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NEED FOR A MULTIPURPOSE CADASTRE Panel on a Multipurpose Cadastre Committee on Geodesy Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C 1980 APR 2 1 1981 LIBRARY
C./ NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to proce- dures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its Congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a pri- vate, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the Academy of Sciences. Available from: Leader, Cadastral Survey and Mapping Staff Bureau of Land Management Denver Service Center (D-411) Building #50 Denver Federal Center Lakewood, Colorado 80225
Committee on Geodesy Ivan I. Mueller, The Ohio State University, Chairman Duane C. Brown, Geodetic Services Inc., Indialantic, Florida Daniel B. DeBra, Stanford University Adam Dziewonski, Harvard University Edward M. Gaposchkin, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory John C. Harrison, CIRES, University of Colorado George E. Jones, Chevron U.S.A. Inc., New Orleans William M. Kaula, Univeristy of California, Los Angeles Byron D. Tapley, University of Texas, Austin Charles A. Whitten, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (retired) Liaison Members William J. Best, U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research John D. Bossier, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Frederick J. Doyle, U.S. Geological Survey John Filson, U.S. Geological Survey Leonard Johnson, National Science Foundation Armando Mancini, Defense Mapping Agency Thomas E. Pyle, Office of Naval Research Carl F. Romney, Advanced Research Projects Agency Pitt G. Thome, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Staff Hyman Orlin, National Research Council, Executive Secretary in
Panel on a Multipurpose Cadastre George E. Jones, Chevron U.S.A. Inc., New Orleans, Chairman MacDonald Barr, Massachusetts Department of Community Affairs Duane C. Brown, Geodetic Services Inc., Indialantic, Florida Earl Epstein, University of Maine Gunther H. Greulich, Boston Survey Consultants, Inc. John D. McLaughlin, University of New Brunswick G. Warren Marks, The Pennsylvania State University Charles A. Whitten, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (retired) Liaison Members John 0. Behrens, U.S. Bureau of the Census Gil Blankespoor, Department of Housing and Urban Development Clifton Fry, U.S. Geological Survey Bernard W. Hostrop, Bureau of Land Management Armando Mancini, Defense Mapping Agency D. David Moyer, Department of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin James Stem, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ex Offlcio Ivan I. Mueller, The Ohio State University Staff Hyman Orlin, National Research Council, Executive Secretary iv
Preface The increasing demand for land information at all levels of government and in the private sector, and the increasing involvement of federal agencies and programs in the development and maintenance of land-information systems, induced the federal agencies to request the National Research Council to de- fine a federal role in the development of a multipurpose cadastre applicable on a national basis. Rather than attempting to resolve all land-information systems problems, it was decided to consider the basic components (reference frame, base map, and cadastral overlay) of a multipurpose cadastre, which, if properly established and maintained, would provide the common frame- work for all land-information systems. In the process of defining a federal role, the roles of the state and local governments and those of the private sector (companies and citizens) were considered germane. With these roles established and the multipurpose cadastre conceptualized, the relationship of land data files to the multipurpose cadastre was considered. The present status of cadastral activities at the federal, state, and local gov- ernmental levels and in the private sector was examined, and a number of pilot projects were reviewed. This background material was gleaned from the literature and from contacts at various levels of government. The material was reviewed by individuals in the academic community, the state and local governments, and the private sector. This report is the product of a one-year study. It primarily emphasizes the basic components of a multipurpose cadastre, particularly the reference frame and base map for which great expertise exists at the federal level. However, other aspects of the cadastre, which are the prime responsibility of others,
VI NEED FOR A MULTIPURPOSE CADASTRE are also considered. The major federal input in these other areas, such as tech- nical assistance, land data, and personnel development, are discussed. Early in this study, it was determined that the development of a multipurpose cadas- tre that would be applicable on a national basis would depend on the realiza- tion by all participants that the benefits to be derived from the free flow of information among all users far exceeded the value of a nonaddressable local cadastre. The technical details of the multipurpose cadastre, alluded to in this re- port, need to be developed further. It is recommended that specialized panels be formed to consider these aspects. Comments on this report and recommendations for follow-on activities addressed to the Committee on Geodesy, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418, would be appreciated.
Acknowledgments This study was undertaken late in 1979 by the Panel on a Multipurpose Cadastre of the Committee on Geodesy in the National Research Council's Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences. The work is supported by the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- tion, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The free distribution of this report has been made possible through grants from the Bureau of the Census, the Bureau of Land Manage- ment, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The Panel appreciates the interest and support of these agencies. We are also grateful to the liaison members for their assistance. We also appreciate the contributions and suggestions of outside reviewers. However, the responsibility for the content of this report lies with the panel members. vii
Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction 5 1.1 Origins of the Cadastre Concept . 5 1.2 Evolution of the North American Cadastral Arrangements 7 1.3 Needs for Improving the Cadastral Institutions 9 1.4 The Concept of the Multipurpose Cadastre 13 2 Current Status of Cadastral Efforts 16 2.1 The Unimproved State of Affairs 16 2.1.1 Land Transfer 17 2.1.2 Property Assessment 19 2.1.3 Land Management 20 2.1.4 Private and Public Boundary Surveys 20 2.2 Problems 21 2.3 Improvement Activity 23 2.4 Status at the Federal Level 24 2.4.1 Geodetic Reference Network 24 2.4.2 Base Maps 27 2.4.3 Cadastral Overlays 28 2.4.4 Improvement Implementation at the Federal Level 29 2.5 Status at the State Level 32 2.5.1 Geodetic Reference Network 32 2.5.2 Base Maps 33 2.5.3 Cadastral Overlays 33 ix
2.5.4 Improvement Implementation at the Provincial and State Level 34 2.6 Status at the Local and Private Levels 39 2.6.1 Geodetic Reference Network 39 2.6.2 Base Maps and Cadastral Overlay 39 2.6.3 Improvement Implementation at the Local and Private Level 40 2.7 Conclusions 43 Technical Requirements 44 3.1 Geodetic Reference Network â¢ 45 3.1.1 Local Densification of the National Geodetic Net 48 3.1.2 Horizontal Geodetic Control for Property Boundaries 49 3.1.3 Vertical Geodetic Control 50 3.1.4 Tidal Benchmarks 51 3.2 Base Mapping 52 3.2.1 Large-Scale Maps 52 3.2.2 Base Maps 52 3.2.3 Cadastral Maps 53 3.2.4 Specialty Maps 54 3.3 Cadastral Parcel 54 3.3.1 Definition of the Cadastral Parcel 54 3.3.2 The Role of the Cadastral Parcel 55 3.3.3 Delineating the Cadastral Parcels 58 3.4 Mechanisms Required to Support Multipurpose Data Systems 59 3.4.1 Integrating Mechanisms: Standard Indexing and Referencing Systems 60 3.4.2 Quality Control 62 3.4.3 Privacy and Confidentiality Safeguards 63 3.4.4 Phased Implementation 63 3.5 Improvements in Survey Practice 63 3.5.1 Accuracy Standards 64 3.5.2 Monuments and Coordinates 64 3.5.3 Evidence 67 3.5.4 Recorded Plats and Plans 70 3.5.5 Field Notes 72 3.5.6 Surveyor's Plan 72 3.6 Public and Private Utilities Cadastre 73