Natalia Andronova is a research scientist with the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois. Her research interests center around the fields of global and regional climate change, interactions between climate and the chemical composition of atmosphere, feedbacks in the climate-chemistry system, and the response of the climate-chemistry system to different radiative forcings, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Her current research interest is in using simple climate models and a complicated climate-chemistry model to detect and attribute climate change. Her recent work has included use of a simple climate model to perform a statistical estimation of the uncertainties of the climate sensitivity, in which it was found that the 90 percent confidence interval for climate sensitivity is 1.0- 9.3°C, and that the magnitude of the climate sensitivity critically depended on historical changes in solar irradiance.
Rosina M. Bierbaum is the dean of the University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment and professor of natural resources and environmental policy. Previously, she served as acting director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) in the Executive Office of the President. Before her appointment as acting director, she was the OSTP associate director for environment, serving as the administration’s senior scientific adviser on environmental research and development on a wide range of issues, including global change, air and water quality, ecosystem management, and energy research and development. Dr. Bierbaum worked closely with the President’s National Science and Technology Council and co-chaired its Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources. She is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and served on the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable of the National Academy of Sciences.
Anthony J. Broccoli is a research meteorologist in the Climate Dynamics Group of the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. His research interests focus on climate modeling, with particular emphasis on the simulation of past climates and climate change, and the use of such simulations to evaluate climate model performance. His current research projects include simulation of the climate of the last glacial maximum; orbital forcing of climate variations during the last glacial cycle; extratropical forcing of tropical interhemispheric asymmetry; and diagnosis of climate model feedbacks and sensitivity. He recently began a new position on the faculty of Rutgers University in the Department of Environmental Sciences.
William D. Collins is an atmospheric scientist in the Climate and Global Dynamics Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. His doctoral dissertation in astrophysics was granted by the University of Chicago in 1989. He serves as the chair of the Atmospheric Radiation Committee for the American Meteorological Society and as co-chair of the Atmospheric Model Working Group at NCAR. Dr. Collins also teaches as an adjunct professor in the Program of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at the University of Colorado. His research interests are the role of clouds and aerosols in climate change; the development of new methods for modeling clouds and aerosols in GCMs; and fundamental aspects of radiative transfer in the terrestrial atmosphere.
Jonathan Gregory earned his Ph.D. in experimental particle physics at the University of Birmingham and joined the climate change group at the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research in 1990. In autumn 2001 he was a visiting scientist in the climate modeling group at the University of Victoria. Dr. Gregory currently manages the Hadley Centre research theme on predictions and understanding of climate change. He has worked on analyses of many aspects of climate change, in particular sea-level rise; ocean heat uptake, climate sensitivity; and changes in the thermohaline circulation, sea ice, and extremes of daily precipitation. He was joint coordinating lead author of the sea-level chapter of the IPCC Third Assessment Report. He has also been involved in the development of the Hadley Centre AOGCMs, especially the sea ice and coupling components, of the data analysis and database software used at the Hadley Centre, and of a common metadata standard for data exchange among climate centers.
Jerry D. Mahlman is a senior research fellow at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado. He was director of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Princeton, New Jersey, for 16 years before his retirement in 2000. He was also a professor in atmospheric and oceanic sciences at Princeton University for 28 years. Much of Dr. Mahlman’s research career has been directed toward understanding the behavior of the stratosphere and troposphere. This has involved extensive mathematical modeling and diagnosis of the interactive chemical, radiative, dynamical, and transport aspects of the atmosphere, as well as their implications for climate and chemical change. Over the past decade, he has occupied a central role in the interpretation of climate change to policy makers and affected communities. Dr. Mahlman has served on numerous committees and boards including the NASA Advisory Council and the Board on Sustainable Development of the National Research Council. In 1994 he received the prestigious Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal from the American Meteorological Society and the Presidential Distinguished Rank Award—the highest honor awarded to a federal employee. He received his Ph.D. from Colorado State University.
Michael E. Mann is assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia. Dr. Mann was a lead author on the “Observed Climate Variability and Change” chapter of the IPCC Third Assessment Report (and a contributor to several other chapters). He is a member of numerous international and U.S. scientific advisory panels and steering groups. He currently serves as an editor of the Journal of Climate. Dr. Mann’s research focuses on the application of statistical techniques to understanding climate variability and climate change from both empirical and climate model-based perspectives. A specific area of current research is paleoclimate data synthesis and statistically based climate pattern reconstruction during past centuries using climate proxy data networks. A primary focus of this research is deducing empirically the long-term behavior of the climate system and its relationship to possible external (including anthropogenic) forcings of climate. His other areas of active research include model-based simulation of natural climate variability, climate model-data intercomparison, and long-range climate forecasting.
Michael J. Prather is a professor in the Earth System Science Department at the University of California, Irvine. He received his Ph.D. in astronomy from Yale University. His research interests include simulation of the physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine atmospheric composition, and the development of detailed numerical models of photochemistry and atmospheric radiation and global chemical transport models that describe ozone and other trace gases. Dr. Prather has played a significant role in the IPCC’s second and third assessments and its special report on aviation and in the World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO) Ozone Assessments (1985-1994). He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and a foreign member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters; he has served on several NRC committees, including BASC’s Panel on Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales.
Joyce Penner is a professor of atmospheric, oceanic, and space sciences at the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor. She is a former leader of the Global Climate Research Division at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. She is an associate editor for the Journal of Geophysical Research and the Journal of Climate. She was recently elected to the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution and has served on numerous committees of the National Academies. Professor Penner has ongoing research relating to improving climate models through the addition of interactive chemistry and the description of aerosols and their direct and indirect effects on the radiation balance in climate models. These models run in both a parallel computing environment and vector supercomputers. She has an ongoing interest in urban, regional, and global tropospheric chemistry and budgets, cloud and aerosol interactions and cloud microphysics; climate and climate change, and model development and interpretation.
Venkatchalam Ramaswamy is a senior scientist and leader of the Atmospheric Processes Group at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. He is also a professor in the Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program at Princeton University. His principal research interests are modeling of climate, its variations, and change; diagnostic analyses of models and observations to understand climate processes; radiative and climatic effects due to greenhouse gases and aerosols; chemistry-climate interactions; natural and anthropogenic perturbations of climate; and understanding the interactions linking water vapor, clouds, and climate. He has served as lead author for numerous reports of the IPCC (1992, 1995, 1996, and 2001) and the WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion (1992, 1994, 1999, and 2002). He is also project leader for the World Climate Research Program—
Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC) project on Stratospheric Temperature Trends and had served on several panels of the National Academies.
Eugene M. Rasmusson is a research professor emeritus at the University of Maryland. In 1999, Dr. Rasmusson was awarded membership in the National Academy of Engineering. His research expertise lies broadly in general climatology with an emphasis on seasonal-to-interannual climate variability. Dr. Rasmusson’s NRC experience includes chairing the Climate Research Committee and membership on the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, the Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Panel, the Panel on Model-Assimilated Data Sets for Atmospheric and Oceanic Research, the Committee on USGS Water Resources Research, and the Advisory Panel for the Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Program.
Michael Schlesinger is professor of atmospheric sciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Professor Schlesinger directs the Climate Research Group within the Department of Atmospheric Sciences. He is an expert in the modeling simulation and analysis of climate and climate change, with interests in simulating and understanding past, present, and possible future climates, climate impacts, and climate policy. He carried out the first detailed comparison of climate and climate changes simulated by different atmospheric general circulation models and has led the development of tropospheric GCMs, stratospheric-tropospheric GCMs, oceanic GCMs, and a variety of simpler climate models, including the energy balance climate/upwelling-diffusion ocean model with which he made projections of global temperature change for the 1990 IPCC report. His research currently focuses on estimating the temperature sensitivity of the earth’s climate system; determining the effects on past and future climate of the sun, sulfate aerosols, and natural variability; simulating and understanding the onset of the last ice age; performing integrative assessment of climate change; and understanding the roles of clouds in climate and climate change.
Peter Stone is a professor of climate dynamics in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences. He is an expert in atmospheric dynamics who has made important contributions to the development of climate models of all kinds, ranging from the simplest one-dimensional process models to full-scale three-dimensional general circulation models. He is a member of the team that developed the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation climate model and has been applying it to climate change problems. He is the director of MIT’s Climate Modeling Initiative, which is engaged in developing a new state-of-the-art three-dimensional climate model, with a focus on studies of the predictability of climate. He is involved in many studies aimed at understanding dynamical transports of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and oceans and how they affect climate sensitivity. These studies include the development and analysis of simple climate models and coupled atmosphere-ocean models, diagnostic studies of the general circulation of the atmosphere, and numerical studies of the interaction of baroclinic eddies with mean flows.
Tom M. L. Wigley formerly director of the Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich, U.K., currently holds a senior scientist position with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado. His research interests span diverse aspects of the broad field of climatology, including carbon cycle modeling; projections of future climate and sea-level change; and interpretation of past climate change, particularly with a view to separating anthropogenic influences from natural (including solar-induced) variability. Recently, he has concentrated on facets of the global warming problem and has contributed on many occasions to IPCC reports and assessments. He is a member of Academia Europaea, recipient of the Sixth Annual Climate Institute Award, and a fellow of the American Meteorological Society.