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FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLATE 2 These crystals of human insulin are made by bacteria whose genetic instructions have been altered using recombinant DNA techniques. Human insulin is needed by diabetics who develop allergies to the animal-derived insulin that has been used to treat the disease since 1921. Without chemical engineering contributions such as process design and purification technology, though, the large-scale pro- duction of human insulin would not be possible. Courtesy, Eli Lilly and Company. PLATE 1 The kidney dialysis machine (artificial kidney) is responsible for major reductions in deaths and adverse health consequences from kidney failure. Its development required a team effort that brought together chemical engineers, physicians, and materials scientists. The design of the disposable filter cartridge, shown attached to the front left side of the dialysis machine, was a major contribution by chemical engineers to the project. Courtesy, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
PLATE 3 Cell culture of plants now takes place in individual containers cared for by hand. Automation of plant cell culture using chemical engineering techniques could improve the yields and economics of plant cell culture and expand the range of its applications in the production of new species and hybrids. Courtesy, Monsanto Company. ~ ~ MA ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ^~: ~ MA ~ =~6 _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ PLATE 4 Bioreactors that use mammalian cells, like this tower fermenter, are on the cutting edge of new biotech- nology manufacturing processes. Courtesy, Cetus Corpo- ration.
·- ~ ~ 3 ~ ~ ~ ~1 'I to ~ (1) (3) PLATE 5 Stages in the retorting of an oil shale particle in a hot inert gas are shown. [1, 2, 3] The retorting zone moves inward as products diffuse out of the particle. A coke layer on the particle is formed as a final step of the retorting process. [4, 5, 6] Retorting goes to com- pletion in the center of the particle, and a fully coked particle remains. Courtesy, Amoco Corporation. PLATE 6 The turbulent environment in which combustion, a chemical process, takes place is dramatized by this Schli- eren photograph of a propane diffusion flame. Courtesy, Norman A. Chigier, Carnegie Mellon University. (4) ~ ~ v it== . . , .,, .,,,,,,,, . ~... . _ .
E ;~ONTIERS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING _ . . ~ . ~ - ~_ it= PLATE 7 Chemical engineers develop models to understand the formation, transport, and environmental fate of airborne pollutants such as ozone. This photograph shows a graphic display of a chemical engineering model for ozone concentrations in the Los Angeles basin. Courtesy, John Seinfeld, California Institute of Technology. PLATE 8 Corrosion is a chemical proc- ess whose results are easy to see in the world around us. In this picture, corro- sion of reinforcing steel has caused the concrete pillars to spell, weakening the bridge and forcing the installation of wooden joists to temporarily support the bridge deck structure. The results of corrosion impose significant economic costs on society- in 1982, these costs were estimated at about $120 billion. Courtesy, Robert Baboian, Texas Instru- ments, Inc.