Committee and Staff Biographies
Richard C. Levin, Yale University, Co-chair
Richard Levin has been president of Yale University since October 1993. He has been a member of the Yale economics faculty since 1974, when he received his Ph.D. from Yale. He received his bachelor’s degree in history from Stanford University and earned a B. Litt. degree in philosophy and politics from Oxford University. A specialist in the economics of technological change, Dr. Levin has written extensively on the patent system, industrial development, the effects of public policy on private industry, and industrial organization. In the mid-1980s he directed a major effort to gather evidence on the incentives for manufacturing industries’ investments in research and development. In the 1970s and 1980s his series of papers on the Interstate Commerce Commission’s regulation of railroads had significant influence on the course of railroad deregulation, especially on the standards for evaluating the economic impact of railroad mergers. He was appointed to the National Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy in 1999.
Mark B. Myers, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Co-chair
Mark Myers is visiting executive professor in the Management Department at the Wharton Business School, the University of Pennsylvania. His research interests include identifying emerging markets and technologies to enable growth in new and existing companies with special emphases on technology identification and selection, product development, and technology competences. Dr. Myers has served on the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy since 1994.
Dr. Myers retired from the Xerox Corporation in 2000 after a 36-year career in its research and development organizations. He was the senior vice president in charge of corporate research, advanced development, systems architecture, and corporate engineering from 1992 until his retirement. His responsibilities included the corporate research centers, PARC in Palo Alto, California, Webster Center for Research & Technology near Rochester, New York, Xerox Research Centre of Canada, Mississauga, Ontario, and the Xerox Research Centre of Europe in Cambridge, U.K., and Grenoble, France. During this period he was a member of the senior management committee in charge of setting the strategic direction of the company. Dr. Myers is chairman of the board of trustees of Earlham College and has held visiting faculty positions at the University of Rochester and at Stanford University. He holds a bachelor’s degree from Earlham College and a doctorate from Pennsylvania State University.
John H. Barton, Stanford University Law School
John H. Barton is George E. Osborne Professor of Law Emeritus at Stanford University, where he taught law and technology and a variety of international courses. He has concentrated for many years on the intellectual property aspects of biotechnology as well as on the relationships between intellectual property and antitrust law. Professor Barton recently chaired the United Kingdom Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, appointed by the U.K. Secretary of State for International Development to examine the impact of intellectual property rights on developing nations. He has also advised the World Health Organization, World Bank, U.S. Agency for International Development, and Rockefeller Foundation programs in agricultural biotechnology. He has been a chair of the Department of Agriculture’s National Genetic Resources Advisory Council and a member of the National Institutes of Health Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee and the National Institutes of Health Working Group on Research Tools.
Robert Blackburn, Chiron Corporation
Robert Blackburn is vice president and chief patent counsel of Chiron Corporation. With over 20 years of experience in both corporate and private practice, he has worked in biotechnology IP since its very early days. In the early 1980s he drafted the patent recently upheld in the CellPro litigation, and he successfully argued the Bell case (obviousness standard for new genes) in the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. He has litigated biotechnology patents on four continents. On behalf of the Biotechnology Industry Organization and other industry coalitions he has been involved in legislative and policy matters, including the Biotechnology Process Patent Act, the GATT/TRIPS implementing legislation, the American Inventors Protection Act of 1999, and several amicus briefings of the Federal Circuit and the Supreme Court. The American Lawyer has named
Mr. Blackburn one of the top 45 in-house counsel under the age of 45. Mr. Blackburn is also a distinguished scholar at the Berkeley Center for Law and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall), a past chairperson of the Intellectual Property Law Committee of the Biotechnology Industry Organization, and a past board member of the Biotechnology Institute. Prior to joining Chiron, Mr. Blackburn was a partner in the northern California office of Irell & Manella; an associate in its predecessor firm, Ciotti & Murashige; assistant patent counsel at Agrigenetics Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado; and an associate at the law firm of Banner, Birch, McKie & Beckett in Washington, D.C. He received a J.D. from American University, where he was articles editor of the Law Review, and a B.S. in chemistry with honors from Case Western Reserve University.
Wesley Cohen, Duke University
Wesley Cohen is professor of economics and management at the Fuqua School of Business, Duke University, and is a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Until September 2002 he was professor of economics and social science in the Department of Social Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University and held faculty appointments in its Department of Engineering and Public Policy and its Heinz School of Policy and Management. Focusing on the economics of technological change, Dr. Cohen’s research over the past 15 years has explored the determinants of industrial R&D. He has examined the links between firm size, market structure and innovation, firms’ abilities to exploit outside knowledge, the knowledge flows affecting innovation, the means that firms use to protect their intellectual property, and the links between university research and industrial R&D, among other subjects. Recently, he coordinated a major survey research study comparing the nature and determinants of industrial R&D in the United States and Japan. He is currently engaged in a multiyear National-Science-Foundation-funded research project on the impact of patenting on innovation. He received his Ph.D. in economics from Yale in 1981.
Frank Collins, ZymoGenetics
Frank Collins is senior vice president of research at ZymoGenetics. He has over 20 years of experience in drug discovery and development. His accomplishments include discovery of a key target in Alzheimer’s disease and of new proteins that regulate the nervous system. Previously Dr. Collins was vice president of neuroscience at Amgen, Inc., and vice president of neuroscience at Synergen, Inc. He developed and oversaw new therapeutic programs at both companies, including a 150-person research team at Amgen working in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, pain and stroke, as well as metabolic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias, and cachexia. His academic
background includes positions as director of developmental neurobiology at the National Science Foundation and associate professor of anatomy and neurobiology at the University of Utah School of Medicine. Dr. Collins received his M.A. in immunology from the University of California, Berkeley, and his Ph.D. in developmental biology at the University of California, San Diego.
Rochelle Cooper Dreyfuss, New York University School of Law
After spending several years as a research chemist at Vanderbilt University Medical School, the Albert Einstein Medical School, and the Ciba Geigy Corporation, Rochelle Cooper Dreyfuss entered Columbia University Law School, where she was articles and book review editor of the Columbia Law Review. Following her graduation in 1981, she became a law clerk first to Chief Judge Wilfred Feinberg of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and later to Chief Justice Warren E. Burger of the Supreme Court. In 1983 Ms. Dreyfuss began teaching at the New York University School of Law. Her research and teaching interests include intellectual property, privacy, the relationship between science and law, and civil procedure. She has authored many articles on these subjects and has coauthored casebooks on civil procedure and intellectual property law. Currently she is Pauline Newman Professor of Law. Previously a consultant to the Federal Trade Commission, the Courts Study Committee, and the Presidential Commission on Catastrophic Nuclear Accidents and a member of the Science and Law and Patent Law committees of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, Ms. Dreyfuss is currently a member of the American Law Institute and a reporter of its Project on Intellectual Property: Principles Governing Jurisdiction, Choice of Law, and Judgments in Transnational Disputes. Her undergraduate degree is from Wellesley College, and she has an M.S. in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley.
Bronwyn H. Hall, University of California at Berkeley
Bronwyn H. Hall is professor of economics at the University of California, Berkeley, and founder and owner of TSP International, an econometric software firm. She is also a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research and the Institute for Fiscal Studies, London. She received a B.A. in physics from Wellesley College in 1966 and a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University in 1988. Dr. Hall has published numerous articles on the economics and econometrics of technical change. Her current research includes the use of patent citation data for the valuation of intangible (knowledge) assets, comparative firm-level investment studies, measuring the returns to R&D and innovation at the firm level, analysis of technology policies such as R&D subsidies and tax incentives, and studies of the strategic use of patenting in several industries. Dr. Hall was appointed to the National Academies’ Board on Science, Tech-
nology, and Economic Policy in 1999. Previously she served on the Census Advisory Committee of the American Economic Association. She is currently a member of the International Advisory Board of the New Economic School, Moscow, an associate editor of Economics of Innovation and New Technology and the Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, and a member of the editorial board of International Finance. She has been a visiting professor at Oxford University and a Hoover Institution national fellow.
Hon. Eugene Lynch, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California (ret.)
Eugene Lynch is a mediator and arbitrator with JAMS/Endispute, San Francisco, California, where he handles a large number of intellectual property disputes. In addition, he is a member of the Center for Public Resources’ National Panel of Distinguished Neutrals. In 1997-1998 he chaired the Kaiser Permanente Blue Ribbon Committee to Reform its Arbitration Procedure. Judge Lynch’s judicial career began with his appointment to the San Francisco Municipal Court Bench in 1971. Three years later he joined the San Francisco Superior Court Bench. From 1982 to 1997 he was a judge in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, one of the principal venues of intellectual property litigation in the federal court system. Judge Lynch is a graduate of Santa Clara University and the University of California Hastings College of the Law.
Daniel P. McCurdy, ThinkFire, Ltd.
Dan McCurdy is president and chief executive officer of ThinkFire, Ltd., an adviser on intellectual property matters to firms primarily in the information technology and communications industries. Previously Mr. McCurdy was president of Lucent Technologies’ Intellectual Property Business, responsible for protecting, managing, and extracting value from Lucent’s intellectual property assets worldwide. Before joining Lucent, he was vice president, Life Sciences, at IBM, where he directed the company’s strategy, product and business development, and marketing related to the life sciences industry. In the late 1990s Mr. McCurdy was vice president for corporate development at CIENA Corporation, a publicly traded telecommunications firm. As a member of CIENA’s senior management team, he was responsible for mergers, acquisitions, strategic investments, licensing, and corporate partnerships. From 1983 to 1997 Mr. McCurdy served in various positions with IBM. In his last position as director of business development and market strategy for IBM Research he was a member of the 14-person executive team guiding the division. There he was responsible for all intellectual property licensing activities as well as the creation of a variety of joint ventures and technology-based spin-offs. He is a 1981 graduate of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
Hon. Gerald J. Mossinghoff, Oblon, Spivak, McClelland, Maier & Neustadt (Committee member until December 2003)
Gerald Mossinghoff, a former assistant secretary of commerce and commissioner of patents and trademarks and a former president of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, is senior counsel to the firm of Oblon, Spivak, McClelland, Maier & Neustadt, where he advises on a broad range of intellectual property matters, including international, legislative, and policy issues. He has been an expert witness in dozens of patent cases in the federal courts. He is also Ciefelli Professor of Intellectual Property Law at the George Washington University Law School, a Distinguished Adjunct Professor at the George Mason University School of Law, and a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration. At the USPTO Mr. Mossinghoff advised President Reagan on the establishment of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit and initiated a far-reaching automation program of the office’s databases. He has served as U.S ambassador to the Diplomatic Conference on the Revision of the Paris Convention and as chairman of the General Assembly of the United Nations World Intellectual Property Organization. Previously he was deputy general counsel of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Mr. Mossinghoff received his J.D. with honors from the George Washington School of Law and an electrical engineering degree from St. Louis University.
Gail K. Naughton, Dean, San Diego State University College of Business Administration
Gail Naughton assumed her present position in June 2002. Previously she was vice chairman of the board of directors, and she was a director of La Jolla-based Advanced Tissue Sciences and a director since the firm’s inception in 1987. She cofounded the company and was instrumental in taking it public. As the scientific founder and later in various executive positions including president, she set the overall scientific direction for the company while playing a key role in building the company and its management team, raising capital, and increasing public awareness of the company as a pioneer in developing innovative products for patients needing replacement tissues and organs. Dr. Naughton has published extensively in the field of tissue engineering and holds more than 70 U.S. and foreign patents. In 2000 she was the first woman individually to win the National Inventor of the Year Award of the Intellectual Property Owners Association. Dr. Naughton received her bachelor’s degree in biology from St. Francis College in New York in 1976, her master’s degree in histology (the study of human tissue structure) in 1978, and her Ph.D. in basic medical sciences from New York University in 1981. She completed her postdoctoral training at the New York University Medical Center in the department of dermatology. She served as an assistant professor of research at NYU Medical Center from 1983 to 1985 and as an assis-
tant professor of biology at the City University of New York’s Queensborough Community College from 1985 to 1987. She earned her executive M.B.A. from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 2001.
Richard R. Nelson, Columbia University
Richard Nelson is George Blumenthal Professor of International and Public Affairs, Business and Law at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs. He joined the faculty in 1986 after a long tenure as professor of economics at Yale University. Dr. Nelson studies the process of long-range economic change, with particular emphasis on technological advance, evolution of economic institutions, roles of government in a mixed economy, and theories of the firm. He was a principal investigator on both the Yale and the Carnegie Mellon surveys of corporate R&D managers with regard to the use of patents and other methods of appropriating returns to R&D investments in a variety of industries. Dr. Nelson’s major publications include An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, with S.G. Winter; Government and Technical Progress: A Cross-Industry Analysis; High Technology Policies: A Five Nation Comparison; and National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Study. He received his B.A. from Oberlin College and Ph.D. from Yale University.
James Pooley, Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, LLP
Jim Pooley is a senior partner in the Palo Alto office of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley and McCloy, LLP. Mr. Pooley has practiced as a trial lawyer in Silicon Valley for over 30 years, focusing on technology litigation and counseling, and handling hundreds of trade secret and patent matters. He was lead trial counsel for Adobe Systems in its successful defense of software patent claims, recognized by the National Law Journal as one of the country’s 15 “Top Defense Verdicts” of 1997. Mr. Pooley is a frequent lecturer and prolific writer on the law of trade secrets and patents. He is currently an adjunct professor of law at Boalt Hall School of Law, University of California, Berkeley, a former director of the American Intellectual Property Law Association, and a director and officer of the National Inventors Hall of Fame Foundation. Mr. Pooley is an honors graduate of Lafayette College and of Columbia University School of Law.
William J. Raduchel
William Raduchel was until recently executive vice president and chief technology officer of AOL Time Warner, Inc. He assumed that position in 2001 after performing a similar role at America Online, Inc. He joined AOL in 1999 from Sun Microsystems, Inc., where he was chief strategy officer and a member of the executive committee. In his 11 years at Sun he was also chief information officer,
chief financial officer, acting vice president of human resources, and vice president of corporate planning and development. Prior to his tenure at Sun, Dr. Raduchel held senior executive positions at Xerox Corporation and McGraw-Hill, Inc. He received his undergraduate degree from Michigan State University and A.M. and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Harvard. He was named to the National Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy in 2000 and currently serves on another National Academies’ panel on Internet navigation and domain names.
Pamela Samuelson, University of California, Berkeley, Law School
Pamela Samuelson is Chancellor’s Professor of Law and Information Management at the University of California, Berkeley (Boalt Hall), a director of the Berkeley Center for Law and Technology, and an honorary professor at the University of Amsterdam. She came to Boalt in 1996 from the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, where she had taught since 1981. She has also practiced with the New York firm of Willkie Farr and Gallagher and served as a principal investigator for the Software Licensing Project at Carnegie Mellon University. Professor Samuelson has lectured widely and published extensively in the areas of copyright law and software protection. In 1997 she was named a fellow of the John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and in 2000 she was named as one of the 100 most influential lawyers in the United States by the National Law Journal. She was elected to membership in the American Law Institute and named a fellow of the Association of Computing Machinery. She has been a contributing editor to the Communications of the ACM since 1990. Professor Samuelson received her B.A. and M.A. from the University of Hawaii and her J.D. from Yale Law School.
Stephen A. Merrill, Project Director
Stephen Merrill has been executive director of the National Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) since its formation in 1991 and has directed several STEP projects on human resources, tax, and research and development as well as intellectual property policies. He joined the National Academies staff in 1987 as the institution’s first director of government affairs and congressional liaison. Previously he was a fellow in international business at the Center for Strategic Studies, where he specialized in technology trade issues. For several years until 1981 Dr. Merrill served on various congressional staffs, most recently that of the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, where he organized the first congressional hearings on international competition in biotechnology and microelectronics and was responsible for
legislation on industrial innovation and government patent policy. He holds degrees in political science from Columbia (B.A.), Oxford (M.Phil.), and Yale (M.A. and Ph.D.) Universities.
Craig Schultz, Research Associate
Craig Schultz has been with the National Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy since 1998. He has worked on several STEP projects on human resources, government-industry partnerships, research and development, and intellectual property rights. Prior to joining STEP, Mr. Schultz worked in the Office of the Vice President for Development at the University of Virginia. He holds a B.A., High Honors, from the University of Michigan and an M.A. from the University of Virginia.
Camille Collett, Program Associate (Until September 2002)
Camille Collett is currently program associate with the National Academies’ Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, and was a program associate with the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy until September 2002. Prior to joining the National Academies, Ms. Collett was the Web editor for the launch of an alternative health site for women. She has also worked in journal publishing at The Sciences and The Journal of NIH Research. Ms. Collett is a graduate of the honors English program at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, and is currently enrolled in Catholic University Law School.
George Elliott, Department of Commerce Science and Technology Fellow (September 2000 through September 2001)
George Elliott recently assumed the duties of acting director of the Office of Patent Quality Assurance at the United States Patent and Trademark Office, where he is responsible for overseeing a review process aimed at detecting quality problems in allowed applications and applications that are still undergoing examination, and for assisting the Technology Centers in their efforts to improve patent examination quality. He joined the biotechnology examining group at the USPTO as an examiner in 1989 and became a supervisor in 1996, in charge of two art units responsible for applications dealing with gene expression, gene regulation, and antisense therapeutics. As a Department of Commerce science and technology fellow for 2000-2001, Dr. Elliott worked full-time with the staff of the National Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy and its Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in the Knowledge-Based Economy. Opinions expressed by Dr. Elliott during the course of the study and the preparation of this report were his own and not necessarily those of the USPTO. Dr. Elliott received his B.A. in biology from the University of California, San Diego,
and his Ph.D. in biology from the University of Utah. Prior to joining the USPTO, he did postdoctoral research at Cambridge University and the University of California, Berkeley.
Russell Moy, Senior Program Officer (From June 2002)
Russell Moy is a senior staff officer in the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy at the National Academies, where he works on issues related to international trade, intellectual property policies, intellectual property enforcement technologies, and technology management. From 2000-2001 Dr. Moy was a policy analyst in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, where he supported interagency technology development activities on international trade, health care, and nanotechnology. Earlier Dr. Moy served as a policy analyst in Technology Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce on the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles. Before coming to Washington, D.C., Dr. Moy was the group leader for energy storage programs at Ford Motor Company in Dearborn, Michigan. Dr. Moy holds a J.D. degree from Wayne State University School of Law. He earned Ph.D. and M.S. degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Michigan and a B.S. degree in chemical engineering from Case Western Reserve University.
Aaron Levine, National Research Council Intern (Summer 2003)
Aaron Levine participated in the Christine Mirzayan Internship Program of the National Academies in the summer of 2003. A graduate of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (B.S.) and Cambridge University (M.Phil. in biological sciences), he is currently a Ph.D. student in public policy at Princeton University.
Peter Kozel, National Research Council Intern (Winter-Spring 2004)
Peter Kozel participated in the Christine Mirzayan Internship Program of the National Academies in the winter and spring of 2004. A graduate of the University of Massachusetts (B.S.) and the University of Cincinnati (Ph.D. in molecular genetics), he was an Intramural Research Training Award fellow at the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders before coming to the National Research Council.