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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

Index

A

Accreditation of facilities

Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC), 9-10

Addictive agents, 109, 114-116, 124

behavior, 115, 142

body weight, 115

withdrawal, 114, 115-116

Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, 8

Aggression, 145-157

behavioral screening tests, 134, 135

behavioral stressors, 143, 144

disease models, 96

distress, 16, 17, 125, 147

genetically modified animals, 66, 132, 133

maternal, 106, 107

pain and distress, 16, 17, 125, 174

pharmacological interventions, 146

predation, 18, 127, 143, 145-147

protocol development, 23

sleep loss, 121

social disruption, 36, 145

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS), 8

pain, protocols, 18

American College of Veterinary Behaviorists, 24

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), 24

euthanasia, 26, 27-28, 108

Analgesics

Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs), 43-44, 108

disease models, 96

nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), 22, 43

opioid drugs, 20, 22, 43, 103, 104, 106

perinatal studies, 102, 103, 104-106, 108

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 88-91 (passim)

protocols, 17, 22

preemptive analgesia, 42, 43, 89

regulatory oversight, 11, 17, 43-44

surgery, 11, 17, 20, 35, 42-44, 75, 104

Anatomic studies, 71-73

imaging techniques, 83

Anesthesia, 100-101

Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs), 43-44

balanced anesthesia regimen, 42. 43. 104

euthanasia, 27-28, 108

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide), 71-72

hypothermia, 105-106

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

imaging studies, 83, 84

inhalation anesthetics, 42, 104, 105, 106, 108

injectable anesthetics, 42, 106

lesions, 98

local anesthesia, 22, 43, 96, 98

multiple major survival surgeries, 32

neurophysiologic recording, 75

professional training, 30, 31

perinatal studies, 102, 103, 104-106, 108

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 88-91 (passim)

protocols, 17, 20, 22

regulatory oversight, 11, 17, 43-44

surgery, 11, 17, 32, 37, 41, 42-44, 45, 46, 75, 104

U.S. Government Principles, 42

vocalizations, 106

Animal Care Policies (APHIS/AC Policies), 7-8, 10-11, 17-18

food regulation, 52

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 92

surgeries, 41, 92

Animal husbandry, see Husbandry and nursing care

Animal and Plant health Inspection Service, 7

see also Animal Care Policies (APHIS/ AC Policies), 7-8, 10-11, 17-18

Animal Welfare Act, enforcement, 7

Animal Care Panel, 8

Animal Welfare Act (AWA), viii, 3, 7-11 (passim), 17-18, 39, 41

Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs)

anesthetics and analgesics, 43-44

euthanasia, 26-27

fetal surgery, 107-108

food regulation, 52

oversight agencies, general, 7, 8, 9, 12

pain and distress, 17

physical restraint, 49

professional training, 30

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 92

protocols, 13, 17, 39-40

social disruption, 145

surgery, 37-45 (passim), 107-108

Anxiety, 21, 23

behavioral screening of genetically modified animals, 135-136

housing of multiple species, 36-37

physical restraint, 48

Anxiolytics, 23, 43, 90, 135

Appetitive stimuli, 123-125, 130, 138

animal care and use concerns, 126-128

protocols, 126

reasons for, 125-126

terminology, 123-125

Aseptic techniques, 32, 37, 38, 44-45

implants and probes, 73, 76, 80-82, 92-93, 97

lesions, 87

neurophysiologic recording in awake, behaving animals, 72, 73, 75, 78, 79-80, 81-82

professional training, 31

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 76, 89, 92-93

surgery, 37, 38, 40, 44-45, 72, 73, 75, 78, 79

Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC), 9-10

Automated systems, see Computer applications and automated systems

Aversive stimuli, 138-139

animal care and use concerns, 52, 126-128

food and fluid regulation, 52

neural injury and diseases, 100, 101

protocol development, 21, 28

reasons for, 125-126

sound, 117

terminology, 123-125

Awake, behaving animals

see also Neurophysiologic recording in awake, behaving animals;

Physical restraints

animal care and use concerns, 76

occupational health and safety concerns, 82

zoonoses, protocols, 29, 46, 85

B

Behavior, vii, viii, 1

see also Awake behaving animals;

Distress;

terms beginning “Behavior...”

addictive drugs, 115, 142

disease models, 94-95, 96

distress assessment, protocols, 21, 22

fluid regulation, 50, 51, 57

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

food regulation, 50, 51, 53

genetically modified animals, assessment, 63, 66, 67-68

health monitoring, 23-24

heat, 116-117

lesions, 98, 99

mood disorders, 140-142

monitoring of animal health, 23-24, 31, 89, 91, 97-98, 99

pain, 16, 17, 18, 19-20, 22, 43, 89, 99-100, 101, 102-103

pain assessment, protocols, 16, 17, 18, 19-20, 22, 101

pharmaceutical and toxicological studies, 109-110, 114, 115

physical restraint, 47, 48

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 88, 91

postoperative, 35

protocols, 16, 17, 18, 19-20, 22, 23-24

unexpected consequences, 31

Behavioral screening of genetically modified animals, 132-136

aggression, 21-22, 134, 135

animal care and use concerns, 66, 67, 132-134, 136

anxiety tests, 135-136

disease models, 99

general health assessment, 63, 66, 67-68, 86

motivation, 67

motor tests, 134-135, 136

protocols, 136

sensorimotor tests, 134, 136

Behavioral screening of pharmacology/ toxicology studies, 129-132, 133

distress, 21, 22, 127

functional observational battery, 130, 131

motivation, 67

operant test battery, 130

Behavioral stressors, 37, 123-124, 142-149

aggression, 143, 144

humane endpoints, 144

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), 144, 149

principal investigator (PI)/veterinarians, 144

protocols, 144

Behavioral studies, 123-149

animal care and use concerns, 126-128

definitions, 123-125

distress, 126, 127

genetically modified animals, 63, 66, 67, 86

learning and memory, 125, 127, 128, 132, 135, 137

motivation, 125, 132, 139

pain, 126, 127-129

pharmaceutical and toxicological studies, 109-110, 142

pilot studies, 149

regulatory concerns, 8-9

Behavioral tasks, 24

Barnes circular platform maze, 128, 136

food and fluid regulation, 50, 59, 139, 140

lesions, 98

mazes, 74, 118, 121, 128, 134, 135, 136

motivation, 9, 49, 50, 51, 55, 57, 59, 60, 119, 127, 128, 131

neurophysiologic recording in awake, behaving animals, 74, 76, 128, 137, 138, 139

restraints, 74, 76

Behavioral training, 30

see also Exercise

awake, behaving animals, 74, 75, 76

fluid regulation, 50, 51, 57, 59, 60, 118-119

food regulation, 50, 51, 53, 60, 78, 118-119

motivation, 59, 110, 121;

see also Appetitive stimuli;

Aversive stimuli

neurophysiologic recording, 74, 75, 76, 77-78, 137-140

pain avoidance, 22, 123-125

pharmaceutical and toxicological studies, 110

physical restraint, 48, 77-78

Best practices, 1, 3, 23

Birds, 8

Body weight

addictive drugs, 115

fluid regulation, 56, 57

food regulation, 51, 52, 53, 55, 60-61

genetically modified animals, 66, 68

humane endpoints, 24

neurophysiologic recordings, 139-140

pain and, 20, 101

pharmaceutical and toxicological studies, 110, 115

presurgery, 41

unexpected outcomes, monitoring, 33, 34

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

C

Cats

euthanasia, 26

pain indicators, 17, 100

social disruption, 144

zoonoses, 29

Cell/tissue cultures, as alternative to animal subjects, 11

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 8

Colonies

humane endpoints, 68

monitoring, 33

number of animals required for breeding, 4, 65, 181-187

number of animals required to develop induced mutant, 187-190

Computer applications and automated systems

animal care and use concerns, 142

anxiety assessment, 135

exercise devices, 119

neurophysiologic studies, 74

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 91

simulation as alternative to animal use, 11

sleep deprivation, 121, 122

D

Department of Agriculture

see also Animal and Plant Inspection Service

Animal Welfare Act, enforcement, 7, 17-18

colonies, estimating animal numbers needed, 182

surgery, 40

Depression, 21, 31, 140, 141

Porsolt swim test, 141

protocols, 141

tail-suspension test, 141, 141

used to assess distress, 17

Diet and nutrition, see Food regulation

Disease models, 94-96

see also Genetically modified animals

aggression, 96

animal care and use concerns, 34-35, 96

behavior, 94-95, 96

genetically modified animals, 64

humane endpoints, 24-26, 27, 95

imaging studies, 83

lesions, 97-98

mood disorder, 140-142

occupational health and safety concerns, 95

pain/distress management, 15-16, 94

protocols, 94

stem cell studies, 86

unexpected consequences, 31

Distress, 1, 4

see also Analgesia;

Anesthesia;

Anxiety;

Behavioral stressors;

Depression;

Pain;

Sedatives

addictive drugs, withdrawal, 114, 115-116

aggression, 16, 17, 125, 147

assessing distress, 21-22, 134, 135

behavioral signs, 21, 22, 127

behavioral studies, 126, 127

chronic, 21, 26-27

definition, 3, 16

disease models, 95

euthanasia, 26-27, 28

food regulation, 52

humane endpoints, 24-27

hypothermia, 23, 25, 27, 141

lesions, 22, 98

maladaptive behaviors, 22

monitoring, 21-22, 34

multiple major survival surgeries, 32

neurophysiologic recording, 76, 77

noninvasive assessment methods, 21-22

physical restraint, 46-49 (passim), 77

physiologic signs, 21-22

professional training, 31

protocols, 13, 15-28 (passim), 32

regulatory oversight, 10, 16-18

sleep deprivation, 20, 109, 120-122

Dogs

euthanasia, 26

pain indicators, 17

socialization, 144

Drugs, see Addictive agents;

Pharmacological agents

E

Education, see Professional training

Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs, 30

Environmental deprivation/stimulation, 120, 147-148

Essentials for Animal Research: A Primer for Research Personnel, 30

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

Ethical issues, 3, 10

see also Humane endpoints;

Regulatory issues;

Standards

pain research, 100-101

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 92

3 Rs, 10-11

Euthanasia

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), 26, 27-28, 108

anesthetics, 27-28, 108

Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs), 26-27

AVMA Panel on Euthanasia

carbon dioxide, 27, 28, 108

cervical dislocation, 27

decapitation, 27-28, 108

disease models, 95

distress, 26-27, 28

perinatal studies, 102, 108

professional training, 27, 31, 108

protocols, 22, 26-28

sedation, 27-28

Exercise, 109, 118-120

automated systems, 119

fluid regulation, 55

running, 74, 118, 119

swimming, 74, 118-119, 128, 134, 141

Experimental hazards, 29

see also Occupational safety and health

F

Feces and urine

food regulation, 53

genetically modified animals, 61

hazardous wastes, 121

hormonal measures, 22

as hydration indicator, 61

monitoring, 21-22, 139, 140

Fetal studies. 102

anesthesia and analgesia, 103, 104-106

Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs), 107-108

euthanasia, 102, 108

monitoring, 104, 106-107

pain perception, 103

protocols, 105, 107-108

surgery, 105, 107-108

Fluid regulation, 4, 23, 31, 35, 49-51, 54-61

ad libitum consumption, 55-56, 57, 59

assessing hydration, 54, 55, 58, 59-61

aversive stimuli, 52

behavior, 50, 51, 57

behavioral pain indicators, 17, 20

behavioral tasks, 50, 59, 139, 140

behavioral training, 50, 51, 57, 59, 60, 118-119

body weight, 56, 57

circadian rhythm, 57

designing, 56-57

disease models, 95

exercise, 55

food consumption and, 58

inspection of institutions, 60, 118

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), 56, 58, 60

minimum fluid requirements, 55-56

monitoring, 51, 60-61, 139-140

as motivation, 50, 51, 60

pharmaceutical and toxicological studies, 110, 113

physiologic indicators, 54-55, 57, 58

preoperative preparation, 41

protocols, 23, 50, 58

restricted access, 139-140

species/strain differences, 56, 57-58

Food and Drug Administration, 8

Food regulation, 49-54, 117-118

see also Modifying dietary nutrients

ad libitum feeding, 51, 52, 53

APHIS/AC Policies, 52

assessing adequacy of nutrition, 51, 52-53, 59-61

behavior, 50, 51, 53

behavioral tasks, 50, 59, 139, 140

behavioral training, 50, 51, 53, 60, 78

body weight, 51, 52, 53, 55, 60-61

circadian rhythm, 53, 54, 57-58

designing, 53

lesions, 99

meal feeding, 53

minimum caloric requirements, 51, 52-53, 117-118

as motivation, 50

pain indicators, 17, 20, 52

pharmaceutical and toxicological studies, 110, 113

physiologic signs, 52, 117-118

postoperative recovery, 35

preoperative preparation, 41

protocols, 50, 51, 118

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

restricted feeding, 53, 110, 126, 128, 139-140

soft foods, 34, 35, 99

species/strain differences, 53-54

Funding

regulatory considerations, 8

study at hand, 1

G

Genetically modified animals, 61-68

aggression, 66, 132, 133

anxiety, 135-136

behavior, 63, 66, 67-68;

see also Behavioral screening of genetically modified animals

behavioral studies, 63, 66, 67, 86

behavioral tasks, 128

body weight, 66, 68

definitions, 61, 62

depression, 140

disease models, 64

estimating animal numbers to develop a genetically modified animal, 4, 65, 181-190

general health assessment, 66-67

feces and urine, 61

humane endpoints, 26, 67-68

knockin, 62-64

knockout, 14, 62, 63-64, 67, 132, 133-134, 135, 143, 189

monitoring consequences, 31

pain and distress, 15-16, 67-68

protocols, 15-16, 64-67

stem cells, 62-63, 86-93, 133, 141, 189

transgenic animals, 4, 15-16, 61, 62, 64, 134-135, 136, 181-190

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide), viii, 3

agency/oversight bodies using, 8-11 (passim)

anatomic studies, 71-72

behavioral studies, 126

euthanasia, 26

fetal studies, 107-108

food regulation, 51

housing of multiple species, 36-37

husbandry, 36

monitoring responsibilities, 35, 36

neonatal studies, 107

neurophysiologic recording, 76, 78

pain and distress, 17, 18, 88-89

physical restraint, 46, 76

pilot studies, 14

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 88-89, 90, 92

protocols, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 39, 107-108

sample size, 15

surgical procedures, 37-38, 39, 44, 45, 71-72, 107-108

Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules, 87

H

Health Research Extension Act (HREA), 8

Historical perspectives, vii-viii

protocols, vii, viii

regulatory factors, viii, 7-11

Housing, 26-27

colonies,

humane endpoints, 68

monitoring, 33

number of animals required, 4, 65, 181-190

distress assessment, protocols, 21

food regulation and, 53

monitoring, 33, 35

multiple species, 36-37

pharmaceutical and toxicological studies, 110

regulatory concerns, 9

space considerations, 37

Humane endpoints

see also Euthanasia

behavioral stressors, 144

definition, 25, 26

developing, 24-26

dietary nutrient modification, 118

disease models, 23-26, 27, 95

distress, 24-27

exercise, 119

food and fluid regulation, 51

genetically modified animals, 26, 67-68

husbandry and nursing care, 25

neurophysiologic recording in awake, behaving animals, 32, 82

pain, 23-24

physical restraint, 49

Husbandry and nursing care, 34-36

see also Housing

dietary nutrients, modification, 118

disease models, 94

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

distress assessment, 21

genetically modified animals, 65

humane endpoints, 25

neurophysiologic recordings, 81

pilot studies, 14

post-operative recovery, 38

protocols, 3, 4, 12, 13-14, 21, 35, 36

Hypothermia, 23, 25, 27, 141

distress, 23, 25, 27, 141

perinatal studies, 105

sleep deprivation, 121

surgery, 41, 45-46, 105

I

Imaging studies, viii, 71, 74, 83-87, 83-87

animal preparation maintenance during, 83-85

occupational health and safety concerns, 84, 85-86, 87

protocols, 84, 85

techniques available, 83

transportation to and from facilities, 84, 85-86

Implants and probes, 4, 40

asepsis, 73, 76, 80-82, 92-93, 97

drug administration routes, 112

failures, 82

food regulation, 35

housing, 35

imaging studies, 84

lesions, 87

neurophysiologic recording, 74-82 (passim), 138

occupational health and safety concerns, 82

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 89-90, 92-93

protocols, 82

sterilization vs disinfection, 80-81, 93

Indian Health Service, 8

Induced aggression or predation, see Aggression;

Predation, induced

Inspection of institutions, 14

food/fluid regulation, 60, 118

zoonoses, 29

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs)

anatomic studies, 71-72, 73

appetitive and aversive stimuli, 126, 127, 128-129

behavioral screening, 128, 129, 132, 136

behavioral stressors, 144, 149

colonies, estimating animal numbers needed, 182

depression models, 141

dietary nutrients, modification, 118

exercise, 119

euthanasia, 26, 28

disease models, 35

fetal surgery, 108

fluid regulation, 56, 58, 60

food regulation, 51, 60

genetically modified animals, 64, 67

housing of multiple species, 37

humane endpoints, 25, 26, 118, 119

husbandry and nursing care, 35, 36

monitoring unexpected consequences, 32

lesions, 128

neonatal studies, 106

neurophysiologic recording in awake, behaving animals, 79, 82

oversight agencies and bodies, 7, 8, 9

pain and distress, 17, 67, 100-101, 105;

see also “appetitive and aversive...” supra

perinatal studies, 104-106

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 89, 92, 93

physical restraint, 47, 49

pilot studies, 14

professional training, 30, 31

protocols, 12, 13, 14, 17, 25, 26, 64, 101, 120

surgery, 37-45 (passim), 108

Institutional Animal Care and Use Guide Book, 17

Institutional officials, 14

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, 8

Interagency Research Animal Committee, 9

Interdisciplinary teams, see Multi-disciplinary teams

International Association for the Study of Pain, 16

Internet

regulatory policies, 7, 8, 9

Invasiveness of procedures

see also Imaging studies;

Implants and probes;

Surgery

anatomic studies, 71-72

distress assessment, 21, 22

regulatory oversight, 11

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

L

Laboratory Animal Welfare Act, 7

Learning and memory

see also Behavioral tasks;

Behavioral training

behavioral studies, 125, 127, 128, 132, 135, 137

exercise, 118

general health assessment, 66

lesions, 97

neurophysiologic studies in awake, behaving animals, 137

psychophysical studies, 74

restraints, anxiety, 97

Legislation, ix, 2

see also Regulatory issues

Animal Welfare Act (AWA), viii, 3, 7, 9, 10-11, 17-18, 39, 41

Health Research Extension Act (HREA), 8

Laboratory Animal Welfare Act, 7

Public Health Security and Bioterrorsim Act, 116

U.S. Health Research Extension Act of 1985, 8

Lesions, 9, 97-99, 133

anatomic studies, 71

anesthesia, 98

asepsis, 87

disease models, 97-98

housing, 36

monitoring, 32, 98-99

multiple major survival surgeries, 40

pain and distress, 22, 98

protocols, 99

M

Memory, see Behavioral training;

Learning and memory

Methods and Welfare Consideration in Behavioral Research with Animals, 59

Mice

behavioral screening, 133, 134-135

food regulation, 53, 54

genetically modified animals, 62-67 (passim)

humane endpoints, 25, 67

number of animals required to develop inducted mutant, 187-190

physical restraint, 47

social disruption, 145

transgenic, vii, 62, 134-135

zoonoses, 29

Modified surgical settings, 39, 72, 76, 78, 79

Modifying dietary nutrients, see Food regulation

Monitoring of animals, 4

behavior, 23-24, 31, 89, 91, 97-98, 99

behavioral studies, 128-129, 136

body weight, 33, 34

disease models, 94-95, 96

distress, 21-22, 34

exercise, 119

expected and unexpected consequences, 23, 25, 26, 31-34, 66, 87

feces and urine, 21-22, 139, 140

fetal anesthesia, 104, 106-107

food and fluid regulation, 51, 60-61, 139-140

genetically modified animals, 66-68

housing, 33, 35

imaging studies, 84-85

implants, 40

lesions, 32, 98-99

neonatal studies, maternal neglect, 107

neurophysiologic recording in awake, behaving animals, 73-82 (passim), 126, 137-149

pain, 17, 18, 30-31, 34, 101

personnel training, 30-31

pharmaceutical and toxicological studies, 113, 115

physical restraint, 47

pilot studies, 14

postoperative, 35-36, 38, 41, 45-46, 72, 106-107

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 89, 90-92, 93

protocols, 13, 14, 18, 21, 32

recordkeeping, 7, 8, 13, 14, 31, 32-33, 34

euthanasia, 26

exercise, 119

food/fluid regulation, 60

genetically modified animals, 66, 67

neurophysiologic recording, 74-79 (passim), 139-140

physical restraint, 47

sleep deprivation, 122

survival surgery, 41, 45

responsibility for, 35

sleep deprivation, 120, 121-122

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

surgery, 35-36, 38, 41, 45-46, 72, 106-107

video techniques, 47, 119, 130

Mood disorder models, 140-142

see also Anxiety;

Depression

Multi-disciplinary teams

behavioral training, 30

husbandry and nursing care, 34

fetal surgery, 108

monitoring of animals, 32, 35

pilot studies, 14

professional training, 30-31

protocols, 12-14

Multiple major survival surgeries, 32, 40-41, 76, 78-79, 97

N

National Institutes of Health, 8, 87, 110

Neonatal studies, 102

anesthesia and analgesia, 103, 104-106, 108

cannibalism, 106

euthanasia, 102, 108

hypothermia, 105-106

identification, tagging, tattooing, and toe clipping, 107

maternal neglect, 106-107

maternal separation, 144, 145

pain perception, 99-101

pharmacological/toxicological studies, 103-104

Neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBD), 88-91 (passim)

Neurophysiologic recording in awake, behaving animals, 73-82 (passim), 137-140

animal care and use concerns, 76

asepsis, 72, 73, 75, 78, 79-80, 81-82

behavioral tasks, 74, 76, 137, 138, 139

behavioral training, 74, 75, 76, 137-139

body weight, 139-140

distress, 76, 77

humane endpoints, 32, 82

implants and probes, 74-82 (passim), 138

motivation, 126

physical restraints, 74-81 (passim)

veterinarians, 79, 81, 82

NIH Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, 8

Nonsurvival studies, prolonged, see Prolonged nonsurvival studies

Nursing care, see Husbandry and nursing care

Nutrition, see Food regulation

O

Occupational safety and health, 30

behavioral screening, 130

hazardous substances, 82, 116

imaging studies, 84, 85-86, 87

neurophysiologic recording in awake, behaving animals, 82

physical restraint, 46, 47

protocols, 14, 29

stem cell and gene therapy studies, 87

zoonoses, 29, 46, 82, 95

Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW), 8

Organ preparation, as alternative to live animals, 11

P

Pain, 41

see also Analgesia;

Anesthesia;

Aversive stimuli;

Behavioral stressors;

Distress;

Euthanasia

acceptable levels, 16-17, 18

aggression, 16, 17, 125, 174

animal models, 99-101

assessing pain, 17, 18-21, 24, 99-101

behavioral screening of genetically modified animals, 134

behavioral signs, 16, 17, 18, 19-20, 22, 43, 89, 99-100, 101, 102-103

behavioral studies, 126, 127-129

behavioral training, 22, 123-125

body weight, 20, 101

chronic or persistent, 20, 26-27

decapitation, 27-28

definition, 3, 16, 18

disease models, 15-16, 94

ethical issues, 100-101

fluid regulation, 17, 20

food regulation, 17, 20, 52

genetically modified animals, 15-16, 67-68

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide), 17, 18, 88-89

humane endpoints, 23-26

hypothermia, 23, 25, 27, 141

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), 17, 67, 100-101, 105

lesions, 22, 98

maladaptive behaviors

monitoring, 17, 18, 30-31, 34, 101

neurophysiologic recording, 75, 76

perinatal studies, 99-101, 102-104

physical restraint, 49

physiologic measures, 18, 24, 43

professional training on, 31

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 88, 89, 90-91, 92

protocols, 13, 15-25, 26-27, 32, 101

regulatory oversight, 10, 16-18

surgery, 41

threshold, 18. 106, 134

tolerance level, 18, 19, 127, 138-139

unrelieved pain, 23

veterinarians, 23-24

Pain models, 99-101

ethical considerations, 100-101

humane endpoints, 101

persistent pain models, 99, 100, 101

Performance standards, 12

exercise, 119

fetal surgery, 108

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 93

surgery, 38-39, 79

Perinatal studies, 102-108

anaesthesia and analgesia, 102, 103, 104-106, 108

animal care and use, 102

euthanasia, 102, 108

hypothermia, 105

identification, tagging, tattooing, and toe clipping, 107

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), 104-106

pain perception, 99-101, 102-104

surgery, postoperative monitoring, cannibalism, and neglect, 106, 107

Pharmacological/toxicological studies, 109-114

see also Behavioral screening of pharmacology/toxicology studies, 129-132

addictive agents, 109, 114-116, 124

aggression, 146

behavior, 109-110, 114, 115

behavioral studies, 109-110, 142

behavioral training, 110

body weight, 110, 115

cannula, 110, 112, 113

chronic drug exposure, 109, 113-116

depression, 140, 141

dose considerations, 22, 111, 113, 114-115

drug administration routes, 112-113, 114

drug-self administration vehicles, 77, 111, 113

fluid/food regulation, 110, 113

food regulation, 110, 113

housing, 110

inhalation, 112-113

implantable pumps, 112

injection, 112, 124

monitoring, 113, 115

occupational health and safety concerns, 116

oral administration, 112, 113

neonatal studies, 103-104

pain and distress, regulatory oversight, 17, 129-131

physical dependence and withdrawal, 114, 115-116

protocols, 113, 115, 118

species/strain differences, 114-115

unexpected consequences, 32

vehicles, 77, 111-112, 114

Physical agents, 116-117

heat, 109, 115, 116-117, 134, 141

light, 50, 53, 109, 116, 117, 135

sound, 36, 109, 116, 117, 123, 136

Physical exercise, see Exercise

Physical restraints, see Restraints

Physiological indicators, 4

see also Neurophysiologic recording in awake, behaving animals

distress, 21-22

euthanasia, 28

fluid regulation, 54-55, 57, 58

food regulation, 52, 117-118

imaging studies, 84-85

lesions, 98-99

pain, 18, 24, 43

physical restraint, distress, 47, 48

postsurgery, 45-46

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 88, 89, 90-91, 92

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

Pilot studies, 40

anatomic studies, 71, 72

behavioral, 149

reasons for, 15

protocols, 3, 14-15, 19, 27

sample size, 14, 15, 175

Predation, induced, 18, 127, 143, 145-147

Preparation and Maintenance of Higher Mammals During Neuroscience Experiments, vii, viii, 88, 89, 137

Primates, nonhuman

fetal studies, 105

fluid regulation, 50, 55, 56, 118

food regulation, 50, 118

lesions, 97

neurophysiologic recording, 76, 77

pain indicators, 17, 103

physical restraint, 46, 48, 49, 76, 77-78

zoonoses, 29

Principal investigator (PI)

behavioral stressors, 144

genetically modified animals, 64

humane endpoints, 26

monitoring, 34

neurophysiologic recording in awake behaving animals, 79

professional training, 30

protocols, 12, 13, 26, 28, 64

surgical procedures, 37, 38

Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, 12

Probes, see Implants and probes

Professional training, 2, 30-31

anesthesia, 30, 31

aseptic techniques, 31

distress, 31

euthanasia, 27, 31, 108

genetically modified animals, 65-66

health problem recognition, 33

imaging studies, 84, 85

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), 30, 31

monitoring, 30-31

multi-disciplinary, 30-31

neurophysiologic recording in awake, behaving animals, 81

pain, 31

physical restraint, 48

principle investigator (PI), 30

protocols, 14, 27, 29

regulatory concerns, 8-9

zoonoses, 29, 46, 82, 95

Prolonged nonsurvival studies, 3, 4, 75, 88-93

analgesia, 88-91 (passim)

anesthesia, 88-91 (passim)

APHIS/AC Policies, 92

asepsis, 76, 89, 92-93

automated systems, 91

behavior, 88, 91

implants and probes, 89-90, 92-93

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), 89, 92, 93

modified laboratory settings

monitoring, 89, 90-92, 93

neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBD), 88-91 (passim)

neurophysiologic recording, 75, 89-92

pain, 88, 89, 90-91, 92

protocols, 89

sterilization vs disinfection, 93

veterinarians, 91, 92, 93

Protocols, 2, 12-29

aggression, 23

analgesics, 17, 22

anesthesia, 17, 20, 22

Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs), 13, 17, 39-40

appetitive stimuli, 126

aversive stimuli, 21, 28

behavior, 16, 17, 18, 19-20, 21-24 (passim)

behavioral stressors, 144

depression, 141

disease models, 94

distress, 13, 15-28 (passim), 32

euthanasia, 22, 26-28

fetal studies, 105, 107-108

fluid regulation, 23, 50, 58

food regulation, 50, 51, 118

genetically modified animals, 15-16, 64-67

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide), 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 39, 107-108

humane endpoints, 25-26

husbandry and nursing care, 3, 4, 12, 13-14, 21, 35, 36

imaging studies, 84, 85

implants, 82

lesions, 99

monitoring, 13, 14, 18, 21, 32

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

multi-disciplinary teams, 12-14

neurologic deficits, 32

occupational health, 14, 29

pharmacological/toxicological studies, 103-104

physical restraint, 46

pilot, 3, 14-15, 19, 27

principle investigator (PI), 12, 13, 26, 28, 64

professional training, 30

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 89

Red Book, vii

sample size, 13, 14, 15

surgery, 17, 20, 38, 39, 41-42

veterinarians, 12, 13, 14-15, 23, 26

Public health considerations

see also Occupational safety and health

imaging studies, 85

transportation of animals, 41-42

Public health Security and Bioterrorsim Act, 116

Public Health Service, 8

Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy)

euthanasia, 37

pain and distress, 17

professional training, 30

protocols, 12, 17, 37

regulatory oversight, 8, 9, 10

surgery, 39

R

Rabbits

pain indicators, 17

physical restraint, 46

surgery, 41

Rats

behavioral screening, 130, 131, 132

euthanasia, decapitation, 27

fluid regulation, 56, 57

food regulation, 52, 53-54

genetically modified animals, 62

lesions, 97

pain assessment, 18, 100, 103

physical restraint, 54

regulations concerning, 8

sleep deprivation, 121

zoonoses, 29

Red Book, see Preparation and Maintenance of Higher Mammals During Neuroscience Experiments, vii

Regulatory issues, viii, ix, 2, 3, 4, 7-11

see also Animal Care Policies (APHIS/ AC Policies);

Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs);

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide);

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs);

Legislation;

Protocols;

Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy);

Standards;

U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Use in Testing, Research, and Training (US Government Principles)

agencies/oversight bodies involved, 7-10

analgesics and anesthesia, 11, 17, 43-44

behavioral screening of pharmacology/ toxicology studies, 129-131

behavioral studies, 8-9

behavioral training, 30

distress, 10, 16-18

fetal surgery, 107-108

funding of studies, 8

Internet sites, 7, 8, 9

occupational health and safety, 14

outcome assessment, animal welfare, 9

pain and distress, 10, 16-18

professional training in, 8-9

sample size, 10

sedatives, 11, 17

surgical procedures, 37, 40

veterinarians, 7, 9, 13, 33

Restraints, 46-49

anxiety, 48

behavioral tasks, 74, 76

chairing, 49, 74, 76, 77-78

conditioning animals to , 48

consequences of, 48-49

distress, 46-49 (passim), 77

head-restraint systems, 77, 78-79, 81

humane endpoints, 49

methods, 47-48, 49, 74, 76, 77-78

neurophysiologic recording, 74-81 (passim)

observation of animals, 47

prolonged restraint, 46, 48-49

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

protocols, 46

reasons for, 46, 73-74

tethering, 76, 77

Rodents

see also Mice;

Rats

anesthetics, 105

addicative drugs, 115

behavioral screening, 130, 135

fetal studies, 105

pain indicators, 17, 103

swimming, 74, 118-119, 128, 134, 141

surgery, 20, 38, 41, 46

transgenic, vii

S

Sample size

determining, 4, 175-180

genetically modified animals, 64-65

pilot studies, 14, 15, 175

protocols, 13, 14, 15

regulatory oversight, 10

Sedatives

euthanasia, 27-28

imaging studies, 84

monitoring and, 34

perinatal studies, 103

postsurgical pain, 41

regulatory oversight, 11, 17

Skin condition, 46, 79, 82. 91, 121, 139, 140

hydration indicator, 61

physical restraints, 76

Sleep deprivation, 20, 109, 120-122

Social disruptions, 143-144, 146

aggression, 36, 145

postoperative, 36

predation, 146

restricted social environment, 144

social isolation, 143-144, 148

social separation, 142, 143-144

Special environments, 36-37

Standards, 1

see also Performance standards;

Protocols;

Regulatory issues

anesthetic, neonates, 105

best practices, 1, 3

disease models, occupational health, 85

international, 9-10

Statistical analysis, 15

see also Sample size

Stem cell and gene-therapy studies, 62-63, 86-93, 133

animal care and use concerns, 86-87

occupational health and safety, 87

Stress, see Behavioral stressors;

Distress

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 8

Surgery, 4, 37-46

see also Implants and probes

anatomic studies, 71-73

analgesia, 11, 17, 20, 35, 42-44, 75, 104

anesthesia, 11, 17, 32, 37, 41, 42-44, 45, 46, 75, 104

Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs), 37-45 (passim), 107-108

APHIS/AC Policies, 41, 92

asepsis, 37, 38, 40, 44-45, 72, 73, 75, 78, 79

balanced anesthesia regimens, 42. 43. 104

dedicated surgical facilities, 38, 39, 45, 72, 80, 81, 90

definition, 37-38

fetal studies, 105, 107-108

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide), 37-38, 39, 44, 45, 71-72, 107-108

hypothermia, 41, 45-46, 105

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), 37-45 (passim), 108

lesions, 97

major vs minor, 37, 38, 39-40

medical records

modified surgical setting/modified laboratory setting, 39, 72, 76, 78, 79

monitoring, 35-36, 38, 41, 45-46, 72, 106-107

multiple major survival surgeries, 32, 40-41, 76, 78-79, 97

neonatal studies, 106

neurophysiologic recording, 73-82

performance standards, 38-39, 79

planning for survival procedures, 41-42

postsurgical recovery, 35-36, 38, 41, 45-46, 72, 106-107

preemptive analgesia, 42, 43, 89

principle investigator (PI), 37, 38

professional training, 30

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 3, 4, 75, 76, 88-93

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

protocols, 17, 20, 38, 39, 41-42

rabbits, 41

removal of food, 41

regulatory issues, 37, 40

rodent surgery, 20, 38, 41, 46

survival vs nonsurvival, 37, 38, 41-46

transportation to surgical facilities, 41-42

veterinarians, 37-45 (passim)

Survival studies, 4, 71-86

anatomic, 71-73

imaging, viii, 71, 74, 83-87

multiple major survival surgeries, 32, 40-41, 76, 78-79, 97

neurophysiology

pain/distress, protocols, 15-16

stem cell and gene-therapy

surgical procedures, 37, 40-42

T

Thermoregulation, 23, 25, 27, 116-117

see also Hypothermia

food regulation 52-53

genetically modified animals, 66, 67

imaging studies, 84-85

neonatal studies, 105, 106

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 92

swimming, 119

3 Rs, 10-11

Tissue cultures, see Cell/tissue cultures

Toxicological, see Pharmacological/ toxicological studies

Training, see Behavioral training;

Professional training

Training and supervision of animals, see Behavioral training

Transgenic animals, vii, 61, 62, 64, 134-135, 136, 181-190

colonies, number of animals required, 4, 181-190

pain/distress, protocols, 15-16

Transportation to and from facilities

imaging studies, 84, 85-86

occupational health and safety, 84, 85-86, 87

public health concerns, 41-42

surgical facilities, 41-42

U

Urine, see Feces and urine

U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 116

U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Use in Testing, Research, and Training (US Government Principles), 9, 10, 16-17

anesthesia/analgesia, 42

pain, 138-139

physical restraint, 46

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 88-89

U.S. Health Research Extension Act, 8

V

Veterinarians, vii, viii, ix, 1, 4

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), 24, 26

anesthetics and analgesics, 444

appetitive and aversive stimuli, 126

behavioral assessment of animal health, 23-24

behavioral stressors, 144

disease models, 94, 95, 96

euthanasia, 26, 28

fetal surgery, 108

fluid regulation, 56, 58, 139

food restriction, 139

housing of multiple species, 37

husbandry and nursing care, 34

humane endpoints, 26

monitoring, 32-33, 34, 79

neurophysiologic recording in awake, behaving animals, 79, 81, 82

pain and distress management, 23-24

pilot studies, 14

professional training, 31

prolonged nonsurvival studies, 91, 92, 93

protocols, 12, 13, 14-15, 23, 26

regulatory controls, 7, 9, 13, 33

surgical procedures, 37-45 (passim)

Vocalizations, 19, 33

anesthesia, 106

genetically modified animals, 66

social disruption, 144

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×

W

Water consumption and regulation, see Fluid regulation

Weight, see Body weight

World Wide Web, see Internet

Z

Zoonoses

imaging studies, 85

occupational exposures, 29, 46, 82, 95

physical restraint, 46

transportation of animals, public health, 41-42

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10732.
×
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Expanding on the National Research Council’s Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, this book deals specifically with mammals in neuroscience and behavioral research laboratories. It offers flexible guidelines for the care of these animals, and guidance on adapting these guidelines to various situations without hindering the research process. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research offers a more in-depth treatment of concerns specific to these disciplines than any previous guide on animal care and use. It treats on such important subjects as:

  • The important role that the researcher and veterinarian play in developing animal protocols.
  • Methods for assessing and ensuring an animal’s well-being.
  • General animal-care elements as they apply to neuroscience and behavioral research, and common animal welfare challenges this research can pose.

The use of professional judgment and careful interpretation of regulations and guidelines to develop performance standards ensuring animal well-being and high-quality research. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research treats the development and evaluation of animal-use protocols as a decision-making process, not just a decision. To this end, it presents the most current, in-depth information about the best practices for animal care and use, as they pertain to the intricacies of neuroscience and behavioral research.

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