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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Data Tables." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10763.
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A Data Tables 217

218 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-1 Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds and the Most Common Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) Systems Compound I-TEFa WHO 94b WHO 98c Dioxins 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1 1.0 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 0.5 1.0 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.01 0.01 0.01 Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins 0.001 0.001 0.0001 Furans 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran 0.05 0.05 0.05 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran 0.5 0.5 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1 0.1 0.1 2,3,4,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran 0.01 0.01 0.01 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-heptachlorodibenzofuran 0.01 0.01 0.01 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran 0.001 0.001 0.0001 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) 3,3'4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77) 0.0005 0.0001 3,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-81) 0.0001 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB- 126) 0.1 0.1 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-169) 0.01 0.01 2,3,3',4,4-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-105) 0.0001 0.0001 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-118) 0.0001 0.0001 2',3,4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-123) 0.0001 0.0001 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-156) 0.0005 0.0005 2,3,3',4,4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-157) 0.0005 0.0005 2,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-167) 0.00001 0.00001 2,3,4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-114) 0.0005 0.0005 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB-170) 0.0001 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB - 180) 0.00001 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB-189) 0.0001 0.0001 aInternational TEF system. See EPA (1989). bAhlborg et al. (1994). Cvan den Berg et al. (1998). NOTE: Bold type indicates compounds with varying TEFs.

APPENDIX A TABLE A-2 Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) Systems Used in Governmental Reports on Dioxins and Dixon-like Compounds Reviewed by the Committee 219 Reference CDDs/CDFs PCBs AEA Technology, I-TEQ unless otherwise specified; Not evaluated 1999 WHO (1994) also used ATSDR, 1998 All are presented, but use is not Both are presented, but use is distinguished not distinguished EPA, 2000 WHO 98 is preferred, but all WHO 98 is preferred, but all systems are used and systems are used and distinguished distinguished Fiedler et al., 2000 I-TEQ and WHO 98; most data WHO 98; sometimes added given in I-TEQ into I-TEQ IARC, 1997 I-TEQ Not evaluated Scientific Committee WHO 98 is preferred WHO 98 is preferred on Food, 2000, 2001 NOTE: CDD = chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, CDF = chlorodibenzofuran, PCB = polychlorinated biphenyl, TEQ = toxicity equivalents.

220 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-3 Data for the Lowest Exposure Strata in Cancer Epidemiology Studies on Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds Table Number Exposure Definition Risk Measure Risk Estimate (95% confidence interval) Lowest septile of estimated cumulative exposure (0 to < 19) Lowest septile of estimated cumulative exposure (0 to < 39) 0-125.1 ng TCDD/kg blood (German chemical manufacturing workers) Subcohorts (German chemical manufacturing workers) with median blood TCDD levels of 9.5 ppt and 8.4 ppt 7-14 Low estimated potential for phenoxyacetic acid exposure Low estimated potential for chlorophenol exposure 7-17 Pulp and paper mill workers (IARC considers this to entail low exposure) 7-19 Seveso Region R SMR for total cancer SMR for total cancer RR for total cancer RR for lung cancer RR for stomach cancer RR for total cancer RR for soft-tissue sarcoma RR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma RR for soft-tissue sarcoma RR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma RR for death from all cancer RR and SMR for all cancer 1.14 (no lag) 0.98 (10-y lag) 1.24 (0.82-1.79) 0.5 (0.1-1.8) 0 (0-1~7) 1.1 (0.6-1.8) 0.6 (0.3-1.1) 0.9 (0.6-1.3) 0.9 (0.5-1.6) 1.0 (0.7-1.3) 0.9 (0.8-1.0) Males 0.9 (0.9-1.0) Females 0.9 (0.8-1.1) NOTE: SMR = standard mortality ratio, TCDD = tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, RR = relative risk, IARC = International Agency for Research on Cancer. SOURCE: EPA (2000).

APPENDIX A TABLE A-4 Body Burdens of Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in Potentially Highly Exposed Populations 221 Value (Tissue) in the Value (Tissue) in the Reference Exposed Populationa Referents Comments Breastfed infants EPA, Mean at 11 mo: 34.7 pg Mean at 11 mo: 2.7 pg 1994-1995 2000 TEQDF-WHO98/g TEQDF-WHO98/g lipid (blood) lipid (blood) EPA, Mean at 25 mo: 43.9 pg Mean at 25 mo: 3.3 pg 1994-1995 2000 TEQDF-WHO98/g TEQDF-WHO98/g lipid (blood) lipid (blood) EPA, Mean at 11 mo: 31.4 pg Mean at 11 mo: 2.5 pg 1994-1995 2000 TEQp wHo98/g TEQp wHo98/g lipid (blood) lipid (blood) Heavy consumers of fish (other than Northern Dwellers) EPA, Mean in high-fish Mean in non-fish 2000 consumers: 60 pg consumers: 20 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid (blood) I-TEQDF/g lipid (blood) EPA, Mean in fish eaters: 292.6 Mean in controls: 2000 Pg TEQp WHO94/g lipid (blood) EPA, 2000 10.9 pg TEQp-wHo94/g lipid (blood) People living near local sources of contamination EPA, Consumers of local beef Comparison group: 17.0 2000 and eggs for up to 15 y: pg I-TEQDF/g (blood) 63.7 pg I-TEQDF/g (blood) EPA, Near industrial emissions: Control samples: 16 and 2000 49-291 pg I-TEQDF/g 26 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid (blood) lipid (blood) Near a solid waste Expected mean: 55 pg TEQDFp-wHo94Ig lipid (blood) incinerator: 22-463 pg TEQDFp WHO94/g lipid (blood) EPA, Near a PCB manufacturing 2000 plant: 16-39 pg I-TEQD/g lipid (blood) 7-131 pg I-TEQF/g lipid (blood) Baltic Sea fish in Sweden Fishermen in the Gulf of the St. Lawrence; congener analysis done only in the 10/185 samples with the highest total PCB concentrations Unclear if this is lipid basis England Japan Alabama 19 pg I-TEQD/g lipid (blood) 8 pg I-TEQF/g lipid (blood) continued

222 TABLE A-4 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Value (Tissue) in the Value (Tissue) in the Reference Exposed Population Referents Comments 34-360 pg TEQp-wHo94/g lipid (blood) 32 pg TEQp-wHo94/g lipid (blood) Northern Dwellers ATSDR, 8.4 pg TCDD/g (plasma) 1998 ATSDR, 39.6 pg TEQ/g (plasma) 14.6 pg TEQ/g (plasma) 1998 ATSDR, 184.2 pg TEQ/g (plasma) 1998 < 2 pg TCDD/g Inuits vs Quebecois Inuits vs Quebecois Inuits vs Quebecois 26.1 pg TEQ/g (plasma) NOTE: TEQ = toxicity equivalents, PCB = polychlorinated biphenyl, TCDD = tetrachlorodibenzo-p- . . dioxin. TABLE A-5 Intakes of Dioxins by Highly Exposed Populations Reference Population Value Compounds Comments Breastfed infants ATSDR, 1998 At 4 weeks 132.1 pg TEQ/kg CDD Cumulative intake 257 pg TEQ/kg CDD/CDF ATSDR, 1998 83.1 pg TEQ/kg/d CDD/CDF Older data ATSDR, 1998 During first year 35-53 pg TEQ/kg/d CDD/CDF Older data People living near local sources of contamination EPA, 2000 Near a waste Background intake incineration site, from same food estimated daily types, 43.2 pg intake of 165 pg I-TEQDF/d I-TEQDF/d CDD/CDF Wales NOTE: TEQ = toxicity equivalents, CDD = chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, CDF = chlorodibenzofuran.

APPENDIX A TABLE A-6 Existing Total Human Exposure Limits 223 Legislation/Guidelines Country/Organization pg TEQ/kg/d Tolerable daily intake WHO 1-4 JECFA 2.3 EC 2 The Netherlands 1 Japan 4 Tolerable weekly intake JECFA 16.1 EC 14 Proposed tolerable monthly intake Australia 70 Provisional tolerable monthly intake JECFA 70 NOTE: TEQ = toxicity equivalents, WHO = World Health Organization, JECFA = Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, EC = European Commission.

224 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-7 Summary of Existing U.S. Federal Environmental Regulations and Guidelines Regulation/Guideline Description Limits Human Exposure ATSDR Guidelines/CERCLA In compliance with CERCLA, ATSDR has set up Acute ME MRLs, which are estimates of daily human exposure Intermedi, to a substance that is likely to be without appreciable Chronic risk of adverse health effects Air 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart AAAA New Source Performance Standards for New Small 13 ng/dsc Municipal Waste Combustion Units mass be m~n~mu 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart BBBB Emission Guidelines for Existing Small Municipal 125 ng/ds Waste Combustion Units 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart EB New Source Performance Standards for Large 13 ng/dsc Municipal Waste Combustors mass be mass (c testing) 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart EC New Source Performance Standards HMIWI Small HE (55 g/1~ (1.0 g/l Medium a CDD/C. TEQ (O 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart CE Applies to HMIWI constructed on or before 6/20/96 Small, me 125 ng/ dscf) c Small furl CDD/C TEQ (6 40 C.F.R. 63, 261, and 430 New Source Performance Standards: Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Category 40 C.F.R. 63, 261, and 430 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Pulp and Paper Production, Effluent Limitations Guidelines, Pretreatment Standards 40 C.F.R. 60 Hazardous Waste Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and New Sour Lightweight Aggregate Kilns New Sources Existing ' 0.40 ng to the i: device 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart CCCC New Source Performance Standards for CIWI 0.41 ng/d. constructed after 9/30/99 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart DDDD Emission Guidelines for Existing CIWI 0.41 ng/d.

APPENDIX A Nations 225 Limits Date Implementation Date Compliance Required Required lp exposure ~reciable nail pal 0/96 r, and er Acute MRL = 0.0002 ,ug/kg/d Intermediate MRL = 0.00002 ,ug/kg/d Chronic MRL = 0.000001 ,ug/kg/d 13 ng/dscm for dioxins/furans on a total mass basis, using a 3-run average with a minimum of 4-h run duration 125 ng/dscm (total mass basis) 13 ng/dscm for dioxins/furans on a total mass basis (mandatory), or 7 ng/dscm total mass (optional to qualify for less frequent testing) Small HMIWI: 125 ng/dscm total CDD/CDF (55 g/109 dscf) or 2.3 ng/dscm TEQ (1.0 g/109 dscf) Medium and Large HMIWI: 25 ng/dscm total CDD/CDF (11 g/109 dscf) or.6 ng/dscm TEQ (0.26 g/109 dscf) Small, medium, and large HMIWI: 125 ng/dscm total CDD/CDF (55 g/109 dscf) or 2.3 ng/dscm TEQ (1.0 g/109 dscf) Small rural HMIWI: 800 ng/dscm total CDD/CDF (350 g/109 dscf) or 15 ng/dscm TEQ (6.6 g/109 dscf) Not applicable Not applicable 6/6/01 6/6/01 Implementation by 12/6/05 state plan 6/19/96 6/19/96 Effective 3/15/98 3/15/98 or within 180 days of initial start up Effective 9/14/00 8/15/01 or incrementally by 9/15/02 ad New Sources: 0.20 ng TEQ/dscm 9/30/99 9/30/02 Existing Sources: 0.20 ng TEQ/dscm or 0.40 ng TEQ/dscm and temperature at inlet to the initial particulate matter control device < 400°F 0.41 ng/dscm (TEQ basis) 1/30/01 Within 60 days, no later than 180 days after initial startup 0.41 ng/dscm (TEQ basis) 12/1/01 12/6/05 continued

226 TABLE A-7 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Regulation/Guideline Description Limits Water National Primary Drinking Maximum contaminant level 2,3,7,8-T( Water Regulations Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum contaminant level goal in public drinking water 2,3,7,8-T( Sludge/biosolids 40 C.F.R. 503 (proposed) Proposed Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage 0.0003 me Sludge for apply NOTE: ATSDR = Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, CERCLA = Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, MRL = minimum risk level, dscm = dry standard cubic meter, HMIWI = hazardous material/industrial waste incinerator, CDD = chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, CDF = chlorodibenzofuran, TEQ = toxicity equivalents, dscf = dry standard cubic feet, CIWI = commercial/industrial waste incinerator, TCDD = tetrachlorodibenzo- . . . p-aloxln.

APPENDIX A 227 Date Implementation Date Compliance Limits Required Required 2,3,7,8-TCDD: 3 x 10-8 mg/L 1994 1994 king water 2,3,7,8-TCDD: O Nonenforceable, Nonenforceable, voluntary health voluntary health goal goal Sewage 0.0003 mg TEQ/kg dry sewage sludge for application to land Proposed 12/23/99 Not applicable prehensive dscm = A= ,cf = dry ~dibenzo-

228 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-8 Detailed Summary of U.S. State Environmental Regulations and Guidelines State Legislation Date In Fc California Dioxin Airborne Toxic Control Measure for Medical Waste Incinerators 7/31/90 Air Toxic Control Measure 1/1/04 California Department of Health Services: maximum contaminant levels for state primary drinking water standards Illinois Title 35, Subtitle F. Chapter I, Part 611: primary drinking water standards 1/17/94 Title 35, Subtitle B. ChapterI, Part229: hospital/medical/infectious waste 5/15/99 incinerators Massachusetts 310 CMR 7.08 (2): municipal waste combustors 310 CMR 22.00L: drinking water regulations Air Quality Guidelines for Dioxins Missouri 1985 310 CMR 40.1600: reportable concentrations in groundwater and soil 310 CMR 7.08(5)(e): emissions limits for hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators as promulgated by EPA through the Clean Air Act 10 CSR 60-4.040: Maximum Synthetic Organic Chemical Contaminant Levels, drinking water 10 CSR 10-6.020: Emissions to Air from Municipal Waste Combustion 10 CSR 25-5.262: Standards applicable to generators of hazardous waste 1990 All air standards are the same as the federal government; the only water Not applies regulations concerning dioxins are for drinking water New Jersey New Jersey Drinking Water Standards New York 6 NYCRR Part 219 [1/1]: Air emission standards for incinerators 6 NYCRR Part 703: Surface water and groundwater quality standards and 1967 (last groundwater effluent limitations in Aught Wisconsin NR 445.02: Control of Hazardous Pollutants 1988 Solid Waste Enforcement Standard NR 140: Public Health Groundwater Quality Standards NOTE: TCDD = tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, dscm = dry standard cubic meter, TEQ = toxicity equivalents, dscf = dry standard cubic feet, EPA = U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

APPENDIX A ons and 229 Date In Force Description/Limits orators ; levels for standards Bus waste soil Cots waste inant ustion s waste r water arcs and 7/31/90 1/1/04 1/17/94 5/15/99 1985 1990 Not applicable 1967 (last amended in August 1999) 1988 10 ng/kg of waste burned or dioxin emissions are reduced by 99% of uncontrolled emissions (applies to medical waste incinerators that incinerate more than 25 tons of waste/y) Eliminates burning of household garbage and rubbish in burn barrels Maximum contaminant level for 2,3,7,8-TCDD = 0.00000003 mg/L Maximum Contaminant Level for 2,3,7,8-TCDD = 0.00000003 mg/L Small, medium, and large incinerator emission limits: 125 (55) ng/dscm, total dioxins/furans (grains per billion dscm) or 2.3 (1.0) ng/dscm TEQ (grains per billion dscf) Rural incinerators: 800 (350) ng/dscm, total dioxins/furans (grains per billion dscm) or 15 (6.6) ng/dscm TEQ (grains per billion dscf) Emission limits for large units = 60 ng/dscm (with electrostatic precipitator) Emission limits for large units = 30 ng/dscm (with fabric filter) Maximum containment level for 2,3,7,8-TCDD = 3 x 10-8 mg/L Maximum toxic equivalent concentration = 0.045 pg/m3; the dioxin air guideline is set at a level at which no noncancer health effects would be expected as a result of lifetime exposure Groundwater = 3 x 10-8 mg/L, soil = 4 x 10-6 mg/L Dioxins/furans = 15 ng/dscm 2,3,7,8-TCDD = 0.00000003 mg/L 3.5 xlO-6tons/y If a hazardous waste facility generates more than 1 g of dioxin/y, then it must be registered with the state and complete reporting procedures must be followed; there is no limit in the state on the levels of emissions Not applicable 0.00000003 mg/L Municipal and private solid waste incinerator emission limits for dioxins = 0.02 ng/dscm Maximum allowable concentration = 7 x 10-7 ,ug/L 0.0001 lb/y of hazardous air contaminants without acceptable ambient concentrations (2,3,7,8-TCDD) 0.000003 ,ug/L 0.00003 ,ug/L toxicity 'Y.

230 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-9 Summary of Existing European Commission Environmental Regulations Directive Description Limits Waste incineration 89/429/EEC Existing municipal waste incinerators 89/369/EEC New municipal waste incinerators 94/67/EC Incineration of hazardous waste 2000/76/EC Waste incineration directive Water and aquatic environment 76/464/EEC Pollution caused by discharge into the aquatic environment 86/280/EEC 80/68/EEC 2000/60/EC Limit values and quality objectives for discharges of certain dangerous substances included in list 1 of the annex to 76/464/EEC Protection of groundwater against pollution Framework for community action in the field of water policy . . Alr emlss: r specllle · · . Alr emlss: specific A · . Alr emlss: Release to . . Dlrech, (see be] A · . Alr emlss: Release to 150 ng Organoha prohibit Water qua content Organoha prohibit Provides i or cuss and los Risk management 85/467/EEC Restrictions on the marketing and use of dangerous substances Prohibitio (Amendment no. 6) 91/173/EEC Restrictions on the marketing and use of certain substances and Use of PC preparations (Amendment no. 9) content 82/501/EEC The Seveso Directive Storage: s stored r quantity 96/82/EC The Seveso II Directive Storage: s Accident stored r NOTE: TEQ = toxicity equivalents, PCP = pentachlorophenol, PCB = polychlorinated biphenyl, TCDD = tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, HCDD = hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

APPENDIX A 1tal 231 Date Implementation Limits Required Date Compliance Required Air emissions: operating conditions 12/1/90 12/1/95; 12/1/00 to same specified conditions as 89/369/EEC Air emissions: operating conditions 12/1/90 12/1/90 specified Air emissions: 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 12/31/96 Existing plant: within 3 years Release to water: to be agreed, of implementation; new Directive 80/68/EEC applies plant: on implementation (see below) Air emissions: 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 12/28/02 Existing plant: within 5 years Release to water: 0.5 ng I-TEQ/L, of implementation; new 150 ng I-TEQ/ton of waste plant: on implementation langerous Organohalogen discharge to water prohibited Water quality values specified for PCP 1/1/88 content Organohalogen discharge to water 12/16/81 prohibited Provides for the progressive reduction 10/00 or cessation of discharges, emissions and losses of pollutants to water No date specified No date specified 1/1/88 12/16/81 Prohibition on all use of PCBs 6/30/86 6/30/86 Use of PCP limited to 0.1% of total 7/1/92 content Storage: sites qualify if 2,3,7,8-TCDD 1/8/84 stored reaches 1 kg of HCDD quantity of 100 kg Storage: sites qualify as Major Accident Hazard if total dioxin stored reaches 1 kg 2/3/99 7/1/92 1/8/84 2/3/99 phenyl,

232 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-10 Detailed Summary of European Commission Countries' Environmental Regulations and Guidelines Country Legislation Date In Fc Austria Belgium Clean Air Ordinance for steam boilers (BGBI Nr 19/1989) Limit value for incinerators with steam-boiler installations Limit value for emission from steam-boiler installations fired by wood fuel (Amendment: BGBI 785/1994) Ordinance on air pollution from sintering plant for iron ore production (BGB1. II, Nr. 163/1997, 20.01.1997) Ordinance on air pollution from installations for the production or iron and steel (BGB1. II, Nr. 160/1997, 17.06.1997) Ordinance concerning the ban of PCP (BGB1. Nr. 58/1991) Ordinance concerning fertilizers, soil additives, and culture substrates (BOB 1. Nr. 1007/1994) Ordinance in the province of Upper Austria on the application of sewage sludge, municipal solid waste compost and compost from sewage sludge (LGB1. Nr. 21/1993) Ordinance in the province of Lower Austria on sewage sludge (LGB1. 6160/2-0, 80/94) Guidelines Flemish regulation on environmental permits and conditions (Vlarem, Decree of 6/1/95) Flemish Decree of 1/19/99, Vlarem Regulation on environmental permits and conditions (BS/MB 31.03.99) regulating following sectors Municipal waste incineration Sewage sludge incineration Oil refineries, FCC catalyst regeneration 1989 1997 1997 6/2/91 1/4/93 1/4/93 7/28/94 1/8/95 1/5/99 (ur other d. · r. speckle 1/1/00 1/1/02

APPENDIX A 233 Date In Force Description ]9) ins fired by ore Induction or )91) Lure Cation of Impost sludge cons onmental following 1989 1997 1997 Limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 applicable to plant with more than 750 kg/in Limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 applicable to plant with more than 10 MW Limit of 0.4 ng I-TEQ/m3 set for new sintering plant built after 1/1/04 Iron and steel plant: limit value set at 0.25 ng I-TEQ/m3 until 12/31/05; from 1/1/06 the limit value is 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3; plant already approved 0.4 ng I-TEQ/m3 Electrical arc furnaces, induction furnaces, and ladle metallurgic installations: limit value set at 0.4 ng I-TEQ/m3; existing plants to comply within 5 years 6/2/91 Prohibits the production, use, and marketing of PCP 1/4/93 Limit value: 50 ng I-TEQ/kg in fertilizers, soil additives, or culture substrate; products containing 20-50 ng TEQ/kg have to be labeled with a warning sign "Attention contains dioxins/furans" (forbidden for use on children playgrounds and for vegetable cultivation); culture substrates are not allowed to contain more than 20 ng I-TEQ/kg 1/4/93 Dioxin limit value of 100 ng I-TEQ/kg dm 7/28/94 Dioxin limit value in sewage sludge of 100 ng I-TEQ/kg dm Officially, there are no guidelines for dioxin concentrations in the various environmental media or food; in the past, there were recommendations for maximum dioxin concentrations in milk, and a limit concentration of 3 ng I-TEQ/kg dm in grass fed to dairy cows Based on present information, it is unlikely that guide levels will be developed The recommended maximum human daily intake of dioxins is 10 pg 2,3,7,8-TCDD/kg body weight and if this is exceeded action should be taken to reduce exposure; a target value of 1 pg 2,3,7,8-TCDD/kg body weight should be achieved 1/8/95 New municipal solid waste incinerators: emission limit 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 Existing municipal solid waste incinerators: yearly measurement; emission limit 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 from 1/1/97 1/5/99 (unless other date specified) 1/1/00 1/1/02 Continuous dioxin sampling required; analysis at least every 2 weeks Emission limit 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3; continuous sampling required New plant: emission limits 0.5 ng I-TEQ/m3 (guide value: 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3) Existing plant: emission limits 2.5 ng I-TEQ/m3 (guide value: 0.4 ng I-TEQ/m3) continued

234 TABLE A-10 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Country Legislation Date In Fc Metallurgical industries (iron and noniron) Sintering plant Crematoria Wood combustion (> 1 ton/in) Guidelines Denmark 1/1/03 1/1/02 2/2/97 Danish Executive Order, Danish Environment Protection Agency Decision Number 41 on waste incinerators Legislation on the prohibition of the use of PCP of 7/25/95 Guidelines 1/14/97 Finland Council of State Decision 23 June 1994/626 on the prevention of 1995 air pollution by municipal waste incineration Guidelines France Ministerial Decision on urban waste incineration plant from 2/24/97 2/24/97 Guidelines

APPENDIX A 235 Date In Force Description 1/1/03 New plant: emission limits 0.5 ng I-TEQ/m3 (guide value: 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3); yearly measurements required Existing plant: emission limit 1 ng I-TEQ/m3 (guide value: 0.4 ng I-TEQ/m3) 1/1/02 New plant: emission limit 0.5 ng I-TEQ/m3 at 16% O2 (guide value: 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3) 2/2/97 l Agency i/95 rention of rom Existing plant: emission limit 2.5 ng I-TEQ/m3 at 16% O2 (guide level: 0.4 ng I-TEQ/m3) Emission limit 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 Emission limit 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 at 16% O2 There is a proposal for a recommended limit value for atmospheric deposition in the Flanders Region of 10 pg I-TEQ/m2/d (as a yearly average); there is currently no maximum tolerable daily intake recommended in Belgium 1/14/97 Target emission concentration set at 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3; requires a residence time of the flue gases of > 2 see, at a temperature of > 850°C and combustion at > 6% oxygen; also covers sewage sludge incineration PCP use prohibited Maximum tolerable daily intake (recommended by the Nordic countries) of 5 pg N-TEQ/kg body weight Old plant: limit value of 1.0 ng I-TEQ/m3 New plant (from 1/12/90): limit value of 1.0 ng I-TEQ/m3 and target value of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 Target value of 0.1 ng/m3 for stack emissions from all municipal waste incinerators The Ministry of the Environment, Department for Environmental Protection has proposed a guideline of 2 ng I-TEQ/kg and a limit value of 500 ng I-TEQ/kg for contaminated soils Finland applies the maximum tolerable daily intake as adopted by the Nordic countries of 5 pg N-TEQ/kg body weight 2/24/97 New incinerators to meet the emission limits set in the EC Directive on Hazardous Waste incineration 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 A national recommendation from 2/97 set a guideline value for dioxin emissions from existing municipal solid waste incinerators of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3; the regional authorities decide on a case-by-case basis the legal limit value for such plant; the government's intention is that, in the future, stack emissions from all types of municipal solid waste incinerators should not exceed 0.1 ng/m3 The recommended guide level for emissions from metal processing and paper processing is 1 ng I-TEQ/y; if measurements reveal that concentrations exceed the guideline, then abatement action is required, as well as a program of milk analysis within a radius of 3 km from the plant A guide level of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 is recommended for incineration in the cement and lime manufacturing industry continued

236 TABLE A-10 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Country Legislation Date In Fc Germany Ordinance on bans and restrictions on the placing on the market 1989 of dangerous substances, preparations and products pursuant to 1989 the Chemicals Act (ChemVerbotsV) 1990 Ordinance on waste incineration plant (17 BImSchV) Ordinance on scavengers (19. BImSchV) Ordinance on sewage sludge (AbfKlarV 1992) Ordinance on crematoria (27 BImSchV 1997) Guidelines Ireland 1990 1992 1992 1997 None Guidelines Italy Ministerial Decree (DM) No. 503 11/19/97 Ministerial Decree on the water quality and characteristics of the purification of the Venice Lagoon Guidelines 4/23/98

APPENDIX A 237 Date In Force Description market ursuant to ics of the 1989 1989 1990 1990 1992 1992 1997 Ordinance on the ban of PCP Ordinance on the ban of PCB Limit values for dioxins in substances, preparations and articles set as 1, 5, or 100 ,ug/kg of the chemical compounds depending on the dioxin type Limit value of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 for dioxin emissions from waste incinerators Ban on the addition of scavengers to leaded gasoline Limit value of 100 ng I-TEQ/kg dried residue for dioxins in sewage sludge used as fertilizer in agriculture, horticulture, or forestry Limit value of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m for dioxin emission from crematoria In 1995, the Federal Environmental Agency issued the report Determination of Requirements to Limit Emissions of Dioxins and Furans; the report described measures that could reduce the emission of dioxins and furans from industrial installations; a target value of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 was recommended The Conference of the Ministers for the Environment adopted the report and asked the competent authorities to implement the measures A recommended limit value of 17 ng I-TEQ/kg dm exists for the use of compost; in the State of Baden-Wurttemberg, this is set as a legal limit Guideline measures were established for children's playgrounds and residential areas; in playgrounds, replacement of contaminated soil is required if the soil contains more than 100 ng I-TEQ/kg; in residential areas, such action is required if the soil is contaminated with more than 1,000 ng I-TEQ/kg; in industrial areas, the limit value was set to 10,000 ng I-TEQ/kg. No national legislation; however, any company which is licensable under the Irish Environment Protection Act, and which is seen as having "dioxin emission potential," may be required to undertake dioxin emission measurements The Irish EPA BATNEEC Guidance Note for the Waste Sector includes a section on dioxin emissions, which states "The aim should be to achieve a guide TEQ value of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3. For hazardous waste incineration, subject to the EC establishing harmonized measurement methods by 01.07.96, this guide level becomes an emission level from 01.01.97"; where other issues arise, they tend to be guided by limits set or recommended by other EU countries (e.g., United Kingdom or Germany) 11/19/97 Regulates new municipal solid waste incinerator plant at the limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 in the exhaust gas; existing incineration plant must be technically upgraded to meet the above emission limit 4/23/98 Implements a zero emission concentration of dioxins and other organic compounds into the Venice Lagoon National Toxicology Commission proposed, in 1985, PCDD and PCDF reference technical limits for land rehabilitation; for farmable land the reference value was 750 ng/m2 and for nonfarmable land 5,000 ng/m2; continued

238 TABLE A-10 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Country Legislation Date In Fc Luxembourg Regulation of the Grand Duke, Memorial A No 89, p 1897, 1991 12/30/91 Guidelines: Ministry Memorandum of 5127194, requiring the application of the best available technology by defining recommended limits for emissions into the air caused by industrial and crafts plants Netherlands 1994 Guideline on incineration of municipal solid waste and related processes (1989) Order on emissions from waste incineration Plant (Stcrt no. 15, 1992) and regulation on measurement methods for emissions from waste incineration plant Incineration Decree (Sb 36) Ministerial Order of the Ministry of Housing, Land Use, Plannin and Environmental Protection (Stb Nos 176 to 182, 4128192) Pesticides Act 1989 Guidelines 8/89 10/92 g 1/95 4/92 1991

APPENDIX A 239 Date In Force Description these were adopted, but recently were shown as inappropriate levels; a request made by the Tuscany Regional Authority that they be reviewed. A maximum tolerable daily intake 10 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight (excluding PCBs) was adopted as a guideline value in 1989 `97, ~ the related no. 15, . . sslons , Planning 128192) 1991 8/89 10/92 1/95 4/92 1991 Adopts Directive 89/429/EEC and 89/369/EEC. Emission limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 applies to new and existing municipal solid waste incinerators 1994 Recommends emission limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 for industrial and crafts plants; if no suitable technology is available in the market in order to meet this limit, then the process operator of existing industrial and crafts plants may apply for a derogation, of not more than 5 years duration, to 1 ng I-TEQ/m3 Guideline on incineration of municipal solid waste and related processes (e.g., incineration of chemical waste, hospital waste, and sludge). Atmospheric emission standard of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 was recommended for new incinerators; existing incinerators had to meet the standard by 1/95 Adopted to implement Directive 89/369/EEC Emission standard concentrations set as 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 The guideline of 1989 is transformed into law by this Decree Limits for discharges of PCP (Stb 178) and hexachlorobenzene (Stb 181) into controlled waters Production and use of PCP and NaPCP prohibited For sintering plant for iron ore production, best available technology has been introduced, resulting in a recommended emission level of 0.4 ng I-TEQ/m3 For the application of sewage sludge a standard of 190 ng I-TEQ/kg dm has been proposed; the maximum permissible application of sewage sludge on arable land is 2,000 kg dm/ha and on pasture land 1,000 kg dm/ha A standard of 63 ng I-TEQ/kg dm of dioxins in compost was been proposed in July 1994; the maximum permissible application of compost on arable land is 6,000 kg dm/ha and on pasture land 3,000 kg dm/ha. No legal standards have been set for dioxin concentrations in soil, but in 1987 guidance levels were proposed for soil pollution in residential areas and agricultural areas of 1,000 ng I-TEQ/kg dm, for aquatic sediments 100 ng I-TEQ/kg dm and for dairy farming 10 ng I-TEQ/kg dm Rehabilitation of dioxin-contaminated areas, such as production sites, waste disposal sites and harbor sediments, is a topical issue in the Netherlands The recommended maximum tolerable daily intake is currently 10 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight; the government is striving for a maximum daily intake of 1 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight continued

240 TABLE A-10 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Country Legislation Date In Fc Spain Guidelines Sweden SEPA Regulation on emissions to air from plant for incinerating 6/12/93 municipal waste with a nominal capacity less than 6 tons per hour with a permit according to the Environment Protection Act (SNFS 1969:387) issued before 1/1/94 SNFS 1993:13. SEPA Regulation on emissions to air from plant for incinerating municipal waste with a permit according to the Environment Protection Act (1969:387) later than 1/1/94 and plant with a nominal capacity equal to or larger than 6 tons per hour with a permit issued according to the same law before 1/1/94, SNFS 1993:14 SEPA regulation on discharges of industrial wastewater 6/30/95 containing certain substances, SNFS 1995:7 Guidelines United Kingdom (U.K.) Guidelines NOTE: TEQ = toxicity equivalents, PCP = pentachlorophenol, dm = dry matter, TCDD = tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, PCB = polychlorinated biphenyl, PCDD = polychlorinated dibenzo-p- dioxin, PCDF = polychlorinated dibenzofuran.

APPENDIX A 241 Date In Force Description In Catalonia, the Regional Environmental Protection Agency has inerating ions per section Act inerating onment with a cur with a 4, SNFS 6/12/93 recommended that all municipal waste incinerators meet a stack emission limit of 0.1 ng/m3 The Catalonian EPA is currently developing a guideline concentration for dioxin in soils. Rules and regulations from 1987 have required that all new municipal solid waste incinerators emit less than 0.1 ng TCDD/m3; older plant also had to reduce their emissions towards this limit; for existing incinerators, limit values are in the range of 0.1-2 ng TCDD/m3 6/30/95 Use of chlorine in Sweden's pulp and paper industry stopped; the production and use of PCP has been banned within Sweden for at least 10 years Tolerable daily intake = 5 pg TEQ/kg body weight The government provides guidance on concentrations of dioxin emissions achievable for various industrial processes in the form of the IPC Guidance Notes, issued by the U.K. Environment Agency; these guiding levels are used to assist in setting limits in individual plant authorizations; once an authorization is agreed this becomes a legally binding limit for the plant The recommended emission limits set for various incineration processes (including municipal, clinical, chemical, sewage sludge, animal carcasses, crematoria, and recovered oil) is 1.0 ng/m3 with an objective of achieving 0.1 ng TEQ/m3 For combustion processes (including large boilers and furnaces, combustion of fuel, reheat and heat treatment furnaces, coke manufacturers, compression ignition engines, and cement and lime manufacturers) the recommended limit value is 0.1 ng TEQ/m3 For various metal processes (including integrated iron and steel works, ferrous foundry processes, production of zinc, lead, copper, and aluminum) and papermaking the recommended limit value is 1.0 ng TEQ/m3 The maximum tolerable daily intake of 10 pg TEQ/kg body weight (including PCBs) was endorsed by the independent Committee on the Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment libenzo-p-

242 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-ll Summary of Existing Environmental Regulations and Limits by European Countries Country Applicable Directive Regulated Area Directive Limits Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Go Existing municipal waste incineration plants (ng I-TEQ/m3)a Air emissions 89/429/EEC None set 0.1 New municipal waste incineration plants (ng I-TEQ/m3)a Air emissions 89/369/EEC None set 0.1 Incineration of hazardous waste (ng I-TEQ/m3)a Air emissions 94/67/EC 0.1 Releases to water 94/67/EC None set 0.1 o. 1 0.1 0.1 o. 1 0.1 c c c c Air pollution from industrial processes (ng I-TEQ/m3)C Metal production and NAe NA 0.1 0.5 processingd Sintering plant for iron NA ore production Combustion plant NA NA emissionf Papermaking processes NA Coke manufacturing NA Cement and lime NA manufacturing Water and aquatic environment NA NA NA NA 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.1 Protection of ground 80/68/EEC Organohalogens C water prohibited Discharge into aquatic 76/464/EEC Content of PCP; C C environment Organohalogens prohibited Marketing and use of chemicals PCBs 85/467/EEC Pg PCPs 91/173/EEC 0.1% Major accident hazards The Seveso Directive 82/501/EEC lkg of 2,3,7,8- C TCDD Sewage sludge (ng I-TEQ/kg dm) Application NA Compost use NA 0.1 0, 0.1 0.: C C C C 1.0 0. 1.0 0. O. O. C C C C C C C C C C p P C NA 100 NA 100 C C C C C C C C 10

APPENDIX A imits by 243 rk Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal Spain Sweden U.K. 0.1 0.1 0.1 Cb 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 C 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 C 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C 1.0 0.1 0.1 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0 0.1 0.1 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 CC CC C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C P C C C C P C C P C C C C C C C C C C C C 100 190 continued

244 TABLE A-ll Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Country Applicable Directive Regulated Area Directive Limits Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Go Soils and terrestrial environment (ng I-TEQ/kg dm) Soil: residential NA NA Soil: agricultural NA NA Soil: dairy farming NA NA Children's playground NA NA Industrial areas NA NA Fertilizer/soil additives NA NA Human exposure (pa I-TEQ/kg body weight/d) NA NA 500 500 50 10 5h 5h 1 1C aMeasured at 11% O2, 0°C, 101.3 kPa. bAssume compliance with Directive. CMeasured at 16% O2, dry gases, 0°C, 101.3 kPa. dIncludes iron and steel plants. eNone applicable. fIncludes boilers and/or crematoria. "Prohibited production, marketing, and use. hpg N-TEQ/kg body weight/d. NOTE: Figures in bold are legislative limits, others are guidelines. TEQ PCB = polychlorinated biphenyl, PCP = pentachlorophenol, TCDD = = toxicity equivalents, tetrachlorodibenzo-n-dioxin.

APPENDIX A 245 rk Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal Spain Sweden U.K. 500 1,000 1,000 10 500 40 1,000 10 10 10 100 10 10,000 250 17 10 5h 1 10 10 10 5h 10 alerts, . . . -p-aloxm.

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250 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-14 Summary of Existing by European Commission Countries' Food and Feed Regulations and Limits Directive Description Limits Agricultural/food 98/60/EC Citrus pulp pellets as feedstuffs (amendment to 500 pg I-' 74/63/EEC) 1999/29/EC Undesirable Substances and Products in Animal Plant orig Nutrition (Maximum limits for animal feeds) Minerals: (amended in 2001) Animal lid Other land Fish oil: ~ Nonoil fir Compound Feeding s Commission Regulation Binders, anti-caking agents and coagulants in feeding Provides ~ No 2439/1999 stuffs additive coagula Commission Regulation Maximum limits for dioxins in food (from proposed Ruminant EC/446/2001 regulations) Poultry m Pig meats Liver: 6 p Muscle m Milk and Hen eggs Ruminant Poultry li~- Pig lipid: Mixed lip Vegetable Fish oil: ~ Nonbinding European Commission Dioxin action limits in feedstuffs Fish oil (i recommendations Fish and l Animal lid Nonoil fir Plant orig Mineral a: Other fan' Compound Human exposure The Scientific Committee on Established a group TWI for dioxins and dioxin-like TWI = 14 Food of the European Union PCBs equival' and 60 NOTE: TEQ = toxicity equivalents, TWI = tolerable weekly intake, PCB = polychlorinated biphenyl.

APPENDIX A ies' Food 251 Limits Implementation Date Compliance Date at to animal eds) in feeding proposed toxin-like 500 pg I-TEQ/kg upper bound detection limit 7/31/98 Plant origin feed: 0.75 ng TEQ/kg Minerals: 1.0 ng TEQ/kg Animal lipid: 2.0 ng TEQ/kg Other land animal products: 0.75 ng TEQ/kg Fish oil: 6 ng TEQ/kg Nonoil fish products: 1.25 ng TEQ/kg Compound feeding stuffs: 0.75 ng TEQ/kg Feeding stuffs for fish: 2.25 ng TEQ/kg Provides conditions for the authorization of additives to binders, anti-caking agents and coagulants in feeding stuffs Ruminant meat products: 3 pg TEQ/g lipid 7/1/02 Poultry meat products: 2 pg TEQ/g lipid Pig meat products: 1 pg TEQ/g lipid Liver: 6 pg TEQ/g lipid Muscle meat of fish: 4 pg TEQ/g fresh wt Milk and milk products: 3 pg TEQ/g lipid Hen eggs and egg products: 3 pg TEQ/g lipid Ruminant lipid: 3 pg TEQ/g lipid Poultry lipid: 2 pg TEQ/g lipid Pig lipid: 1 pg TEQ/g lipid Mixed lipid: 2 pg TEQ/g lipid Vegetable oil: 0.75 pg TEQ/g lipid Fish oil: 2 pg TEQ/g lipid Fish oil (feed) = 4.5 ng TEQ/kg Fish and pet feed = 1.5 ng TEQ/kg Animal lipid = 1.2 ng TEQ/kg Nonoil fish products = 1.0 ng TEQ/kg Plant origin feed = 0.5 ng TEQ/kg Mineral and binders = 0.5 ng TEQ/kg Other land animal products = 0.5 ng TEQ/kg Compound feeding stuffs = 0.4 ng TEQ/kg 7/1/02 1 1/17/99 2002 TWI = 14 pg TEQ/kg body weight/wk, 2001 equivalent to 2 pg TEQ/kg body weight/d and 60 pg TEQ/kg body weight/mo 7/3 1/98 ~ed biphenyl.

252 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-15 Detailed Summary of European Commission Countries' Food and Feed Regulations and Guidelines Country National Legislation In Force Descriptio Belgium Royal Decree of 23 April 1998 on maximum levels of dioxin 12/6/98 Maximum in food foods Royal Decree of 23 June 1998 for the effective withdrawal 10/7/98 Withdraw from the market of milk products is excel France Guidelines The Frenc lipid fo An object Germany Guidelines Netherlands Commodities Act 1991 United Kingdom Guidelines 1991 · . A maXlml Superie In 1992 a] Enviror concent . · . aloxln ~ 5 ng I-' I-TEQ/] be avoi cultivat above 4 transfer The recon milk lit exceeds To reduce I-TEQ/, The targel if the T to redu. achieve Based on lipid fo that the The Minis tolerabl current] lipid) NOTE: TCDD = tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TEQ = toxicity equivalents, TDI = tolerable daily intake, PCB = polychlorinated biphenyl.

APPENDIX A Food 253 In Force Description 12/6/98 10/7/98 1991 Maximum concentrations set for milk and dairy products: 5 pg 2,3,7,8-TCDD/g milk lipid for foods with > 2% lipid, 100 pg 2,3,7,8-TCDD/g food for foods with < 2% lipid Withdrawal of milk and milk products from the market when maximum dioxin concentration is exceeded The French Ministry of Agriculture recommended a maximum limit value of 5 pg I-TEQ/g lipid for milk and milk products; at this level products are removed from the market An objective has been established of achieving less than 1 pg I-TEQ/g lipid A maximum tolerable daily intake of 1 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight is recommended by Conseil Superieur d'Hygiene Publique of France In 1992 and 1993, a Joint Working Group of the Federal and Lander Ministers of the Environment on dioxins established recommendations and reference values for dioxin concentrations in soils and milk; for preventative reasons, and as a long-term objective, the dioxin concentrations in soil used for agricultural purposes should be reduced to below 5 ng I-TEQ/kg; cultivation of foodstuffs is not restricted if the soil contains 5-40 ng I-TEQ/kg, although it is recommended that critical land uses, for example grazing, should be avoided if increased dioxin levels are found in foodstuffs grown in such soils; the cultivation of certain feedstuffs and foodstuffs is restricted if the dioxin contamination is above 40 ng I-TEQ/kg soil; unlimited cultivation is allowed for plant with minimum dioxin transfer (e.g., corn). The recommended maximum dioxin concentration in milk should not exceed 5.0 pg I-TEQ/g milk lipid; thus, milk and dairy products should not be on the market if the contamination exceeds this value To reduce the human impact via consumption of dairy products, a limit value of 3 pg I-TEQ/g lipid was set The target concentration of 0.9 pg I-TEQ/g milk lipid was set as an objective to be achieved; if the TDI exceeds 10 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight (excluding PCBs) action should be taken to reduce the daily dioxin intake; a target value of 1 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight should be achieved Based on the TDI and on the inventory of food consumption, a standard of 6 pg I-TEQ/g lipid for milk and milk products was derived originally in 1989; the decision was taken that the standard should remain unaltered in 1991 The Ministry for Agriculture, Fisheries and Foods established a recommended maximum tolerable concentration of dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like PCBs in cows' milk; this is currently set at 0.66 ng TEQ/kg of whole milk (approximately 16.6 ng TEQ/kg of milk lipid) le daily

254 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-16 Summary of Existing Food and Feed Regulations and Limits by European Countries Country Applicable Directive Regulated Area Directive Limits Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Go Food (pa I-TEQ/g lipid)a Milk and dairy products NAb NA 5 > 2% lipid Milk and dairy products NA NA 100C < 2% lipid Milk and dairy products NA NA 3 5 5 Beef NA NA 6 Pork NA NA 2 3 Poultry and eggs NA NA 5 Animal nutrition (pa I-TEQ/g)a Citrus pulp pellets as feedstuffs 98/60/EC 500 cd C C C C C aCommission Regulation EC/446/2001 goes into effect July 2002; therefore, limits are not listed on this table. bNA = none applicable. cpg I-TEQ/g food. dAssume compliance with Directive. NOTE: Figures in bold are legislative limits, others are guidelines. TEQ = toxicity equivalents. TABLE A-17 U.S. Federal Monitoring Programs Environmental Media Program Ambient air/deposition U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (1998): stations established nationally to periodically measure dioxins in ambient air EPA, Urban Transect Study (Phase 1 in 2000): monitors for dioxins within and surrounding urban centers to show how sources of dioxin compounds influence air quality Sediments EPA and U.S. Department of Energy, Sediment Core Study: measured for dioxin-like compounds in 11 lakes in the United States Animal feed EPA, National Study on Animal Feeds: characterizes feeds for cattle, poultry, and swine nationally; samples of feed components taken to determine which components contribute the bulk of dioxin to terrestrial food animals

APPENDIX A imitS by European Countries 255 rk Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal Spain Sweden U.K. 5 5, 3 3 6 5 16.6 6 2 5 C C C C C C C C C C C C Dt listed on alerts. TABLE A-17 Continued Environmental Media Program Phase 1 with U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA): lactating cows Phase 2 with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Preliminary National Survey of Dioxin-like Compounds in Animal Lipids, Animal Meals, Oilseed Deodorizer Distillates, and Molasses (2000): determined background levels of dioxin- like compounds in lipidity and other feed ingredients commonly used in animal feeds; 48 samples collected Phase 2 with FDA, Preliminary National Survey of Dioxin-like Compounds in Oilseed Meals, Lipid-soluble Vitamins, Complete Feeds, Milk Products, Minerals, and Wood Products: appears to be underway; determine background levels of dioxin-like compounds in feed ingredients and complete animal feeds continued

256 TABLE A-17 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Environmental Media Program Phase 3: follow-on animal feed study in planning stage Food EPA, National Milk Study on PBTs [persistent, bioaccumultive, and toxic compounds] (1996-1997): national milk sampling network to measure the concentrations of dioxins; 48 samples were collected, another round of sampling is currently in the planning stage FDA, Total Diet Study (TDS) (annually): using samples obtained for the TDS, FDA analyzes between 200 and 300 food samples that are either likely to contain animal lipids or that have not been analyzed for dioxins previously; dioxin analyses have been ongoing for four years FDA, targeted sampling (annually): 500 and 1,000 samples collected per year; targets foods that tend to have variation (e.g., fish species, vegetable oils, supplements) FDA, Sampling and Testing Programs for Catfish (1997): sampling is designed to ensure that catfish that might contain dioxin in amounts greater than 1 ppt do not enter the commercial channels USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, (1994) sampled beef from 13 states for dioxins and resurveyed beef, pork, and chicken to understand background levels in U.S. food supply USDA/EPA: (1) USDA and EPA conducted a joint program of three surveys for dioxin in beef, pork, and poultry using 60- 80 samples in each survey taken from federally inspected slaughterhouses in the United States; not repeated or continuous studies, but rather one-time events; 63 beef samples were collected in May and June 1994 and examined for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and chlorodibenzofurans (CDFs); sampling for the pork survey took place in August and September 1995 and yielded 78 final samples; sampling was conducted in September/October 1996 for poultry with a final sample size of 80, (2) used samples from four lipid reservoirs of cattle to evaluate distribution of dioxins in beef lipid matrices FDA, Food Compliance Program (annual): uses surveillance and sampling of foods to ensure compliance with regulations; if there is a potential issue with dioxin contamination, analysis could be requested

8 ca V, ca o ~ V) ¢ sit so be s°- be .s o an VO VO Go Ed o ¢ 3 o v 257 ca ) ~ O o too ~ . ~ — .1 1 ~ A. 3 . . a, . a ,, ~ ,, v ~ ¢ O O O O . ~ · ~ ~ ~ t004 t004 t004 t004 ·0 ·0 O O O O z z z z ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ 9 ~ 5 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ca .^ ~ ~ :Y~ e _ 0 ~ — .~ O x u 0 3 c, ~ ~ At, c ~ 2 .H ° ~ a ~ ~ it. ~~ ~ ~ a O -0 ~ =~ ~ ~- e v z z z ~ 0 ca t004 0 0 v ~ z ~

258 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-l9 European Commission Member Countries' Dioxin Monitoring Programs (as of 1999) Country Ambient Air/Deposition Soils Sediments Vegetatior Austria Federal Environmental Federal Environmental Federal Environmental Agency, 1997-2001: Agency, 1999: analysis Agency, 1996: Spruce eight locations of 30 samples to obtain Needle Biomonitoring (industrial, urban, overview of background program in city of Linz rural, background) of soil contamination from for analysis of spatial air samples; monitoring unmanaged soils distribution in an to track trend industrial urban region concentrations Belgium Flemish Environment Agency: monitors air close to potential emission sources; monitors deposition in vicinity of incinerators and known industrial emitters Denmark General Directorate for the Environment of theWalloon Region: intends to implement monitoring program Finland National Public Health Institute: monitors soil contamination every five years France Ministry of Environment: French Er. developing nationwide Agency air monitoring program vegetate to be run by the French monitor Environment Agency Germany Federal Environmental Agency and Agency for Consumer Protection and Veterinary Medicine, 1993: Dioxin Reference Program monitors particulate deposition, grass, foodstuffs and fodder, soil, milk, human blood, breast milk and indicator matrices (pine needles and sediment) collected from urban, suburban and rural regions; sampling frequency depends on matrix; biannual evaluations of the data planned

APPENDIX A itoring 259 Vegetation Food Human Sewage Sludge Mental 6: Spruce monitoring ity of Linz if spatial n an tan region end rticulate reast milk urban, biannual French Environment Agency: developing vegetation monitoring program Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture: monitors milk and milk products over three regions (Brussels, Flanders, and Wallony) twice a year Ministry of Agriculture, 1994-1997: monitored milk and milk products; measurements will continue to be taken by the Veterinary Services of each region Danish Environment Protection Agency: monitors samples from various waste water treatment plants Ministry of Environment, 1 998: nationwide monitoring program continued

260 TABLE A-l9 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Country Ambient Air/Deposition Soils Sediments Vegetatior Luxembourg Environment Agency, 1995: biomonitoring around industrial plants, which measured levels in moss and cabbage; evaluated levels in air, deposition, accumulation in soil, sediment, and vegetables ARBED Steel Company (funded by Department of the Environment): measurement programs on electric arc furnaces Netherlands Sweden Institute for Quality Control of Agricultural Products (funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries): monitors levels in primary food products National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (funded by Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports) 1997-1998: monitored milk Portugal No national programs Instituto do Ambiente e Desenvolvimento: monitors levels in ambient air, soil, sediment, cow milk, vegetable matter, breast milk, and human blood in Porto; also monitored levels in ambient air before commissioning of new waste incinerator plant in Lisbon National Dioxin Survey (funded by Swedish Environmental Protection Agency): monitors fish and guillemots in Baltic Sea United Kingdom (U.K.) Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) Hazardous Air Pollutants: monitors levels in three urban and three rural sites from samples collected twice a year The Environment Agency: monitors various industrial processes for stack emissions Central Science Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (MAFF): monitored levels in eggs, freshwater and marine fish and fish products, shellfish, lipids, oils, cow's milk, infant formula, and samples collected as part of the 1997 Total Diet Study (TDS); cow's milk surveys are carried out in the vicinity of various industrial installations; monitors dioxins in TDS every five years

APPENDIX A 261 Vegetation Food Human Sewage Sludge hich ,ition, any s on rarity gricultural aided by the agriculture, gement ,): monitors nary food ate of and al unded by 'ublic are and -1998: ilk . a alr, SO1l, ~ in Porto; caste Every 5 years the body burden of . . ( .loxlns are monitored by analyzing levels in breast milk n Survey National Environmental Program (funded by wedish Swedish Environmental Protection al Agency): monitors breast milk gency): and Baltic Sea Laboratory, MAFF: conducted several studies on human Laboratory of the agriculture, milk and the analysis of pooled samples of Government d Food human milk will continue on a regular Chemist, on behalf nitored basis of the Department s, freshwater of Trade and ish and fish Industry: monitors llfish, lipids, sewage sludge ~ilk, infant Lancaster University, samples on behalf of part of the DETR, diet Study Environment s milk Agency and UK arried out WIR: monitors y of various organics in sewage itallations; sludge gins in TDS ars

262 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-20 Other Countries' and Organizations' Dioxin Monitoring Programs Country/ AIIiDieni Alri Other Deposition I'll O~U1111~11~ V OgOL~LlU11 Food Australia Japan World Health Organization Ministry of the Environment Survey on the State of Dioxin Accumulation in Wildlife: findings of the Fiscal 1999 Survey Departed Austra] Author Goverr , . . u~ox~ns release Ministry State oi Human Food: F Survey Detailed ~ Finding Global En System Assessr

APPENDIX A ; Programs 263 Sewage Food Human Water Sludge urvey on ration in cal 1999 Department of Health and Aging, the Australia New Zealand Food Authority, and the Australian Government Analytical Laboratories: dioxins in foods; results will be released by mid-2002 Ministry of the Environment: The State of Dioxin Accumulation in the Human Body, Blood, Wildlife, and Food: Findings of the Fiscal 1998 Survey Detailed Study of Dioxin Exposure: Findings of the Fiscal 1999 Survey Global Environmental Monitoring System: Food Monitoring and Assessment Program Several monitoring studies on dioxins in mother's milk and food TABLE A-21 Dioxin-Furan Results for Fishmeal, Fish Feed, and Fish Oil from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency 1989-1999 Preliminary Survey Mean Dioxins and Furans Toxicity Equivalents (ppt) (minimum-maximum values) Country of Origin (# samples) Fish Meal and Fish Feed Fish Oil Canada (14) Canada (2) United States (7) Iceland (1) Peru (1) Russia (1) South America (4) Mexico (2) 0.23 0.22 1 (0. 1 1-3.73) · (0~47-1~71) 9.9 (7.06-12.67) 7.92 3.7 (0.15-11.47) 9.8 (8.83-10.81)

264 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-22 Selected U.S. Federal Research Programs Environmental Media Program Ambient air/ deposition U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Modeling of Sources (currently): all known anthropogenic sources of dioxin air emissions in the United States are being put into EPA's long-range transport and deposition model to study the relationship between emissions and depositions EPA, Incinerator Impacts (1994): evaluated local impacts from emissions of dioxins from municipal solid waste incinerator known to have been emitting large amounts of dioxins Soils Food EPA and Harvard School of Public Health, Modeling Incinerator Impacts (1999): using incinerator data from above paper, tested EPA' s ISCST3 air dispersion/deposition model EPA, Exposure Estimation in EPA Regulations (1998 and 2000): papers regarding how exposure modeling is used in regulation of dioxin sources in EPA EPA, Emissions from Uncontrolled Burning of Domestic Waste (1999 and 2000): measured dioxin emissions from simulated backyard burning conditions EPA, Release of Dioxins from Pentachlorophenol-Treated Utility Poles (1999): investigated potential for dioxins to be released into the environment EPA, Diesel Emissions (1997): measured emissions of dioxins from diesel trucks under normal road conditions EPA, Nocturnal-Diurnal Releases from Soil (1999): investigated possibility that soils may be reservoir source of release into atmosphere U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA): currently (1) identifying routes of exposure and distribution in animals being raised for food and effects on food supply, (2) exploring methods to minimize burden of dioxin compounds that persist in animals' bodies EPA, Effect of Cooking (1997): paper describing the impact of cooking various meats and fish on concentrations and masses of . . dloxlns EPA, Air-to-plant-to-animal modeling (1994, 1995, 1998): papers describing derivation and validation of model predicting beef concentrations starting from air concentrations EPA, Analytical Methods (1996, 1997, 1999): papers describing development, testing and verification of analytical methods to evaluate dioxins in a variety of matrices EPA/USDA, Mass Balance of Dioxins in Lactating Cows (2000): study on mass balance of dioxins and furans in lactating cows EPA, Historical Meat and Milk Sampling Study (1998): sampled canned meats and dried milk from decades in past to determine temporal variability of dioxins in animal lipids

APPENDIX A TABLE A-22 Continued 265 Environmental Media Program Human EPA, Dioxins in Ceramics and Potter Products (2000): results of sampling of pottery and ceramic products made from ball clay EPA, Modeling Past Exposures to Dioxins (1998): presents derivation and calibration of a model to predict past exposures to 2, 3, 7, 8 -tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences: currently researching dioxin and cancer, endometriosis and immune function, and in connection with Agent Orange; also conducting research into the human response to dioxin

266 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-23 European Commission Member Countries' Dioxin Research Programs (as of 1999) Country Ambient Air/Deposition Sediment Vegetation Food Belgium Denmark Finland Finnish Environment Institute: 1996 SIPS program assessed atmospheric emissions from all emission sources; developed national air emission database France ADEME: study the emissions from six small incinerators; study emissions during start-up of plant; evaluate deposition and lipid around a source Italy Research, 1998: analysis of sources according to type Study dioxin contamination in urban air Luxembourg Study stack emissions ADEME: study soils around industrial plant Spain Central Government and Catalonia Environment Protection Agency has Ministry Ministr results: program Commi Cooper; estimate consum Research cow's r various Instituto ' study d: edible ~ funded pro

APPENDIX A arch 267 Food Human Sewage Sludge Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture: results from monitoring program used in European Commission's Scientific Cooperation Project to estimate exposure to consumers ~ soils strial plant has National Environmental Research Institute: researched dioxin levels in waste water and sewage sludge ADEME: study levels in breast milk Research dioxin levels in cow's milk; study of various foodstuffs Instituto Superiore di Sanita: study dioxin levels in edible mollusks and fishes Instituto Superiore di Sanita supported by the Ministry of the Environment: evaluate human exposure and risk from microcontaminants in urban areas and Venice Lagoon funded projects over the past years: identify representative levels throughout Spain continued

268 TABLE A-23 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Country Ambient Air/Deposition Sediment Vegetation Food Sweden University of Uppsala, Universit: National Food Nations Administration, and Admini Karolinska: study Karolin sediments, food, and sediment human exposure human United Lancaster University: Lancaster University: Central So Kingdom conducted a project to studied air to herbage Norwic: model dioxins and transfer of POPs East Al persistent organic Marque pollutants (POPs) and dioxins aimed to match deposit' sources to the floodin, environmental concent distribution of POPs compost Several cat organza Ministr Fisheries (MAFF analytic , . . Toxins TABLE A-24 Trace Analytical Methods and Cost Estimates Cost per Sample ($) Matrix Methoda Minimum Maximum Source Food, soil/sediment HRGC-HRMS goob 1,040 Alta Anal Human serum HRGC-HRMS 500b 1,000 National Soil/sediment HRGC-HRMS 2,000 US Army Soil/sediment HRGC-HRMS 900 1,800 Environm aHRGC-HRMS = high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectophotometry. bLowest cost with economy of scale.

APPENDIX A 269 Food Human Sewage Sludge University of Uppsala, National Food Administration, and Karolinska: study sediments, food, and human exposure varsity: D herbage 'OPs University of Uppsala, National Food Administration, and Karolinska: study sediments, food, and human exposure Central Science Laboratory, Norwich, University of East Anglia and Milk Marque: study effects of dioxins in sediment deposited on pasture by flooding on the concentration of these compounds in cow's milk Several commercial organizations on behalf of Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (MAFF): develop improved analytical techniques to dioxins in foodstuffs MAFF, Department of Health, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Health and Safety Executive: plan to establish an archive of human milk samples from individual nursing mothers. University of Birmingham; study of the bioavailability of dioxins by analyzing accumulation in the body MAFF: conducted several studies on human milk and the analysis of pooled samples of human milk; will continue on a regular basis University of Lancaster: model human exposure to , . . Toxins Maximum Source 1,040 1,000 2,000 1,800 Alta Analytical Perspectives (Y. Tondeur, personal communication) National Center for Health Statistics (J. Perkle, personal communication) US Army Corps of Engineers R&D Center (http:www.wes.army.mil/el/resbrief/rapidsc.html) Environmental Technology Commercialization Center (http://www.etc2.org/pr3.html)

270 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-25 Concentrations of DLCs in Foods Fiedler et al. Scientific Food ATSDR (1998)a (2000)b AEA Technology (1999)C on Food (I Beef National average: Europe: all meats: Denmark: meat, 2.6 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Beef and 0.89 pg 0.09-20 pg Finland: < 0.2 pg N-TEQ/g lipid PCDD/: I-TEQ/g lipid I-TEQ/g lipid Germany: 1.44-3.5 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.681 (l New York: Netherlands: 1.25-1.8 pg TEQ/g lipid pg I-TE 0.04-1.5 pg Spain: 1.76 pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCB, 0 I-TEQ/g ww Sweden: range 0.4-1.5 pg N-TEQ/g (0.86-1 lipid TEQW~ Pork National average: See beef Finland: < 0.1 pg N-TEQ/g lipid PCDD/PC 1.30 pg Germany: 0.13-0.5 pg I-TEQ/g lipid (0.13-3 I-TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: 0.25-0.43 pg TEQ/g lipid I-TEQ/, New York: Spain: 0.90 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.3 pg I-TEQ/g Sweden: range 0.06-1.2 pg N-TEQ/g ww lipid Chicken National average: See milk Denmark: 2.2 pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCDD/PC 0.40-0.98 pg Germany: 0.70-2.3 pg I-TEQ/g lipid (0.37-1 I-TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: 0.66-1.6 pg TEQ/g lipid I-TEQ/, New York: Spain: 1.15 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.03 pg Sweden, range: 0.42-1.1 pg N-TEQ/g I-TEQ/g ww lipid United Kingdom: 0.13 pg I-TEQ/g fw Other meat New York: See beef Germany: veal, 0.70-7.4 pg I-TEQ/g Game: PC 0.12-0.4 pg lipid 1.81 (0 I-TEQ/g ww Germany: lamb, 2.0 pg I-TEQ/g lipid pg I-TE Netherlands: liver, 5.7-42 pg TEQ/g PCB, 3 lipid TEQ Spain: lamb, 1.76 pg I-TEQ g/lipid Sweden: mutton, range 0.55-1.3 pg N-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: duck, 0.4 pg I-TEQ/g fw United Kingdom: carcass, 0.13 pg I-TEQ/g fw

APPENDIX A 271 Scientific Committee on Food (2000, 2001)4 IARC (1997)e EPA (2000}f 2/g lipid rpld i/g lipid Q/g lipid TEQ/g ., rpla i/g lipid _Q/g lipid [-TEQ/g id i/g lipid Q/g lipid 9-TEQ/g 'EQ/g fw -TEQ/g ;2/g lipid TEQ/g '/lipid 1.3 pg L3 pg Beef and veal: PCDD/PCDF, 0.681 (0.38-1.1) pg I-TEQ/g lipid; PCB, 0.914 (0.86-1.08) pg TEQWHO94/g lipid PCDD/PCDF, 0.258 (0.13-3.8) pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCDD/PCDF, 0.524 Europe: (0.37-1.4) pg I-TEQ/g lipid Game: PCDD/PCDF, Europe: 1.81 (0.97-1.97) pg I-TEQ/g lipid; PCB, 3.15 pg TEQWHO94/g lipid Mean of all data for all meats: 6.5 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: 1.77 pg I-TEQ/g lipid United States: 0.89 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: 0.42 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 1.62-1.68 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.4-61.2 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Preferred value: 1.06 pg TEQDF WHO98/g lipid 0.49 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig lipid Other: 0.152-0.254 pg I-TEQDF/g ww 0.04-1.5 pg I-TEQDF/g ww 0.29 pg I-TEQDF/g ww Canada: 0.10-0~39 pg TEQDFP-WHO94/g Germany: 0.71-0.95 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Netherlands: 1.75 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 1.76 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Preferred value: 1.48 pg TEQDF WHO98/g lipid 0.06 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig lipid Other: 0.029-0.26 pg I-TEQDF/g ww Canada: 0.049-0~053 pg TEQDFP-WHO94/g Germany: 0.39 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Netherlands: 0.43 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 0.90 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Preferred value: 0~77 pg TEQDF-WHO98/g lipid 0.29 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig lipid Other: 0.043-0.085 pg I-TEQDF/g ww 0.03 pg I-TEQDF/g ww Canada: 0.062-0~076 pg TEQDFP-WHO94/g Germany: 0.62 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Netherlands: 1.65 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 1.15 g I-TEQDF/g lipid No preferred value continued

272 TABLE A-25 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Fiedler et al. Scientific Food ATSDR (1998)a (2000)b AEA Technology (1999)C on Food (I Cow milk National average: Europe: 0.2-3 pg Denmark: 2.6 pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCDD/PC 0.82 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Finland: 0.83-1.17 pg N-TEQ/g lipid (0.26-3 I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: milk, France: 1.81 pg I-TEQ/g lipid I-TEQ/, milk products, Germany: 0.71-0.87 pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCB, 1.2' poultry, eggs, Ireland: 0.08-0.51 pg I-TEQ/g lipid pg TEE midpoints in Netherlands: 0.38-1.6 pg TEQ/g lipid lipid range of Spain: 1.2-2.0 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.75-1.7 pg Sweden: 0.93-2 pg N-TEQ/g lipid I-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: 1.01 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Other New York: See milk Denmark: cheese, 2.2 pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCDD/PC dairy 0.04-0.7 pg Europe: 0.5-4 pg Finland: 0.83 pg N-TEQ/g lipid (0.30-1 I-TEQ/g ww I-TEQ/g lipid France: butter, cheese, cream, I-TEQ/, 1.01-1.34 pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCB, 0.5( Germany: milk/dairy products, (0.38-0 0.75-1.02 pg I-TEQ/g lipid TEQ Italy: butter, 8.4 pg I-TEQ/g fw Netherlands: butter, cheese, 1.4-1.8 pg TEQ/g lipid Spain: 1.25 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Sweden: butter, range 0.35-0.5 pg N-TEQ/g lipid

APPENDIX A 273 Scientific Committee on Food (2000, 2001)d IARC (1997)e EPA (2000}f id 2/g lipid Q/g lipid 'g lipid Q/g lipid pid lipid 'EQ/g lipid EQ/g lipid lid fw L.4-1.8 pg 1.5 pg PCDD/PCDF, 0.972 Mean of all data: Preferred value: 0.98 pg TEQDF wHo98lg lipid (0.26-3.57) pg 2.3 pg 0.49 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig lipid I-TEQ/g lipid I-TEQ/g lipid Other: 0.061 pg TEQDF/g PCB, 1.25 (0.23-1.8) Median: 1.7 pg pg TEQwHog4/g lipid PCDD/PCDF, 0.612 (0~30-1.5) pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCB, 0.564 (0.38-0.78) pg TEQwHo94lg lipid I-TEQ/g lipid 95th percentile: 4.5 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: 1.31-3.94 pg I-TEQ/g lipid United States: 0.99 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Mean of all data: 2.4 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: 0.75-2.3 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.012-0.026 pg I-TEQDF/g ww 0.1-1.2 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Canada: 0.025-0~072 pg TEQDFP-WHO94/g France: 1.91 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Germany: 0.71 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 1.02-1.20 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid United Kingdom: 0.06-0.08 pg I-TEQDF/g Preferred value: assumed to be the same, on a lipid basis, as for milk Other: 0.082-0.38 pg I-TEQDF/g 0.254-0.770 pg I-TEQDF/g ww 0.04-0.73 pg I-TEQDF/g ww Canada: 0.138-0~93 pg TEQDFP-WHO94/g France: 1.01-1.34 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Germany: 0.64-0.66 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Netherlands: 1.4-1.8 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 1.25 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid continued

274 TABLE A-25 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Food Fiedler et al. ATSDR (1998)a (2000)b AEA Technology (1999)C Scientific on Food (I Fish Eggs No data New York: 0.02-0.13 pg I-TEQ/g ww New York/ New Jersey: wild crab: 78.2 pg TEQ/g ww Europe: 2-300 pg I-TEQ/g lipid See milk Europe: 1-4 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Sweden: 0.35-6.3 pg N-TEQ/g fw Sweden: herring, 9.1-420 pg N-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: 16-700 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Denmark: 50 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Finland: herring, 30.2 pg N-TEQ/g lipid Finland: farmed trout, 4.2-33.4 pg N-TEQ/g lipid Germany: 3.3-22.3 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Italy: 8.7-14.6 pg TEQ/g lipid Italy: other, 5.9-57.5 pg TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: 2.4-121.5 pg TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: other, 66.8-76.5 pg TEQ/g lipid Spain: 2.57-7.90 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Spain: seafood, 10.59 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Sweden: 0.35-42.8 pg N-TEQ/g fw United Kingdom: farmed, 5.1 pg I-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: farmed, including PCBs, 24 pg I-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: wild, 1.9-34 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Sweden: 0.08 pg N-TEQ/g fw Denmark: 1.5 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Finland: 1.2 pg N-TEQ/g lipid Germany: 1.36-4.58 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: 2 pg TEQ/g lipid Spain: 1.22 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Sweden: range 0.89-1.3 pg N-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: 0.6-1.2 pg I-TEQ/g fw Wild: PC] 9.92 (0 pg I-TE PCB, 3 (1.61-1 TEQW} Cultured: PCDD/ (2.33-2 I-TEQ/, PCB: 1 (9~92-3 TEQW1' PCDD/PC (0.46-7 I-TEQ/,

APPENDIX A 275 Scientific Committee on Food (2000, 2001)d IARC (1997)e EPA (2000}f /g fw N-TEQ/g I-TEQ/g rEQ/g ,.4 pg i/g lipid d )/g lipid _Q/g lipid Pg lipid EQ/g lipid 2lg fw - Pg luding 4 pg id d Q/g lipid I-TEQ/g I-TEQ/g Wild: PCDD/PCDF, 9.92 (0.125-2.25) pg I-TEQ/g lipid; PCB, 35.3 (1.61-168) pg TEQWHo94/g lipid 95th percentile: Cultured: 54 pg I-TEQ/g PCDD/PCDF, 8.84 lipid (2.33-27.9) pg Europe: I-TEQ/g lipid; PCB: 19.6 (9.92-39.7) pg TEQwHo94lg lipid PCDD/PCDF, 1.19 (0~46-7.32) pg I-TEQ/g lipid Mean of all data: Freshwater fish, shellfish, and estuarine fish: 25 pg I-TEQ/g WM 1.0 pg TEQDF-WHO98/g fw lipid; median: WM 1.2 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig fw 31 pg I-TEQ/g Marine fish and shellfish: lipid WM 0.26 pg TEQDF-wHo98Ig fw WM 0.25 n~ TEO~ ``TT T~^O/~ fw 2.72-48.6 pg I-TEQ/g lipid United States: farmed, 5.0-42.9 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: 1.26-2.02 pg I-TEQ/g lipid -- `0 -—~r-Wn~~ 0 - Farmed: 1.19-2.64 pg I-TEQDF/g fw Wild: 0.027-0.72 pg I-TEQDF/g fw 11.13 - 25.33 pg TEQDFp-wHo98Ig lipid 0.22 - 2.0 pg TEQDF-WHO98/g 1.57-2.12 pg TEQp-wHo94Ig fw 0.25-0.69 pg I-TEQDF/g fw 0.1-6.9 pg TEQp-wHo94Ig mt Shellfish: 0.033-2.34 pg I-TEQDF/g fw 0.23 - 0.26 pg TEQDF-wHo98/g 0.03-1.99 pg TEQp-wHo94Ig fw 0.1-5.4 pg TEQp-wHo94Ig mt Hepatopancreas, 5.2-1,820 pg TEQp WH094/g Canada: 0.12-0.62 pg TEQDFP-WHO94/g France: fish, 104-523 pg TEQ p wHO94lg lipid Germany: 7.44-104.1 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Netherlands: 2.4-48.65 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 2.57-10.59 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid United Kingdom: farmed fish, 5.1 pg I-TEQDFlg lipid 19.0 pg TEQp-wHo94Ig lipid; wild: 0.7-25 pg TEQDF-wHo98Ig lipid 5.4-59 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig lipid United Kingdom/Norway: wild, 5-18 pg TEQDF wHO98/g lipid 9-25 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig lipid Preferred value: 0~081 pg TEQDF-WHO98/g ww 0.1 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig ww Other: 0.032 pg TEQDF-WHO98/g ww 0.17 pg TEQDF/g 0.019-0.038 pg I-TEQDF/g ww Germany: 2.10 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Netherlands: 2.0 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 1.22 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid continued

276 TABLE A-25 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Food ATSDR (1998)a Fiedler et al. (2000)b AEA Technology (1999)C Scientific on Food (I Lipids and No data oils Vegetables No data Europe: 0.2-2 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: midpoint, 1.2 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: Denmark: 0.5 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Germany: lard, 0.8 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: 0.03-0.17 pg TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: fish oil, 0.99 pg TEQ/g lipid Spain: 0.49-0.64 pg I-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: fish oils, 0.25-9.2 pg TEQ/g oil United Kingdom: 0.2 pg I-TEQ/g fw Denmark: 0.015 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.002-0.3 pg Finland: < 0.00005-0.04 pg I-TEQ/g fw I-TEQ/g fw Germany: 0.0064-0.017 pg I-TEQ/g fw Europe: fruits and Netherlands: 0.13 pg TEQ/g dw vegetables, Spain: 0.14-0.19 pg I-TEQ/g fw midpoint, 0.1 United Kingdom: 0.3-0.4 pg I-TEQ/g fw pg I-TEQ/g fw Fruits No data See vegetables Bread and grains No data No data Fruit and PCDD/] 0.029 (0.004- I-TEQ/` See veget. Europe: 0.1-2 pg I-TEQ/g fw Denmark: 0.015 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Finland: < 0.00005 pg I-TEQ/g fw Germany: < 0.01-0.015 pg I-TEQ/g dm Spain: 0.09 pg I-TEQ/g fw United Kingdom: 0.3 pg I-TEQ/g fw Denmark: 0.1 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Finland: 0.00048-0.0014 pg I-TEQ/g ww Europe: midpoint, Netherlands: 0.4-0.85 pg TEQ/g lipid 1.2 pg I-TEQ/g Spain: 0.25 pg I-TEQ/g fw fw United Kingdom: 0.03-0.17 pg I-TEQ/g fw PCDD/PC (0.01-0 I-TEQ/` PCB, 0.11 TEQWl aPCDD/PCDF. Nondetected congeners were assumed present at i/2 the detection limit. bRanges are estimated from a log-scale graphic. CFrom Task 4 Annex 1. PCDD/PCDF unless otherwise indicated. Most data are mean values. dEstimated mean (range) from Table 2. eFrom Appendix 1. PCDD/PCDF only. Nondetected congeners were assumed present at detection limits. All data: irrespective of country or sampling year. fFrom part I, volume 3, chapter 3. In most cases, nondetected congeners were assumed present at i/2 the detection limit. For preferred values on a whole-food basis, see chapter 3, tables 3-59 and 3-60. NOTE: TEQ = toxicity equivalents, fw = fresh weight, ww = wet weight, dw = dry weight, dm = dry matter, mt = muscle tissue, WM = weighted mean (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] averaged dioxin and dioxin-like compound concentrations for each fish/shellfish species by the average consumption rate and summed for a category mean; WM values are EPA's preferred values).

APPENDIX A 277 Scientific Committee on Food (2000, 2001)d IARC (1997)e EPA (2000}f id No data Europe: Preferred value: 0~056 pg TEQ DF-WHO98/g /g lipid 0.03-2.24 pg 0.037 TEQwHo98/g _Q/g lipid I-TEQ/g lipid Canada: 0.31-0.44 pg TEQDFp WHO94lg TEQ/g Netherlands: 0.006-2.2 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 0.49-0.64 pg I-TEQDF/g ww Pg ,Q/g fw ipid Fruit and vegetables, No data No preferred value -TEQ/g fw PCDD/PCDF, Germany: 4.3-16.9 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid TEQ/g fw 0.029 Spain: 0.09-0.25 pg I-TEQDF/g ww lw (0.004-0.090) pg fw I-TEQ/g fw I-TEQ/g fw lipid /g fw TEQ/g dm ,Q/g fw See vegetables No data No data See vegetables id PCDD/PCDF, 0.019 Europe: No data [-TEQ/g ww (0.01-0.02) pg 1.34-2.66 pg See vegetables 2/g lipid I-TEQ/g fw I-TEQ/g lipid PCB, 0.11 pg )g TEQwHOg4/g fw rues. detection resent at 59 and 3-60. kit, dm= gency pecies by referred

278 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-26 U.S. Mean Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Toxicity Equivalents (TEQ) Concentrations in Beef, Pork, Young Chickens, and Milk Young Description Beef Pork Chickens Milk 1993-Present PCDD/PCDF, pg TEQ/g lipid 0.89 (0.35) 1.30 (0.46) 0.64 (0.41) 0.84 (0.84) 1993-Present PCB, pg TEQ/g lipid 0.51 (0.51) 0.06 (0.06) 0.28 (0.28) 0.43 (0.43) NOTE: Results assume nondetects = I/2 limit of detection; results calculated at nondetects = 0 shown in parentheses. TABLE A-27 Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Toxicity Equivalents (TEQ) Concentrations and Percent Differences from Current Levels Percent Difference Percent from Current Difference PCDD/PCDF PCB TEQ PCDD/PCDF from Current Description TEQ pg/g Lipid pg/g Lipid Levels PCB Levels 1908 Beef ration 0.34 (0.15) 0.07 (0.07) 38 (42) 15 (15) 1945 Beef and pork 0.98 (0.75) 0.36 (0.36) 89 (197) 140 (146) 1957 Dried cream 2.05 (0.81) 3.56 (3-54) 244 (96) 827 (824) 1968 Bacon bar 3.01 (2-94) 1.05 (1.05) 231 (638) 1,747 (2,620) 1968 Deviled ham 3.73 (3-71) 0.61 (0.61) 287 (805) 1,019 (1,529) 1971 Beef 1.36 (0.02) 2.48 (1.98) 153 (7) 540 (540) 1971 Bacon wafer 1.75 (1.62) 1.98 (1-98) 135 (352) 3,301 (4,952) 1977 Raw chicken 1.29 (1.18) 2.72 (2.72) 202 (287) 970 (970) 1977 Cooked chicken 1.33 (1.20) 2.83 (2.83) 209 (292) 1,009 (1,009) 1979 Pork slices 1.46 (1.20) 0.04 (0.04) 112 (262) 72 (105) 1980 Beef steak 0.94 (0.73) 0.93 (0.93) 106 (207) 203 (203) 1982 Ham slice 1.36 (1.04) 0.07 (0.07) 105 (227) 119 (178) 1983 Beef in barbeque 0.50 (0.03) 0.79 (0.79) 56 (8) 171 (171) 1983 Turkey with gravy 0.55 (0-23) 0.32 (0.31) 85 (57) 113 (113) NOTE: Results assume nondetects = I/2 limit of detection; results calculated at nondetects = 0 shown in parentheses.

APPENDIX A TABLE A-28 Sources of Dioxins in the United States, May 2000 279 Source 1987 1995 Emissions Emissions (g TEQDF wHOg8/Y) (g TEQDF wHOg8/Y) 2002/2004 Emissions (g TEQDF wHOg8/Y) Municipal solid waste incineration, air 8,877.0 Backyard barrel burning, air 604.0 Medical waste incineration, air 2,590.0 Secondary copper smelting, air 983.0 Cement kilns (hazardous waste), air 117.8 Sewage sludge/land applied, land Residential wood burning, air Coal-fired utilities, air Diesel trucks, air Secondary aluminum smelting, air 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, land Iron ore sintering, air Industrial wood burning, air Bleached pulp and paper mills, water Cement kilns (nonhazardous waste), air Sewage sludge incineration, air Endocrine disrupting chemicals/ vinyl chloride, air Oil-fired utilities, air Crematoria, air Unleaded gasoline, air Hazardous waste incineration, air Lightweight ag kilns, hazardous waste, air Kraft black liquor boilers, air Petrol refine catalyst reg., air Leaded gasoline, air Secondary lead smelting, air Paper mill sludge, land Cigarette smoke, air Endocrine disrupting chemicals/ vinyl chloride, land Endocrine disrupting chemicals/ vinyl chloride, water Boilers/industrial furnaces, air Tire combustion, air Drum reclamation, air Totals Reduction from 1987 76.6 89.6 50.8 27.8 16.3 33.4 32.7 26.4 356.0 13.7 6.1 NA 17.8 5.5 3.6 5.0 2.4 2.0 2.2 37.5 1.2 14.1 1.0 NA NA 0.8 0.1 0.1 1,250.0 628.0 488.0 271.0 156.1 76.6 62.8 60.1 35.5 29.1 28.9 28.0 27.6 19.5 17.8 14.8 11.2 10.7 9.1 5.9 5.8 3.3 2.3 2.2 2.0 1.7 1.4 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.1 13,995 3,252 77% 12.0 628.0 7.0 5.0 7.7 76.6 62.8 60.1 35.5 29.1 28.9 28.0 27.6 12.0 17.8 14.8 11.2 10.7 9.1 5.9 3.5 0.4 2.3 2.2 2.0 1.7 1.4 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.1 1,106 92% NOTE: TEQ = toxicity equivalents.

280 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY REFERENCES AEA Technology. 1999. Compilation of EU Dioxin Exposure and Health Data. Prepared for the European Commission DO Environment. Oxfordshire, England: AEA Technology. Ahlborg V, Becking G. Birnbaum L, Brower A, Derks HJGM, Feeley M, Golor G. Hanberg A, Larsen JC, Liem AKD, Safe SH, Schlatter C, Waern F. Younes M, Yrjanheikki E. 1994. Toxic equivalency factors for dioxin-like PCBs. Chemosphere 28:1049-1067. ATSDR. 1998. Toxicological Profile for Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins. Atlanta, GA: ATSDR. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1989. Interim Procedures for Estimating Risks Asso- ciated with Exposures to Mixtures of Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzo-furans (CDDs and CDFs) and 1989 Update. EPA/625/3-89.016. Washington, DC: EPA. EPA. 2000. Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds. Draft Final Report. Washington, DC: EPA. Fiedler H. Hutzinger O. Welsch-Pausch K, Schmiedinger A. 2000. Evaluation of the Occurrence of PCDD/PCDF and POPs in Wastes and Their Potential to Enter the Foodchain. Prepared for the European Commission DG Environment. Bayreuth, Germany: University of Bayreuth. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1997. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Volume 69: Polychlorinated Dibenzo-para-Dioxins and Poly- chlorinated Dibenzofurans. Lyon, France: World Health Organization. Scientific Committee on Food. 2000. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Risk Assessment of Dioxins and Dioxin-like PCBs in Food. European Commission, Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General. SCF/CS/CNTM/DIOXIN/8 Final. Brussels: Euro- pean Commission. Scientific Committee on Food. 2001. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Risk Assessment of Dioxins and Dioxin-like PCBs in Food. Update. European Commission, Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General. CS/CNTM/DIOXIN/20 Final. Brussels: Euro- pean Commission. van den Berg M, Birnbaum L, Bosveld AT, Brunstrom B. Cook P. Feeley M, Giesy JP, Hanberg A, Hasegawa R. Kennedy SW, Kubiak T. Larsen JC, van Leeuwen FX, Liem AK, Nolt C, Peterson RE, Poellinger L, Safe S. Schrenk D, Tillitt D, Tysklind M, Younes M, Waern F. Zacharewski T. 1998. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environ Health Perspect 106:775-792.

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Dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, or DLCs, are found throughout the environment, in soil, water, and air. People are exposed to these unintentional environmental contaminants primarily through the food supply, although at low levels, particularly by eating animal fat in meat, dairy products, and fish. While the amount of DLCs in the environment has declined since the late 1970s, the public continues to be concerned about the safety of the food supply and the potential adverse health effects of DLC exposure, especially in groups such as developing fetuses and infants, who are more sensitive to the toxic effects of these compounds.

Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply: Strategies to Decrease Exposure, recommends policy options to reduce exposure to these contaminants while considering how implementing these options could both reduce health risks and affect nutrition, particularly in sensitive and highly exposed groups, if dietary changes are suggested.

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