Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
References Abbotts, B., and L. Osborn.1993. Immunization Status and Reasons for Immunization Delay Among Children Using Public Health Immunization Clinics. American Journal of Dis- eases of Children 147~9~:965-968. Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy [AHSRHP]. 2001. Understanding the Dynamics of "Crowd-Out": Defining Public/Private Coverage Substitution for Policy and Research. Washington, DC: Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy. American Academy of Family Physicians.2001. Letter to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (December 19~. American Academy of Pediatrics. 2001a. Letter to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Ser- vices (December 21~. . 2001b. Letter to the Occupational Health and Safety Administration [OSHA] July 25~. _. 2002. Medicaid Reimbursement Survey, 2001: 50 States and the District of Columbia. No date. Accessed online November 29, 2002 at http://www.aap.org/research/medreim PDF01 /all_states.PDF. . 2003. Mandated Insurance Coverage of Childhood Vaccines (March 8~. American Association of Health Plans. 2002. Vaccine Purchasing Survey (August). American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine. 2001. Letter to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (September 26~. Arnould, R., and L. DeBrock. 1993. Equilibrium Outcomes in Vaccine Markets and the Im- plications for Policy Initiatives. In: Supplying Vaccines: An Economic Analysis of Critical Issues. Pauly, M., C. Robinson, S. Sepe, M. Sing, and M. Willian (eds.~. London: IOS Press. _. 2002. An Overview of the Market for Vaccines in the United States. Unpublished. (Avail- able from IOM.) Aventis Pasteur. 2002. Aventis Pasteur. Email Communication from C. Grant. November 22. (Available from IOM.) Bates, A., and F. Wolinsky. 1998. Personal, Financial, and Structural Barriers to Immuniza- tion in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Urban Children. Pediatrics 101~4~:591-596. Batson, A. 2001. Understanding the Vaccine Market and Its Economics: Obstacles and Potential Solutions. Presentation to the Out of the Box Group, July 26, 2001. 211
212 FINANCING VACCINES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Boyd, T., R. Linkins, K. Mason, I. Bulim, and B. Lemke. 2002. Assessing Immunization Reg- istry Data Completeness in Bexar County, Texas. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 22~3~:184-187. Brichacek, A. 2001. Vaccine Worries. Pharmaceutical Executive 21. Briss, P., S. Zaza, and M. Pappaioanou. 2000. Reviews of Evidence regarding Interventions to Improve Vaccination Coverage in Children, Adolescents and Adults. American Jour- nal of Preventive Medicine 18~1S):97-140. Bureau of Labor Statistics.2003. Tables from the Current Population Survey, March 2001. Email from P. Willis, July 15. (Available from IOM.) Butler, P. 2000. ERISA and State Health Care Access Initiatives: Opportunities and Barriers. New York: The Commonwealth Fund. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1984. Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine Shortage United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 33~49~:695-696. . 1991. Food and Drug Administration Approval of Use of Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 40~50~:881-882. . 1992. Acellular Pertussis Vaccine for Reinforcing and Booster Use B Supplementary ACIP Statement. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 41(RR-1~:1-10. . 1997. United States Vaccine Research: A Delicate Fabric of Public and Private Collaboration. Accessed June 1, 2003. Available at: www.cdc.gov/od/nvpo/delfab.pdf. . 1998. National, State, and Urban Area Vaccination Coverage Levels Among Children Aged 19-35 Months United States, July 19961une 1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 47~6~:108-116. .1999a. Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination Rates Among Persons with Diabetes Mellitus United States, 1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48~42~:961-967. . l999b. Reasons Reported by Medicare Beneficiaries for Not Receiving Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48~39~:556-560. . 2000. National, State, and Urban Area Vaccination Coverage Levels Among Children Aged 19-35 Months United States, 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 49~26~:585-589. _. 2001a. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Policies and Procedures, (December 28, 2001~. . 2001b. ACIP Votes to Temporarily Revise Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV-7) and Votes to Continue Previously Issued Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) Recommendations. Accessed December 7, 2003. Available at: http: / / www.cdc.gov/nip /news/shortages/pneumo-and-dtap.htm. . 2002a. National, State, and Urban Area Vaccination Coverage Levels Among Chil- dren Aged 19-35 Months United States, 2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 51~3~:664-666. . 2002b. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2000. National Vital Statistics Reports 50~16~. _. 2002c. READII Handout, National Partnership for Immunization Congressional Edu- cation Session Quly 31~. . 2002d. Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination Levels Among Persons Aged > 65 Years United States, 2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 51~45~:1019-1024. . 2002e. Email from K. Edwards, March 1. (Available from IOM.) _. 2002f. Data from the 2002 National Immunization Survey. Email from A. Bhatt, De- cember 17. (Available from IOM.) .2002g. Data from the 2002 National Immunization Survey. Email from L. Rodewald, November 4. (Available from IOM.) . 2002h. Data from the 2002 National Immunization Survey. Email from P. Smith, June 26. (Available from IOM.)
REFERENCES 213 .2002i. Data from unpublished CDC report. Email from A. Bhatt, December 16. (Avail- able from IOM.) .2002j. Vaccine Development and Testing. Vaccine Fact Sheets. Accessed July 27,2002. Available at: www.cdc.gov/od/nvpo/fs_tableII_docl.htm. .2002k. Vaccine Product Approval Process. Vaccine Fact Sheets. Accessed July 27,2002. Available at: www.cdc.gov/od/nvpo/fs_tableII_doc2.htm. . 20021. Vaccine price data complied by CDC. Emails from R. Ellington between July and September 2002. (Available from IOM.) . 2002m. Email from R. Ellington, July 26. (Available from IOM.) _. 2002n. Comments from D. O'Mara on December 1993 Abt Report Titled: Cost-Effec- tiveness Study of Medicare Coverage of Influenza Vaccine, July. Unpublished. (Avail- able from IOM.) . 2003a. Email from A. Bhatt, June 20, 2003. (Available from IOM.) . 2003b. Estimated Vaccination Coverage With Individual Vaccines and Selected Vaccination Series by 24 Months of Age by Immunization Action Plan Area U.S.A., National Immuniza- tion Survey. Accessed April 16,2003. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nip/coverage/ NIS / 98-99 / 24months_urb . xls. . 2003c. Email from A. Bhatt, April 4. (Available from IOM.) __. 2003d. CDC Vaccine Price List. Accessed April 1, 2003. Available at: http:// www.cdc.gov/nip/vfc/cdc_vac_price_list.htm. . 2003e. Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule, United States, 2002. Accessed March 28, 2003. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule- twopages.pdf. .2003f. Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule, 2002-2003. Accessed March 28,2003. Available at: http: / /www.cdc.gov/nip /recs/adult-schedule. . 2003g. Email from A. Bhatt, July 10. (Available from IOM.) . 2003h. Current Vaccine Delays and Shortages. Accessed March 28, 2003. Available at: http: / /www.cdc.gov/nip/news/shortages/default.htm#Which. Clarke, B.2002. Presentation to Strengthening the Supply of Routinely Recommended Vaccines in the US, the National Vaccine Advisory Committee, Washington, DC (February 11~. Cohen, J. 2002. U.S. Vaccine Supply Falls Seriously Short. Science 295:1998-2001. Cohen, J.W., and P.J. Cunningham. 1995. Medicaid Physician Fee Levels and Children's Access to Care. Health Affairs 14~1~:255-262. Crawford, L. 2002. FDA's Role in Maintaining the Supply of Childhood Vaccines. Testimony Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate June 12~. Darden, P., J. Taylor, and D. Brooks. 1999. Polio Immunization Practices of Pediatricians. Paper Presented Before the Pediatric Academic Societies meeting, San Diego, Califor- nia. Davidson, A., P. Melinkovich, B. Beatty, V. Chandramouli, S. Hambridge, S. Phibbs, P. Braun, C. LeBaron, and J. Steiner. 2003. Immunization Registry Accuracy: Improvement with Progressive Clinical Application. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 24~3~:276-280. Davis, M., J. Zimmerman, R. Wheeler, and G. Freed. 2002. Childhood Vaccine Purchase Costs in the Public Sector: Past Trends, Future Expectations. American Journal of Public Health 92~12~:1982-1986. DeBrock, L., and H. Grabowski. 1985. Economic Aspects of Vaccine Innovation and Manu- facturing. In: Vaccine Supply and Innovation. Institute of Medicine. Pp. 45-64. Washing- ton, DC: National Academy Press. Dickey L., and D. Petitti. 1992. Patient-Held Minirecord to Promote Adult Preventive Care. Journal of Family Practice 34:457463. DiMasi, J., R. Hansen, and H. Grabowski, and L. Lasagna. 1991. Costs of Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Health Economics 10~2~:107-142.
214 FINANCING VACCINES IN THE 21ST CENTURY DiMasi, J., R. Hansen, and H. Grabowski. 2003. The Price of Innovation: New Estimates of Drug Development Costs. Journal of Health Economics 22~2~:325-330. Ekwueme, D., P. Strebel, S. Hadler, M. Meltzer, J. Allen, and J. Livengood. 2000. Economic Evaluation of the Use of Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) or Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccine (DTwP) in the United States, 1997. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 154:797-803. Ellis, R., and G. Douglas. 1994. Combination Vaccines. International Journal of Technology As- sessment in Health Care 10~1~:185-192. Fairbrother, G., and A. Haidery. 2002. Vaccine Purchase and Distribution: Proposed Changes in Vaccine Supply and Delivery Policies. Unpublished. (Available from IOM.) Fairbrother, G., S. Friedman, K. Dumont, and K. Lobach. 1996. Markers for Primary Care: Missed Opportunities to Immunize and Screen for Lead and Tuberculosis by Private Physicians Serving Large Numbers of Inner-City Medicaid-Eligible Children. Pediatrics 97~6 Pt 1~:785-790. Fairbrother, G., S. Friedman, K. Hanson, and G. Butts. 1997. Effect of the Vaccines for Chil- dren Program on Inner-City Neighborhood Physicians. Archives of Pediatric and Adoles- cent Medicine 151~12~:1229-1235. Fairbrother, G., K. Hanson, S. Friedman, and G. Butts. 1999. The Impact of Physician Bo- nuses, Enhanced Fees, and Feedback on Childhood Immunization Coverage Rates. American Journal of Public Health 89~2~:171-175. Fairbrother, G., H. Kuttner, W. Miller, R. Hogan, H. McPhillips, K. Johnson, and E. Alexander. 2000. Findings from Case Studies of State and Local Immunization Pro- grams. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 19~3 Supplement):54-77. Federal Funds Information for States. 2002. Growth in Federal Grants for Immunization, Issue Brief 02-58. November 7, 2002. Fee, E., and T. Brown. 2002. The Unfulfilled Promise of Public Health: Deja Vu All Over Again. Health Affairs 21~6~:3143. Feikema, S., R. Klevens, M. Washington, and L. Barker. 2000. Extraimmunization Among U.S. Children. Journal of the American Medical Association 283~10~:1311-1317. Felton, H. 1957. Pertussis: Current Status of Prevention and Treatment. Pediatric Clinics of North America 31:271-283. Fielding, J., W. Cumberland, and L. Pettitt. 1994. Immunization Status of Children of Em- ployers in a Large Corporation. Journal of the American Medical Association 271:525-530. Fine, A. 2003. Diphtheria, Tetanus and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP): A Case Study. Unpub- lished. (Available from IOM.) Finkelstein, A. 2003. Health Policy and Technological Change: Evidencefrom the Vaccine Industry. Working Paper 9460. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Fontanesi, J., M. DeGuire, M. Holcomb, and M. Sawyer. 2001. The Cost to Immunize During Well-Child Visits. American Journal of Medical Quality 16~6~:196-201. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2003. Product Approval Letter to MedImmune Vaccines, Inc., dated June 17, 2003. Accessed July 10, 2003. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ cber/approvltr/inflmedO61703L.htm. . 2002. New Pediatric Combination Vaccine Approved. FDA Talk Paper. Accessed Decem- ber 16, 2002. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ANSWERS/2002/ ANSO1181.html. Foulkes, M., and S. Ellenberg. 2002. Vaccine Efficacy and Safety Evaluation. In: National Insti- tutes of Health. The Jordan Report. France, E. 2000. Vaccine Financing: The View of Managed Care. American Journal of Preven- tive Medicine 19~3 Supplement):23-25. Freed, G., and A. Cowan. 2002. State-Level Perspectives on Vaccine Purchase Financing. Decem- ber 2002. Unpublished. (Available from IOM.)
REFERENCES 215 Freed, G., S. Clark, D. Pathman, R. Schectman, and J. Serling. 1999. Impact of North Caro- lina's Universal Vaccine Purchase Program by Children's Insurance Status. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 153:748-754. Freed, G., S. Clark, and A. Cowan. 2000. State-Level Perspectives on Immunization Policies, Practices, and Program Financing in the 1990s. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 19~3 Supplement):32-44. Freed, G., M. Davis, M. Andreae, S. Bass, and H. Weinblatt. 2002a. Reimbursement for Prevnar: A Modern-Day Version of Hercules and the Hydra. Pediatrics 110~2 Pt 1~:399- 400. Freed, G., M. Andreae, A. Cowan, and S. Katz. 2002b. The Process of Public Policy Formula- tion: The Case of Thimerosal in Vaccines. Pediatrics 109~6~:1153-1159. Freeman, P., and A. Robbins. 1991. The Elusive Promise of Vaccines. The American Prospect 93. Gabel, J., A. Sasso, and T. Rice. 2002. Consumer-Driven Health Plans: Are They More Than Talk Now? Health Affairs 21~1~:W395-W407. Gangarosa, E., A. Galazka, C. Wolfe, L. Phillips, R. Gangarosa, E. Miller, and R. Chen. 1998. Impact of Anti-Vaccine Movements on Pertussis Control: The Untold Story. The Lancet 351:356-361. General Accounting Office. 1995. Reexamination of Program Goals and Implementation Needed to Ensure Vaccination. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office. . 2001. Health Centers and Rural Health Clinics: Payments Likely to Be Constrained Under Medicaid's New System. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office June). . 2002. Childhood Vaccines: Ensuring an Adequate Supply Poses Continuing Challenges. 2002. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office. GlaxoSmithKline. 2002. Letter to the U.S. General Accounting Office (April 30~. Glazner, J., J. Steiner, K. Haas, B. Renfrew, M. Deutchman, and S. Berman. 2001. Is Reim- bursement for Childhood Immunizations Adequate? Evidence from Two Rural Areas in Colorado. Public Health Reports 116~3~:219-225. Glode, M. 2001. Combination vaccines: Practical Considerations for Public Health and Pri- vate Practice. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 20~11~:Sl9-S22 (November). Gold, M., L. Russet, J. Siegel, and M. Weinstein (eds.~. 1996. Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Grabowski, H., and J. Vernon. 1997. The Search for New Vaccines: The Effects of the Vaccines for Children Program. Washington, DC: AEI Press. Grabowski, H., and J. Vernon. 2000. The distribution of Sales Revenue from Pharmaceutical Innovation. PharmacoEconomics 18(Supplement 1~:21-32. Hay, J., and D. Zammit. 2002. Vaccine Policy Perspectives: Market Strategies. Unpublished. (Available from IOM.) Hirschler, B. 2002. Vaccine Renaissance Outpaces Sickly Drug Industry. Reuters News Ser- vice, December 5, 2002. Home, P., K. Saarlas, and A. Hinman. 2000. Costs of Immunization Registries: Experiences From the All Kids Count Projects. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 19~2~:94-98. Hughart, N., D. Strobino, E. Holt, B. Guyer, W. Hou, A. Huq, and A. Ross. 1999. The Relation of Parent and Provider Characteristics to Vaccination Status of Children in Private Prac- tices and Managed Care Organizations in Maryland. Medical Care 37~1~:44-55. Huse, D., H. Meissner, M. Lacey, and G. Oster. 1994. Childhood Vaccination Against Chickenpox and Analysis of Benefits and Costs. Journal of Pediatrics 124:869-874. Institute of Medicine. 1985. Vaccine Supply and Innovation. Washington, DC: National Acad- emy Press. . 1993. The Children's Vaccine Initiative. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
216 FINANCING VACCINES IN THE 21ST CENTURY . 1995. The Children's Vaccine Initiative: Continuing Activities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. . 2000a. Calling the Shots. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. . 2000b. Vaccines for the 21st Century: A Tool for Decisionmaking. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. . 2001. Council of the Institute of Medicine Statement on Vaccine Development. Washington, DC (November 5~. . 2002a. Setting the Course: Part 1-Summary of the Chicago Workshop. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. . 2002b. Setting the Course: Part 2-Summary of the Austin Workshop. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. . 2002c. Health Insurance Is a Family Matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. . 2002d. Fostering Rapid Advances in Health Care. Washington, DC: The National Acad- emies Press. . 2002e. Protecting Our Forces: Improving Vaccine Acquisition and Availability in the U.S. Military. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. . 2003a. Setting the Course: Part 3-Summary of the Los Angeles Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. . 2003b. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The Na- tional Academies Press. Ives, D., J. Lave, N. Traven, and L. Kuller. 1994. Impact of Medicare Reimbursement on Influenza Vaccination Rates in the Elderly. Preventive Medicine 23~2~:134-141. Jacobs, R., and A. Meyerhoff. 2001. Comparative Cost Effectiveness of Varicella, Hepatitis A, and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines. Preventive Medicine 33:639-645. Johnson, A. 2002. Presentation to the Working Group on Cell Culture-Based Influenza Vaccines (August 14~. Johnson, K., A. Sardell, and B. Richards. 2000. Federal Immunization Policy and Funding: A History of Responding to Crises. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 19~3S):99-112. Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust [KFF-HRET]. 2002. Employer Health Benefits. 2002 Annual Survey. Washington, DC. Kelly, D., B. Barnow, W.Gold, and L. Aron, 1993. An Analysis of the Federal and State Roles in the Immunization of Preschool Children. Washington, DC: Lewin-VHI January 18~. Kremer, M. 1998. Patent Buyouts: A Mechanism for Encouraging Innovation. Quarterly Jour- nal of Economics 113~4~:1137-1167. . 2000a. Creating Markets for New Vaccines. Part II: Design Issues. Working Paper 7716. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. . 2000b. Creating Markets for New Vaccines. Part I: Rationale. Working Paper 7716. Cam- bridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Ladd, H., and J. Hansen (eds.~. 1999. Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools. Wash- ington, DC: National Academy Press. Laffont, J. 1994. The New Economics of Regulation Ten Years After. Econometrica 623:507- 537. Lane, K. 2002. Presentation to Strengthening the Supply of Routinely Recommended Vaccines in the US, the National Vaccine Advisory Committee, Washington, DC (February 11~. Le. C. 2001. Combination Vaccines; Choices or Chaos? A Practitioners Perspective. Clinical Infectious Diseases 33(Supplement 4~:S367-S371. LeBaron, C., L. Rodewald, and S. Humiston. 1999. How Much Time Is Spent on Well-Child Care and Vaccinations?" Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 153:1154-1159. Lett, S. 2002. Presentation to the Work Group on Public Health Options for Implementing Vaccine Recommendations Town Hall Meeting, Boston, April 18, 2002.
REFERENCES 217 Lichtenberg, F. 2002. Trends in Vaccine Prices, 1992-2002. Unpublished. (Available from IOM.) Lieu, T., S. Cochi, S. Black, E. Halloran, H. Shinefield, S. Holmes, M. Wharton, and E. Wash- ington. 1994a. Cost-Effectiveness of a Routine Varicella Vaccination Program for US Children. Journal of the American Medical Association 271:375-381. Lieu, T., M. Smith, P. Newacheck, D. Langthorn, P. Venkatesh, and R. Herradora. 1994b. Health Insurance and Preventive Care Sources of Children at Public Immunization Clinics. Pediatrics 93~3~:373-378. Lieu, T., G. Ray, S. Black, J. Butler. J. Klein, R. Breiman, M. Miller, and H. Shinefield. 2000a. Projected Cost-Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination of Healthy In- fants and Young Children. Journal of the American Medical Association 283:1460-1468. Lieu, T., S. Black, G. Ray, K. Martin, H. Shinefield, and B. Weniger. 2000b. The Hidden Costs of Infant Vaccination. Vaccine 19~1~:3341. Luman, E., M. McCauley, S. Stokley, S. Chu, and L. Pickering. 2002. Timeliness of Childhood Vaccinations. Pediatrics 110~5~:935-939. Lumpkin, J., and M. Richards. 2002. Transforming the Public Health Information Infrastruc- ture. Health Affairs 21~6~:45-56. Lurie, N., W. Manning, C. Peterson, G. Goldberg, C. Phelps, and L. Lillard. 1987. Preventive Care: Do We Practice What We Preach? American Journal of Public Health 77~7~:801-804. Marketletter. 2002. Double-digit Growth Rates Elude Most Blockbuster Firms, Says Datamonitor. Marketletter (May 27~. Marks, J., T. Halpin, J. Irvin, D. Johnson, and J. Keller. 1979. Risk Factors Associated with Failure to Receive Vaccinations. Pediatrics 64~3~:304-309. Mason, D. 2002. An Update on DTaP, MMR, PCV-7, Varicella, and Other Vaccines for the U.S. Market. Presentation to the National Vaccine Advisory Committee Meeting of October 8. McGuire, T. 2003. Setting Prices for New Vaccines (In Advance). Unpublished. (Available through IOM.) Mercer Management Consulting. 2002. Lessons Learned: New Procurement Strategies for Vac- cines: Final Report to the GA VI Board. . 1995. Report on the United States Vaccine Industry. Report to the Department of Health and Human Services. Merck. 2002. Merck's Response to the IOM Committee. (Email from Maggie Keane, December 6~. Meyer, J., and E. Waldman. 2002. Under-Insured for Vaccines. Magnitude, Causes, and Conse- quences. Washington, DC: New Directions for Policy. Meyerhoff, A., B. Weniger, and R. Jacobs. 2001. Economic Value to Parents of Reducing the Pain and Emotional Distress of Childhood Vaccine Injections. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 20~11 Suppl):S57-S62. Miller, H. 2002. An Indefensible Epidemic. The Wall Street Journal (19 August). Miller, M., and A. Hinman. 1999. Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Vaccine Policy. In: Plotkin, S., and W. Orenstein (eds.~. Vaccines. London: W.B. Saunders. Mowery, D., and V. Mitchell. 1995. Improving the Reliability of the U.S. Vaccine Supply: An Evaluation of Alternatives. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 20~4~:973-1000. Nace, N., C. Larson, T. Lester, and J. Kosinski. 1999. Perceived Barriers to Childhood Immu- nization: A Physician and Parent Survey in a Southeastern Urban/Rural Community. Tennessee Medicine 92~7~:265-268. National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO). 2003. LPHA Infra- structure: A Chartbook. Accessed March 29, 2003. Available at: http: / /www.naccho.org/ files/documents/chartbook_programsl848.pdf.
218 FINANCING VACCINES IN THE 21ST CENTURY National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). 2000. Percentage of Persons Aged >18 Years Who Reported Receiving Influenza or Pneumococcal Vaccine or Tetanus Toxoid, By Age and Selected Characteristics-National Health Interview Survey, United States, 1999. Unpublished. (Available through IOM.) National Health Policy Forum. 2001. The Disappearing State Surpluses: How Come, How Long, and How Will They Affect Social Service Programs. Issue Brief No. 769. Washington, DC. National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2002. Improved Pertussis Vaccines: Enhancing Protection. Stories of Discovery. Accessed June 6, 2002. Available at: www.niaid.nih.gov/publica- tions / discovery/pertus.html. National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC). 1999. Development of Community- and State- Based Immunization Registries, January 12,1999. . 2003. Strengthening the Supply of Routinely Recommended Vaccines in the United States: A Report of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee Qanuary). Nexoe, J., Kragstrup, J., and T. Ronne. 1997. The Impact of Postal Invitations and User Fee on Influenza Vaccination Rates Among the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial in General Practice. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 15:109-112. Noble, G., R. Bernier, E. Esber, C. Hardegree, A. Hinman, D. Klein, and A. Saah. 1987. Acellu- lar and Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccines in Japan: Report of a Visit by US Scientists. Jour- nal of the American Medical Association 257~10~:1351-1356. Ohmit S., A. Furumoto-Dawson, A. Monto, and N. Fasano. 1995. Influenza Vaccine Use among an Elderly Population in a Community Intervention. American Journal of Preven- tive Medicine 11~4~:271-276. Oram R., R. Daum, J. Seal, and D. Lauderdale, 2001. Impact of Recommendations to Sus- pend the Birth Dose of Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine. Journal of the American Medical Asso- ciation 285~14~:1874-1879. Orenstein, W. 2002a. Protecting Our Kids: What is Causing the Current Shortage in Childhood Vaccines? Testimony to the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs Qune 6~. . 2002b. Vaccine Supply-CDC Concerns. Presentation to Strengthening the Supply of Rou- tinely Recommended Vaccines in the US, the National Vaccine Advisory Committee, Wash- ington, DC, February 11, 2002. Orenstein, W., A. Hinman, and L. Rodewald. 1999. Public Health Considerations-United States. In: Plotkin, S., and W. Orenstein (eds.~. Vaccines. London: W.B. Saunders. Ortega, A., D. Stewart, S. Dowshen, and S. Katz. 2000. The Impact of a Pediatric Medical Home on Immunization Coverage. Clinical Pediatrics 39~2~:89-96. Pauly, M., and B. Cleff. 1995. The Economics of Vaccine Policy: An Overview of the Issues. In: Supplying Vaccines: An Economic Analysis of Critical Issues. Pauly, M., C. Robinson, S. Sepe, M. Sing, and M. Willian (eds.~. London: IOS Press. Pellissier, J., P. Coplan, L. Jackson, and J. May. 2000. The Effect of Additional Shots on the Vaccine Administration Process: Results of a Time-Motion Study in 2 Settings. Ameri- can Journal of Managed Care 6~9~:1038-1044. Pisano, W. 2002. Strengthening the Supply of Routinely Recommended Vaccines in the US. Pre- sentation to the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (February 11-12~. Pleis, J., and J. Gentleman. 2002. Using the National Health Interview Survey: Time Trends in Influenza Vaccination Among Targeted Adults. Effective Clinical Practice 5~3 Suppl):E3. Preblud, S., W. Orenstein, J. Koplin, K. Bart, and A. Hinman. 1986. A Benefit-Cost Analysis of a Childhood Varicella Vaccination Programme. Postgraduate Medicine Journal 61:17- 22. Rappuoli, R., H. Miller, and S. Faldow. 2002. The Intangible Value of Vaccination. Science 297:937-939.
REFERENCES 219 Rask, K., K. Wells, S. Kohler, C. Rust, and C. Cangialose. 2000. The Cost to Providers of Participating in an Immunization Registry. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 19~2~:99-103. Robinson, J. 2002. Renewed Emphasis on Consumer Cost Sharing on Health Insurance Ben- efit Design. Health Affairs 21~3~:W139-W154. Rodewald L., P. Szilagyi, J. Holl, L. Shone, J. Zwanziger, and R. Raubertas. 1997. Health Insurance for Low-Income Working Families. Effect on the Provision of Immunizations to Preschool-Age Children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 151~8~:798-803. Rogerson, W. 1994. Economic Incentives and the Defense Procurement Process. Journal of Economic Perspectives 8~4~:65-90. Ruch-Ross, H., and K. O'Connor. 1994. Immunization Referral Practices of Pediatricians in the United States. Pediatrics 94~4 Pt 1~:508-513. Santoli, J., P. Szilagyi, and L. Rodewald. 1998. Barriers to Immunization and Missed Oppor- tunities. Pediatric Annals 27~6~:366-374. Satterthwaite, P. 1997. A Randomized Intervention Study to Examine the Effect on Immuni- zation Coverage of Making Influenza Vaccine Available at No Cost. New Zealand Medi- cal Journal 110~1038~:58-60. Scherer, F. 2001. The Link Between Gross Profitability and Pharmaceutical R&D Spending. Health Affairs September/October:216-220. Schulte, J., G. Bown, M. Zetzman, B. Schwartz, H. Green, C. Haley, and R. Anderson. 1991. Changing Immunization Referral Patterns Among Pediatricians, Dallas County, Texas, 1988. Pediatrics 87~2~:204-207. Schultz, J. 2003. Success of Vaccine Offers Promise of Cervical Cancer Prevention. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 95~2~:102-104. Schwartz, B., and W. Orenstein. 2001. Vaccination Policies and Programs: The Federal Government's Role in Making the System Work. Primary Care 28~4~:697-711. Shalala, D. 1993. Testimony to the Joint Hearing Before the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources and the House Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce (April 21~. Sing, M., and M. Willian. 1996. Supplying Vaccines: An Overview of the Market and Regu- latory Context. In: Pauly, M., C. Robinson, S. Sepe, M. Sing, and M. Willian (eds.~. Supplying Vaccines: An Economic Analysis of Critical Issues. London: IOS Press. SmithKline Beecham. 2000. Development of DTaP-based Hib conjugate combination vaccines: SmithKline Beecham presentation to Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Com- mittee, CBER, FDA danuary 27~. St. Peter, R., P. Newacheck, and N. Halfon. 1992. Access to Care for Poor Children: Separate and Unequal? Journal of the American Medical Association 267:2760-2764. Stille, C., and J. Christison-Lagay. 2000. Determining Immunization Rates for Inner-City Infants: Statewide Registry Data vs. Medical Record Review. American Journal of Public Health 90(10~:1613-1615. Stokely, S., L. Rodewald, and E. Maes. 2001. The Impact of Record Scattering on the Mea- surement of Immunization Coverage. Pediatrics 107~1~:91-96. Swartz, K. 2003. How Insurance Companies and Health Plans Are Planning for New Vaccines. Unpublished. (Available from IOM.) Szilagyi, P., and L. Rodewald. 1996. Missed Opportunities for Immunizations: A Review of the Evidence. Journal of Public Health Management Practice 2~1~:18-25. Szilagyi, P., S. Huniston, L. Shone, M. Kolasa, and L. Rodewald. 2000a. Decline in Physician Referrals to Health Department Clinics for Immunizations: The Role of Vaccine Financ- ing. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 18~4~:318-324.
220 FINANCING VACCINES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Szilagyi, P., S. Humiston, L. Shone, R. Barth, M. Kolasa, and L. Rodewald. 2000b. Impact of Vaccine Financing on Vaccinations Delivered by Health Department Clinics. American Journal of Public Health 90~5~:739-745. Tatande, M., V. Dietz, M. Lewin, and E. Zell. 1996. Health Care Characteristics and Their Association with the Vaccination Status of Children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 150(Supple 4~:abstract 161. Taylor, J., P. Darden, E. Slora, C. Hasemeier, L. Asmussen, and R. Wasserman. 1997. The Influence of Provider Behavior, Parental Characteristics, and a Public Policy Initiative on the Immunization Status of Children Followed by Private Pediatricians: A Study from Pediatric Research in Office Settings. Pediatrics 99~2~:209-215. Thompson, W., D. Shay, E. Weintraub, L. Brammer, N. Cox, L. Anderson, and K. Fukuda. 2003. Mortality Associated with Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association 289~2~:179-186. Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development. 2001. Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development Pegs Cost of a New Prescription Medicine at $802 Million. Press Release (November 30~. UnitedHealthcare. 2002. UnitedHealthcare. Letter from C. Lund to G. Martens, State of Con- necticut Quly 2~. U.S. Census Bureau. 2002. Health Insurance Coverage: 2001. Current Population Reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau (September). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2000. Healthy People 2010. Washington, DC. . 2003. President to Propose Improvements in Childhood Vaccine Programs. Press Release January 25~. Wendland-Bowyer, W., and E. Askari. 2002. Vaccine Rule Could Hurt Kids: Public Health Agencies Can Turn Away the Insured. Detroit Free Press Quly 1~. Wood, D. 2003. Estimating Needfor Publicly Purchased Vaccine for Adults and Children. Unpub- lished. (Available from IOM.) Wood, D., and N. Halfon. 1996. The Impact of the Vaccine for Children's Program on Child Immunization Delivery. A Policy Analysis. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 150~6~:577-581. Wyeth Pharmaceuticals. 2002. Wyeth Ceases Production of Its Injectable Influenza Vaccine and Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine. Press Release (November 19, 2002~. Zhou, F., K. Bisgard, H. Yusuf, R. Deuson, S. Bath, and T. Murphy. 2002. Impact of Universal Haemophilus influenzue Type b Vaccination Starting at 2 Months of Age in the United States: An Economic Analysis. Pediatrics 110~4~:653-661 (October). Zhou, F., S. Reef, M. Massoudi, M. Papania, H. Yusuf, B. Bardenheier, L. Zimmerman, and M. McCauley. In press. An Economic Analysis of the Current Universal 2-Dose MMR Vaccination Program in the United States. Zimmerman, R., A. Medsger, E. Ricci, M. Raymund, T. Mieczkowski, and S. Grufferman. 1997. Impact of Free Vaccine and Insurance Status on Physician Referral of Children to Public Vaccine Clinics. Journal of the American Medical Association 278~12~:996-1000. Zimmerman, R., T. Mieczkowski, and M. Michel. 1999. Are Vaccination Rates Higher If Pro- viders Receive Free Vaccines and Follow Contraindication Guidelines? Family Medicine 31~5~:317-323. Zimmerman, R., S. Van Cleve, A. Medsger, R. Mahlon, and J. Ball. 2000. Does the Vaccines for Children Program Influence Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Referral of Disadvantaged Children to Public Vaccine Clinics? Maternal and Child Health Journal 4~1~:53-58. Zimmerman, R., T. Mieczkowski, H. Mainzer, A. Medsger, R. Mahlon, J. Ball, and I. Jewell. 2001. Effect of the Vaccines for Children Program on Physician Referral of Children to Public Vaccine Clinics: A Pre-Post Comparison. Pediatrics 108~2~:297-304.