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Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay (2004)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
×

NONNATIVE OYSTERS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

Committee on Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay

Ocean Studies Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for this report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by a contract between the National Academies and the following entities: Contract No. 50-DGNA-1-90024 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Contract No. 50-DGNA-1-90024 from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Cooperative Agreement No. 50181-2-J030 from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, Grant from the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Purchase Order No. D227024-4 from the Virginia Sea Grant, Grant No. NA070Z0136-01 from the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, Grant No. SA7293808L.SA7528018F from the Maryland Sea Grant, and Purchase Order No. D227024-4 from the Connecticut Sea Grant. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the study.

This study was funded in part by a contract from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its sub agencies.

Library of Congress Catalog Number: 2003117095

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

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The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
×

COMMITTEE ON NONNATIVE OYSTERS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

JAMES ANDERSON (Cochair),

University of Rhode Island, Kingston

DENNIS HEDGECOCK (Cochair),

University of California, Davis

MARK BERRIGAN,

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Aquaculture, Tallahassee

KEITH CRIDDLE,

Utah State University, Logan

WILLIAM DEWEY,

Taylor Shellfish Company, Inc., Shelton, Washington

SUSAN FORD,

Rutgers University, Port Norris, New Jersey

PHILIPPE GOULLETQUER,

IFREMER, Paris, France

RICHARD HILDRETH,

University of Oregon, Eugene

MICHAEL PAOLISSO,

University of Maryland, College Park

NANCY TARGETT,

University of Delaware, Lewes

ROBERT WHITLATCH,

University of Connecticut, Groton

Staff

SUSAN ROBERTS, Study Director

KIM WADDELL, Senior Program Officer

SUSAN PARK,

Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy

Intern

DENISE GREENE, Senior Project Assistant

SARAH CAPOTE, Project Assistant

The work of this committee was overseen by the Ocean Studies Board.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
×

OCEAN STUDIES BOARD

NANCY RABALAIS (Chair),

Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin

ARTHUR BAGGEROER,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

JAMES COLEMAN,

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

LARRY CROWDER,

Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina

RICHARD B. DERISO,

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, La Jolla, California

ROBERT B. DITTON,

Texas A&M University, College Station

EARL DOYLE,

Shell Oil (retired), Sugar Land, Texas

ROBERT DUCE,

Texas A&M University, College Station

PAUL G. GAFFNEY II,

National Defense University, Washington, DC

WAYNE R. GEYER,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

STANLEY R. HART,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

MIRIAM KASTNER,

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California

RALPH S. LEWIS,

Connecticut Geological Survey, Hartford

WILLIAM F. MARCUSON III,

U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (retired), Vicksburg, Mississippi

JULIAN P. MCCREARY, JR.,

University of Hawaii, Honolulu

JACQUELINE MICHEL,

Research Planning, Inc., Columbia, South Carolina

SCOTT NIXON,

University of Rhode Island, Narragansett

SHIRLEY A. POMPONI,

Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida

FRED N. SPIESS,

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California

JON G. SUTINEN,

University of Rhode Island, Kingston

NANCY TARGETT,

University of Delaware, Lewes

Staff

MORGAN GOPNIK, Director

JENNIFER MERRILL, Senior Program Officer

SUSAN ROBERTS, Senior Program Officer

DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer

JOANNE BINTZ, Program Officer

TERRY SCHAEFER, Program Officer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
×

ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Officer

JOHN DANDELSKI, Research Associate

SHIREL SMITH, Administrative Associate

JODI BACHIM, Senior Project Assistant

NANCY CAPUTO, Senior Project Assistant

DENISE GREENE, Senior Project Assistant

SARAH CAPOTE, Project Assistant

BYRON MASON, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
×

Acknowledgments

The committee would like to acknowledge the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee of the Chesapeake Bay Program (STAC) for cosponsoring the Workshop on Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay, held on October 7-8, 2002, in Fredericksburg, VA (see Appendix H), especially the efforts of Kevin Sellner (executive secretary) and Melissa Bugg (staff). This report was greatly enhanced by the participants at the first meeting and workshop held as part of this study. The committee would like to acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations at the meetings. These talks helped set the stage for fruitful discussions in the closed sessions that followed.

Stan Allen, Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Jim Andreasen, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Lowell Bahner, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Gene Burreson, Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Frank Dawson, Maryland Department of Natural Resources

Mike Fritz, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Pat Gaffney, University of Delaware

Bill Goldsborough, Chesapeake Bay Foundation

Eric Hallerman, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Carl Hershner, Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Eileen Hofmann, Old Dominion University

Bob Hume, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Chris Judy, Maryland Department of Natural Resources

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
×

Tom Kellum, W. E. Kellum Seafood

Victor Kennedy, University of Maryland

Fred Kern, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Doug Lipton, University of Maryland

Mark Luckenbach, Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Roger Mann, Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Laura McKay, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality

Frederika Moser, Maryland Sea Grant

Roger Newell, University of Maryland

Ken Paynter, University of Maryland

Karen Rivara, East Coast Shellfish Growers Association

Larry Simns, Maryland Watermen’s Association

Julie Thompson, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Casey Todd, Metompkin Bay Oyster

Jack Travelstead, Virginia Marine Resources Commission

George Washington, Virginia Watermen’s Association

The committee is also grateful to a number of people who provided important material for this report: Stan Allen, Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, Katherine Holt, Lisa Kline, Charles Peterson, and the Chesapeake Bay Program Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee office.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report:

Michael Beck, The Nature Conservancy, Santa Cruz, California

Neil Bourne, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Nanaimo, Canada

Eugene Burreson, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point

Edwin Grosholz, University of California, Davis

Eric Hallerman, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Walter Keithly, Jr., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

Chris Langdon, Oregon State University, Newport

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
×

Bonnie McCay, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey

Charles Peterson, University of North Carolina, Morehead City

Edella Schlager, University of Arizona, Tucson

John Supan, Louisiana State University Sea Grant, Baton Rouge

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Judith McDowell, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, appointed by the Division on Earth and Life Studies and May Berenbaum, Univerisity of Illinois, appointed by the Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
×
   

 France,

 

32

   

 Australia,

 

39

   

 New Zealand,

 

41

   

 Western North America,

 

42

   

 Eastern and Gulf Coasts of North America,

 

54

   

 Chapter Summary,

 

59

4

 

OYSTER BIOLOGY

 

60

   

 General Biology of Oysters,

 

60

   

 Diseases of Oysters,

 

62

   

 Crassostrea virginica,

 

68

   

 Life History,

 

68

   

 Ecological Value of C. virginica in Chesapeake Bay,

 

72

   

 Diseases,

 

80

   

 Disease Resistance,

 

84

   

 Crassostrea ariakensis,

 

89

   

 Life History,

 

89

   

 Disease and Disease Resistance,

 

94

   

 Summary,

 

97

5

 

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC VALUE OF OYSTERS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

 

100

   

 Maryland and Virginia State Summaries,

 

108

   

 Maryland,

 

108

   

 Virginia,

 

111

   

 Recreational and Amenity Benefits,

 

114

   

 Summary,

 

118

6

 

HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS OF RESTORING NATIVE OYSTER REEFS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

 

120

   

 Introduction,

 

120

   

 Need for Restoration,

 

122

   

 History of Oyster Restoration in the Chesapeake Bay,

 

125

   

 Virginia,

 

125

   

 Maryland,

 

127

   

 Evaluation of Oyster Resource Restoration Programs Before 1990,

 

131

   

 Current Oyster Restoration Programs,

 

132

   

 Evaluation of Contemporary Oyster Restoration Programs,

 

133

   

 Fishery-Driven Restoration Versus Ecological Restoration,

 

138

   

 Alternative Hatchery-Based Management Strategies,

 

140

   

 Draft Comprehensive Oyster Management Plan,

 

142

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
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 Potential Constraints to Long-Term Restoration Projects,

 

143

   

 Funding,

 

143

   

 Time,

 

144

   

 Continuous Epizootics,

 

144

   

 Baywide Recovery (10-fold Increase in Biomass),

 

144

   

 Self-Sustaining Oyster Populations,

 

145

   

 Hatchery Production,

 

145

   

 Sources of Shell for Reef Construction,

 

146

   

 Social and Cultural Aspects of Restoration,

 

146

   

 Summary,

 

148

7

 

OYSTER AQUACULTURE

 

150

   

 Present Worldwide Status,

 

150

   

 Oyster Culture in Chesapeake Bay,

 

151

   

 Oyster Culture Worldwide,

 

151

   

 Seed Supply,

 

153

   

 Grow-Out Facilities,

 

155

   

 Triploidy and Reversion,

 

156

   

 Summary,

 

160

8

 

REGULATORY FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING PROPOSED INTRODUCTIONS

 

162

   

 Introduction,

 

162

   

 State,

 

162

   

 Virginia,

 

163

   

 Maryland,

 

165

   

 North Carolina,

 

166

   

 Other States and Countries,

 

166

   

 Federal,

 

167

   

 Executive Order 13112,

 

167

   

 Lacey Act,

 

168

   

 National Invasive Species Act,

 

168

   

 Federal Animal Protection Laws,

 

168

   

 Rivers and Harbors Act § 10 and Clean Water Act § 404 and Related Statutes,

 

169

   

 Other Issues Related to the Clean Water Act,

 

171

   

 Code of Conduct for Responsible Aquaculture Development in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone,

 

174

   

 Interjurisdictional,

 

174

   

 Coastal Zone Management Act,

 

174

   

 Chesapeake Bay Program,

 

177

   

 Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission,

 

178

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
×
   

 Potomac River Fisheries Commission,

 

178

   

 International,

 

179

   

 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Convention,

 

179

   

 Convention on Biological Diversity,

 

180

   

 1995 Food and Agriculture Organization Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries,

 

181

   

 Ramsar Convention,

 

181

   

 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,

 

181

   

 World Trade Organization SPS Agreement,

 

182

   

 Office International des Epizooties Agreement,

 

183

   

 Summary,

 

184

9

 

ELEMENTS OF RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF CRASSOSTREA ARIAKENSIS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

 

187

   

 Background on Risk Assessment,

 

187

   

 Risk Factors,

 

192

   

 Ecological Risk,

 

192

   

 The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Code of Practice,

 

198

   

 Risk to Social, Economic, and Cultural Systems,

 

209

   

 Implementation Risk,

 

218

   

 Management Options,

 

222

   

Option 1.Status Quo, No Introduction of Nonnative Oysters,

 

225

   

Option 2.Open-Water Aquaculture of Triploid Oysters,

 

226

   

Option 3.Introduction of Reproductive Diploid Oysters,

 

228

   

 Findings,

 

230

10

 

DECISION MAKING AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

 

232

   

 To Introduce or Not to Introduce?

 

232

   

 Unrealistic Expectations and Common Misconceptions,

 

236

   

 Recommendations,

 

241

   

 Biosecurity Against Rogue Introductions,

 

241

   

 Development of Standards for Regulating Nonnative Oyster Aquaculture,

 

241

   

 Biological Research,

 

242

   

 Decision Making and Regulatory Framework,

 

244

   

 Economic and Sociocultural Analyses,

 

246

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
×

*  

Appendixes D through G are found on the CD-Rom attached to the inside back cover.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2004. Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10796.
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NONNATIVE OYSTERS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

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Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay discusses the proposed plan to offset the dramatic decline in the bay’s native oysters by introducing disease-resistant reproductive Suminoe oysters from Asia. It suggests this move should be delayed until more is known about the environmental risks, even though carefully regulated cultivation of sterile Asian oysters in contained areas could help the local industry and researchers. It is also noted that even though these oysters eat the excess algae caused by pollution, it could take decades before there are enough of them to improve water quality.

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