards for one pollutant at a time, 80–83

need for a coordinated strategic program to assess ecosystem effects, 79–80

need for additional strategic planning of research that underpins health-based standards, 76–77

need for alternative forms of air quality standards to protect ecosystems, 80

need to address health risk associated with exposure in hot spots and indoor environments, 83–85

risk assessment and priority setting, 84–86

sources of human exposure to indoor PM pollution, 84

static list of HAPs, 78–79

studies of air pollution effects on ecosystems, 72–76

SCR. See Selective catalytic reduction

Sealed housing evaporative determination (SHED) test, 147

Secondary standards

promulgating, 21, 312

tracking progress toward attainment of, 21, 313

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR), 183n

Selenium compounds, 367

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Sequential activities carried out by the nation’s AQM system, 34

Setting goals and standards, 45–87

goals for mitigating visibility degradation, 59

limitations of goal-setting procedures, 87

overview of air quality standards, 46–47

the scientific basis for setting standards, 67–86

the standard-setting process, 47–58

strengths of goal-setting procedures, 86

SFTP. See Supplemental federal test procedure (for vehicle emissions)

SHED. See Sealed housing evaporative determination

Simplicity, 201

Single-pollutant focus of SIPs, 130

SIPs. See State implementation plans

Siting of air quality monitoring stations, 233–235

Ozone Monitoring Sites in the United States, 234

SLAMS. See State and local air monitoring stations

Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act, 51

SO2. See Sulfur dioxide

Soil organic matter (SOM), 254

Soils, forest, 254–256

SOM. See Soil organic matter

Source “markers,” 82

Source-receptor relationships, relating pollutant emission rates to ambient pollutant concentrations, 35

South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), 79, 129, 183n, 202–203, 210, 249, 297

Spatial redistribution of emissions, 205–207

Sport utility vehicle (SUV), 133, 173

STAGs. See State and tribal assistance grants

Standard-setting process, 47–58

criteria pollutants, 47–48, 304

hazardous air pollutants, 55–58

historical sequence of the periodic NAAQS reviews and final decisions carried out by EPA since the passage of the 1970 CAA Amendments, 52

national emission standards mandated by Congress to help attain NAAQS, 53–54

procedure for setting NAAQS, 48–51

protection of ecosystems and establishment of secondary NAAQS, 51–53

scientific basis for setting, 67–86

See also Permits and standards for new or modified major stationary sources

Standards for mitigating effects of acid rain, 59–67

controls on acid rain precursors before the CAA Amendments of 1990, 61–65

environmental justice as an air quality goal, 65–67

impact of haze on visibility, 60

Standards to protect public welfare complete comprehensive review of, 21

setting, 12

STAPPA-ALAPCU. See State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators and Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials

State and local air monitoring stations (SLAMS), 93, 221

State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators and Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials (STAPPA-ALAPCU), 100, 286

State and tribal assistance grants (STAGs), 90

State implementation plans (SIPs), 3, 6, 11, 19, 88–132, 165, 178, 204, 270–271, 287, 291, 296, 364

attainment, 92

designing and implementing control strategies through, 88–132

the effectiveness of the SIP process, 126–132

limitations of the SIP process, 132

main components of an attainment-demonstration SIP, 96

the main components of an attainment-demonstration SIP, 96–126

nonattainment, 91

overview of SIP process, 88–96

recommendations for transforming, 19–20, 296–304

strengths of the SIP process, 131–132

tribes and the Clean Air Act, 89–91

unclassifiables, 92

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

State of the Environment report as indicating a new paradigm emerging at the EPA, 267

State of the Nation’s Ecosystems, The, 261

Stationary-source programs, trading and voluntary, 210–212

Stationary sources, implementing emission controls on, 174–216

Stratospheric O3 layer

curbing the use of chemicals having the potential to deplete the, 33

protecting, 363

Strengths

of goal-setting procedures, 86

of the SIP process, 131–132

of stationary-source control programs, 214

of techniques for tracking progress in AQM, 265–266

Studies of air pollution effects on ecosystems, 72–76

four-chamber greenhouse-based exposure system constructed to study effects of elevated CO2 on plants, 73

free air CO2 experiment (FACE) used to elucidate forest ecosystem responses to elevated CO2, 75

response of plants to ambient levels of O3, 74

Styrene, 367

Styrene oxide, 367

Sulfur dioxide (SO2), 4, 14, 26–27, 33, 37–39, 47–48, 51, 59–65, 93, 174, 217, 255, 268

national average emission categories for, 27

Sulfur in gasoline, restrictions on, 161

Supplemental federal test procedure (for vehicle emissions) (SFTP), 146

Surface O3 monitoring sites, in North America, 224

Surface waters, ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution on, 257–258

SUV. See Sport utility vehicle

T

Tailpipe standards on passenger car exhaust emissions, evolution of California and federal, 138–139

TCM. See Transportation control measure

TCP. See Transportation control plan

TEA-21. See Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century

Technological innovation

and emission controls, 140

versus social or behavioral measures, 116

Technologies and systems for efficiently preventing or reducing air pollutant emissions, designing, testing, and implementing, 36

Technology-based standards imposed on major facilities, 186–188

acid rain NOx provisions, 187

maximum achievable control technology, 187–188

reasonably available control technology, 186

Technology-neutral standards for emission control, emphasizing, 18, 293–294

Temporally integrated monitoring of ecosystems (TIME), 257, 373–374

expanding, 373–374

2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin, 367

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane, 367

Tetrachloroethylene, 367

Three-dimensional (3D) CTMs, first-generation, 106–110

TIME. See Temporally integrated monitoring of ecosystems

Timeline of significant federal and state regulations for motor vehicle fuels, 156

TIP. See Tribal implementation plan

Titanium tetrachloride, 367

Title V operating permit program, 190–191

TLEV. See Transitional low-emissions vehicle

Toluene, 367

2,4-Toluene diamine, 367

2,4-Toluene diisocyanate, 367

o-Toluidine, 367

TOMS. See Total O3 mapping spectrometer satellite

Tools, for assessing impacts of pollutants on biological species, populations, and ecosystems, 370–371

Total mobile-source emissions, 148

Total O3 mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite, 276

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Total suspended particulate matter (TSP), 48, 227

Toxaphene, 367

Toxic air pollutants, 15, 272–273

Toxic Substances Control Act, 79

Toxicants, identifying new, 308–309

Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), 237, 308

Tracking and assessing performance, 299

Tracking and characterizing ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution, 254–259

agriculture, 258–259

forest issues, 254–257

response of sensitive ecosystems to acid rain emission controls, 255

sensitive surface waters and estuarine systems, 257–258

Tracking changes, in pollutant emissions, pollutant concentrations, and human health and welfare outcomes, 36

Tracking ecosystem exposure, 253–254

Trading and voluntary stationary-source programs, 210–212

open-market and other forms of trading, 210–212

open-market and other noncapped forms of trading, 211

voluntary programs to improve permitting processes, 212

Trading programs implemented early on in the United States, 197–198

chlorofluorocarbon phase-out, 198

emission-reduction credit programs, 197

lead phase-out, 197–198

Traditional control programs

compliance assurance for, 190–196

for major stationary sources, evaluating, 188–190

Transformation of the nation’s AQM system to meet the challenges of the coming decades, 268–315

adapting the AQM system to climate change, 277–278

addressing multistate, cross-border, and intercontinental transport, 275–278

assessing and protecting ecosystem health, 274–275

ensuring environmental justice, 273–274

long-term objectives for challenges that will face AQM in the coming decade, 269

meeting NAAQS for O3 and PM2.5 and reducing regional haze, 270–271

principles for enhancing the AQM system, 278–282

protecting human health and welfare in the absence of a threshold exposure, 272–273

recommendations for an enhanced AQM system, 283–313

toxic air pollutants, 272–273

Transformation of the SIP process into an AQM plan, 19, 297–298

greater consideration of hot spots and environmental justice, 298

integrated multipollutant plan, 298

Transitional low-emissions vehicle (TLEV), 141

Transparency, 201

Transportation control measure (TCM), 95

Transportation control plan (TCP), 162–163

Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), 165

Trends in nationwide SO2 and NO2 emissions, 63

versus ambient concentrations of various primary pollutants (PM10, NO, SO2, Pb, and CO), 14

Trends in wet sulfate deposition in the United States, 231

TRI. See Toxics release inventory

Tribal implementation plan (TIP), 88–89

Tribes and the Clean Air Act, SIP processes in, 89–91

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene, 367

1,1,2-Trichloroethane, 367

Trichloroethylene, 367

2,4,5-Trichlorophenol, 367

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol, 367

Triethylamine, 367

Trifluralin, 367

2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, 367

Truck emissions, inspection and maintenance programs, 148–150

TSP. See Total suspended particulate matter

U

UAM. See Urban airshed model

ULEV. See Ultra-low-emissions vehicle

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Ultra-low-emissions vehicle (ULEV), 141

Ultrafine particles, exposure to, and monitoring for health response, 69

Unclassifiables, in the SIP process, 92

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), 81

Urban air toxics, counties at high cancer risk from, 41

Urban airshed model (UAM), 107–108, 110

Urban heat islands, 302

U.S. air quality management (AQM) efforts, 29–35

federal AQM legislation, 30–32

sequential activities carried out by the nation’s AQM system, 34

U.S. Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit, 185

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 256, 259, 289, 371

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 39, 302

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 3, 8, 11–12, 19, 22, 33–34, 37, 45–47, 51–76, 80, 98, 115, 131, 146–152, 162, 175, 216

computer program to estimate emissions from mobile sources not used on roads (aircraft, trains, farm equipment, etc.) (NONROAD), 102

computer program to estimate mobile-source emissions (MOBILE), 101–102, 148, 171

regional haze rule, 122–123

trends in estimated nationwide pollutant emissions and average measured concentrations, 218

U.S. Forest System, 289

U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), 102, 192–195

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 289

U.S. monitoring networks, major, 222–223

U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 241, 289

U.S. National Park Service (NPS), 226

U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 85

U.S. truck percentages within selected model years (MY) used for various primary daily driving ranges, 154

USDA. See U.S. Department of Agriculture

USGS. See U.S. Geological Survey

Utility companies, electric, 65

V

Vegetation

dose-response relationships between pollutant exposure and, 68

forest, 256–257

Vehicle emission standards

promotion of new technologies using, 167–168

test using a dynamometer lasting for 240 seconds (IM240), 148

Vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M), 95, 102–103, 116, 129, 148–149, 217

Vehicle miles traveled (VMT), 133, 151, 164, 301

Vinyl acetate, 367

Vinyl bromide, 367

Vinyl chloride, 55, 367

Vinylidene chloride, 367

Visibility impairment

monitoring, 226

in wilderness areas and national parks, protecting and improving, 33

Visibility Improvement State and Tribal Association of the Southeast (VISTAS), 123

VMT. See Vehicle miles traveled

VOCs. See Volatile organic compounds

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 26–28, 95–96, 99, 103n, 107–108, 111, 117–118, 130, 139, 143, 155, 175, 194, 217

federal, state, and local emission-reduction measures, 118

national average emission categories for, 27

Voluntary programs, to improve the permitting processes, 212

W

Weight-of-evidence approach, in the attainment demonstration, 114–115

WEPCO. See Wisconsin Electric Power Company

Western Regional Air Partnership (WRAP), 89, 91, 121, 123–124

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCO), 185

WRAP. See Western Regional Air Partnership

X

Xylenes (mixed isomers)

m-Xylenes, 367

o-Xylenes, 367

p-Xylenes, 367

Z

Zero-emission vehicle (ZEV), 141–142

ZEV. See Zero-emission vehicle

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The implementation of air quality regulations should be less bureaucratic -- with more emphasis on results than process -- and should be designed to protect ecosystems as well as people. The report recommends that The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) use an approach to target groups of pollutants instead of individual ones and that revised or new regulations also should consider how air pollution travels from state to state and across international borders. In addition, improved tracking of emissions is needed to accurately assess what populations are at the highest risk of health problems from pollution and to better measure the progress of pollution-control strategies.

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