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PLATE ] It is projected that by 2025 some 3 billion people will live in countries that have less than 1~700 cubic meters per capita per year the quantity below which humans suffer from 'water stress"and that number is expected to increase further by 2050. The figure shows global water stress distribution in 2050' under a business-as-usual scenario developed for the WaterGAP model of the Centre for Environmental Systems Research at the University of Kassel. SOURCE: Aleamo, Henrichs, Roeseh: "World Water in 2025", Kassel ~ I 999), ~http://www.worldene'gy.org/wee-geis/pub]ications/reports/liow/stresses/water.asp].
Errs _ its f~> ..~ Pre~`p'tation tn}~ur~cement Pr - come Pry- Id Holl 5uppressIm, Progr<3~, PLATE 2 Top: Countries that are conducting weather modification programs. Complied with information frown WMO (1999) by R. Bruintjes. Bottom: States in the United States where weather modification programs currently are ongoing. SOURCE: Compiled from NOAA data by R. Bruintjes.
SA Randomized Experiment 600 - ~ . . 400 - to E it: ._ 200 - O - 800 600 In In ~ 400 ,_ to 200 O- . ~ Hi. - _ _ - . Q2~ \ Q~ i , i i , i -5 5 15 25 35 45 56 Time From Decision Mexican Randomized Experiment Em_ HA \ ,~ ~ V ~ Q3 ~ ~ ~ \ Q2 ~ \ ~ A\ / if/ /Q>7C\ By, By\ ~ -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time From Decision PLATE 3 Results from the South African (SA) alla Mexican hygloscopic flare seeding experiments. The first (25 percent, Q1)~ second (50 percent or median' Q2), and third (75 percent, Q3) quartiles show radar-estimated rain mass (ktons) of the randomized seeded storms (blue line) and unseeded storms (red line) as a iitnction of time Tom the randomized decision to seed or not. The time frame is divided into 1 0-minute intervals and is based upon the randomized seeding decision (0), ranging from 10 minutes prior (- 10) to 50 minutes afterward (+503. SOURCE: Compiled by R Bruintjes, National Center for Atmospheric Research.
::: : ~ PLATE 4 This stools stack of a mining complex in Manitoba, Canada, causes the pollution track originating at the white asterisk. Satellite remote sensing image of yellow pollution tracks in the clouds, due to reduced droplets size. SOURCE: Photo provided by W. L. Woodley, Woodley Weather Consultants. Image adapted from Rosenfeld (2000~.
~30 O -20 ~ ~10 _ J - a, Q a, _ 20. ~ rat ~ J ~ ............ > X X XAXAXA .YA~A~( Jim. ;~ INi)OEX matiuted Aust(~liD urban Israe'd:~t No _' _~ .~:$ _~ - ~ ~ ?1h~ _ ~ X~ 2~ ,, . ~ . ' '. ' ~ - , ~ - ha ~ ~ ~ ' at :3e 10 15 20 6!ff (~m) 2ti (30 35 PLATE 5 Satellite-~etrieved effective droplet (reef-) radius near cloud top for polluted cases (solid lines) and corresponding pristine locations (broken lines). This suggests substantial alteration of cloud properties lay anthropogenic influences in ways that might inhibit precipitation. SOURCE: Ramanatl~an et al. (200 l ).
PLATE 6 Polarmetric radar observations of a mature thunderstorm. The data are from an RHI scan through a Kansas storm by NCAR's S-Pol research radar. (a) Reflectivity vs. ZDR for regions of liquid drops and hail. (b) Regions denoting ]5 different hydrometer classes in color code. (c) Two-dimensional membership function in ZHH/KDP space. SOURCE: Vivekar~andan et al. (19991.
HORNETS cloud radar 2<D wit- 148 .N ~ 1~6 ~ ~ 1~4 0 Is 1.2 3:: ~ = -~.8 O.4 c.2 ~ ~ .. REFLECTIVI:w (amp) GMAR95 0533 UT(: L'gu'd Water Path from SAW Rad'~meter Seans 6~s Atom ~ OD oep 0545 ~ 052' ~~t teast~$t scans) I I . - 1 WINDi...i ,.- A_ .. . . . ~ a,. . _ . . . ~ zenith ~ .~...1 . L----- ~~ Antenna Elevation Angle (deg) to Mingus MIn. to Motor Him _- PLATE 7 An orographically induced standing wave of supercooled liquid across the Verde Valley (in Arizona) as observed by scanning cloud radar (top image), and by a microwave radiometer scan of liquid water path (bottom image) SOURCE: Reinking et al. (20003.
PLATE 8 Top: Example of TITAN Storm Tracking Bottom: Example of the use of GPS aircraft tracking. SOURCE: T. W. Krauss' Weather Modification Inc.