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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

Index

A

Advanced materials

in automotive industry, 8, 81

carbon fibers, 10, 42, 179

ceramics, 44

in construction, 1, 71–72

discovery-application interval, 6, 41–43

instrumentation for studying, 42

lithium niobate, 52

market influences on discoveries, 6, 42

neodymium, 42–43

processing costs, 6–7, 43

shape-memory alloy, 179

See also Superconducting materials

Agriculture

ASEAN, 119–121

trade by Pacific Economic Community, 116

value added, global trends, 116

Alvey Directorate, 33

Artificial intelligence

applications, 26, 50, 51, 73, 81

concepts, 50–51

influence on information technologies, 50–51

Asian newly industrializing countries growth rates, 110–112, 114

See also specific countries

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

agricultural growth, 119–121

GNP and growth rate, 110–114

manufacturing growth, 119–121

problems and challenges, 9, 120–121

science and technology, 121

strengths and characteristics, 119–121

trade policy, 120–121

Australia

added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116

agricultural resources, 128

education, 126

GNP and growth rate, 111–114, 143

industrialization policies, 129–131

intellectual property, 130

manufacturing industries, 128

mining industry, 127–128

problems and challenges, 9, 121, 132–133

production sharing, 132

R&D, 129–131

resource development and technology transfer, 121, 127–129

science development and structure, 126, 129–131

trade policy, 132

wage levels, 128, 132

Automotive industry

automation, 84

computer applications and production, 81, 83

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

economic importance, 82–83

employee training, 84

flexible manufacturing systems, 83, 84

Japanese, 83

management role, 84

materials consumption, 82–83

production organization, 83–84

robotics, 83, 84

technological advances in, 8, 81, 83

U.S., 82–83

B

Board of the Cartagena Agreement, 154

Brazil

competitiveness, 177

economic weight, 142, 144

productivity, 165

C

Canada

added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116

contribution to world gross domestic product, 145

GNP and growth rate, 111–112, 143

U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89

Capital investment, displacement by financial speculation, 27

Caribbean countries

competitiveness, 149–151

domestic demand, production, and technology, 151–153

economic growth obstacles and strategies, 152–153

economic weight of, 142–145

industrialization policy, 148–149

integration of science and technology, 156–157

interdependence with developed countries, 148

participation in world economy, 147–151

technology development strategies, 9, 153–155

technology transfer, 155–156

trade asymmetry, 148

unemployment, 152

wage rates, 152

China, see People’s Republic of China

Communications, see Data processing and communications;

Telecommunications;

Telephony

Competitiveness, see International competitiveness/comparative advantage

Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM)

in automotive industry, 81

in construction, 7, 69–71, 78

expert systems applications, 70–71, 78

initial graphics exchange specification, 70

in manufacturing, 8, 81, 82

robotics, 74–75

standardization, 70

three-dimensional, 70–71

in very-large-scale-integration technology, 46–47

Computers and computer systems

costs, 38, 59, 60

digitalization, 62, 63

employment and, 13, 24

expert systems, 4, 70–71, 73–75, 78

fifth-generation, 33

human interface, 37–38, 40, 49, 50

influences on information technologies, 48–49

integrated software-hardware, 24, 37, 49

manufacturing industry applications, 8, 82

memory and processing power, 37, 38, 48–51

parallel processing architectures, 49–51

personal computers, 37, 38, 59, 60

productivity and, 13

quality control applications, 76

reduced-instruction-set, 49, 51

security for, 66

standards, 20, 40

use by white-collar workers, 59, 60

VLSI applications in, 48, 49, 59

See also Artificial intelligence;

Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM);

Software;

Supercomputers

Construction

advanced materials in, 1, 71–72

automation, 7, 73–75, 78–79

computer applications, 7, 69–71, 73–76, 78–79

economic importance, 68–69

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

equipment and methods, 7, 71–73

fast-track, 70, 75

first-of-a-kind projects, 77

heavy, 68–70

industrial sector, 69

laser applications in, 71

management methods, 7, 75–77, 78–79

manufacturing contrasted with, 68

markets, impact of technology on, 77–78

off site fabrication, assembly, and modularization, 7, 72–73

potential for change in, 69

productivity increases, 7

quality control, 76

research programs, 73, 78

residential and commercial sectors, 69, 70

robotics applications, 7, 72, 73, 78

slipforming practices, 71

technological advances in, 7, 68–79

welding automation, 73, 74–75

Cooperation, see International technological cooperation

D

Data bases

for construction management, 75

software needs, 51, 67

Data processing and communications

advances in, 7, 58–59

applications, 59, 71, 78

electronic equipment production globally, 46

fiber optics applications in, 52

needs, 34, 58

semiconductor component consumption, 46

use rates, 59

See also Computers and computer systems;

Telecommunications

Developed countries

production sharing by, 101–103

technological innovations in manufacturing, 25

See also specific countries

Developing countries

economic growth strategies, 6, 9, 25, 30–31

effects of technological cooperation on, 6

gross domestic product, 144

indebtedness, 27, 102–103

natural resources development, 6, 31

population growth, 30

production sharing in, 64, 87–101

U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89

wage rates, 87

See also specific countries

E

Economic growth/restructuring

capital investment role, 161–162

in developing countries, strategies, 25, 30–31

GNP and rate of, 110–113

government role in, 4, 10, 168–169

industry role in, 4

in Japan, 9, 28–29, 137

key technologies for, 24

macroeconomic environment for, 169–175

manufacturing role in, 4, 165–167

in Mexico, 92–93

obstacles to, 4, 28

in Pacific Rim countries, 9, 107–119

strategies, 4, 25, 30–31, 159–175

technological advances and, 1, 3, 9–10, 23–31, 160–161, 167–168, 178–180

in U.S., 9–10, 28, 159–175

in Western Europe, 29

Education and training

of automotive industry blue-collar workers, 84

engineering, 5

government role in providing, 168

international cooperation through, 34, 137

on policy matters, 5

for telecommunications jobs, 64

Electronic fund transfers, regulation of, 20

Electronics

equipment production globally, 45, 46

military applications, 17

superconductor applications, 44

See also Microcircuits;

Very-large-scale-integration technology

Employment

advanced manufacturing technologies and, 1, 23–24

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

computerization and, 13, 23–24

in integrated circuit industry, 48

in Mexico, 91, 95, 97–98, 104

R&D, 146

in U.S., 91–92

Western European, 29, 171

of women, 97–98

See also Labor markets

Engineers

employment in R&D, 146

professional societies, 21–22

role in advancing technology, 11, 21–22

Europe, Eastern

R&D expenditures, 146

Warsaw Pact, 18

Europe, Western

application of new technologies, 29

basic scientific research, 30, 36

BRITE project, 36

competitiveness, 29, 30, 35

economic strengths and weaknesses, 5, 29

electronic equipment production by industry, 46

employment, 29, 171

EUREKA Program, 30

industry cooperation in R&D, 33

labor productivity, 29

manufacturing industry structural changes, 85, 88

NATO, 18

production sharing in Mexico, 95

protectionism, 88

public procurement policies, 30

quality of products, 29

R&D support, 6, 35–36, 146

subsidization of industry, 29

unifying processes, 29

technological cooperation in, 6, 18, 33, 35–36

See also specific countries

European Economic Community (EEC)

employment, civilian, 172

funding of R&D programs, 136

Industrial Research and Development Advisory Committee, 35–36

R&D program, 6, 35–36

unifying role, 6, 29, 33, 35

European Nuclear Energy Agency,

encouragement of technology flow, 25

European Organization for Nuclear Research, 30

European Strategic Program for Research and Development in Information Technology, 33

F

Federal Republic of Germany

capital investment rate, 161

construction importance in, 69

contribution to world gross domestic product, 145

productivity growth, 161

R&D expenditures, 145–146

U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89

Fiber optics

development, 47, 51, 52

electro-optical directional coupler, 52

influence on information technologies, 42, 51–53

market influences on development of, 42

technology transfer from semiconductor industry, 42

telecommunications applications, 27, 32, 51–54

Fiji, GNP and growth rate, 111, 144

Financial markets

annual turnover, 27

volume of foreign currency transactions, 27

Finland, robotics technology, 75

France

capital investment rate, 161

GNP, 143

gross domestic product, 164

military R&D, 146

productivity growth rate, 161

G

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 93, 100, 115

H

Honeywell Inc., international laboratory, 34

Hong Kong

added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

comparative advantage by industry, 117–118

GNP and growth rate, 111, 113–114, 143

U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89

wage rates, 93

I

IBM Corporation

international laboratory, 34, 43

System/360, 48

superconductor research, 43

Indonesia

added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116

GNP and growth rate, 110–114, 143

sociopolitical character, 119, 121

Industrial globalization

government role in, 31

GNP and growth rate, 110–113

historical, 106

mode for technology, 109–110

multinational corporation role in, 30–31

obstacles to, see Protectionism

in Pacific Rim countries, 106–138

predictions, 12–22

product cycle, 107–109

through production sharing, 86–104

and structural change, 7, 113–119

in telecommunications sector, 64–65

theoretical construct, 107–118

Information flows

across borders, 20–21

control of, 20

manufacturing dependence on, 20–21

Information technologies

applications, 7, 45, 54–59;

see also Data processing and communications;

Telephony

benefits, 1, 7, 12–13

competition in, 25

convergence of service modes in, 62–63

costs of installations, 19

discovery-application interval, 25

economic impacts, 19

effect on other technologies, 3, 45, 64, 167

government involvement in, 20

influences of cutting-edge technologies on, 7, 45–54

inventions and inventors, 47

policy problems created by, 20

private sector role, 20

societal impacts, 19, 59–61

standards, 20, 54

structural changes created by, 64

See also Computers and computer systems;

Fiber optics;

Networks/ networking;

Software;

Very-large-scale-integration technology

Innovation

diffusion, 5

importance of cooperative agreements, 5

lead countries, 27

in production, 25

rates, 1, 25

See also Technological advances

Integrated circuits, see Microcircuits;

Very-large-scale-integration technology

Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), 154

International competitiveness/comparative advantage

changing nature of, 1, 86

factors affecting, 149–150

indicators, 117–118

by industry group and country, 117–119

in information technologies, 25

Japanese, 80, 117–119, 135–137

macroeconomic environment for, 169–175

in manufacturing, 177

of mature industries, 24–25

in microelectronics, 25

research and development and, 146

strategies, 86, 149–151

U.S., 10, 93–94, 117–119, 165, 169–175

Western European, 29

See also specific countries

International Monetary Fund, 26

International Research for Development Center of Canada, 154

International technological cooperation

in academia, 33, 34

by Australia, 132–133

on basic science research, 18

communication technologies contributing to, 32

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

consortia, 26

contributing factors, 4, 33, 35

effects on developing countries, 6

in Europe, 6, 35–36

foreign nationals in U.S. graduate programs, 34

government role in, 6, 21

in information technologies, 60

innovation and, 5

joint ventures, 4, 6, 26, 32, 33, 94;

see also Production sharing

in Latin America, 150–151

licensing agreements, 26, 32

marketing organizations, 6, 32

mechanisms for exchange of views, 2

multinational corporation role in, 6, 32, 132–133

North American-Western European-Japanese triad, 5, 27–28

obstacles to, 5, 6, 33–34

overseas R&D organizations, 32

predictions, 5–6, 13–14

on space exploration, 18

strategies, 6, 27–28, 34

transnational mergers, 1, 26

trends, 5, 6, 32–34

Inventions in information technologies, 47

Italy

contribution to world gross domestic product, 145

restoration of mature industries in, 24–25

J

Japan

agriculture, 116

automotive industry, 83

basic research at universities, 35

capital investment rate, 161

cellular phone penetration, 58–59

commercialization of new technologies, 10, 11, 28, 29, 130, 178–180

competitiveness/comparative advantage, 80, 117–119, 135–137, 177–179

construction industry, 69, 78

contribution to world gross domestic product, 145

cultural barriers to cooperative efforts, 33

economic growth obstacles and strategies, 5, 9, 10, 28–29, 137, 142–143, 173

education infrastructure, 137

electronic equipment production, 46

employment, civilian, 172

energy saving/antipollution industry, 178

export dependence, 5, 28

fifth-generation computer project, 33

GATT, 115

GNP and growth rate, 10, 110–114, 142, 143, 160, 178, 179

industrial restructuring in, 115–116

industry cooperation in R&D, 33

investment and technology transfer strategies, 133–135

manufacturing industry structural changes, 88, 116, 166, 179–180

military R&D, 146

Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 33

production sharing in Mexico, 95

productivity, 161, 166

protectionism, 116

quality control, 180

raw materials consumption, 26

R&D support in, 6, 35, 145–146

robotics technology, 74

savings rate, 169

South Korean investments by, 123

tax system, 173

trade and tariff policies, 115, 121, 136–137

U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89

L

Labor markets

construction, 7

skill mismatches, 7, 23–24

structural changes internationally, 103–104

Third World, 102

worker displacement by production sharing, 101

Laser technology

in construction industry, 71, 73

semiconductor, 42

Latin America

competitiveness, 9, 147, 149–151

cooperative efforts, 150–151

domestic demand, production, and technology, 151–153

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

economic growth, 9, 111, 147–151, 153–157

economic weight of, 142–145

GNP and growth rate, 111

gross domestic product, 144

industrialization policy, 148–149

interdependence with developed countries, 148

international influences on, 141

raw materials, 151

R&D, 146

science and technology policy, 156–157

technology development strategies, 9, 153–155

technology transfer, 155–156

trade asymmetry, 148

unemployment, 152

U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89

wage rates, 152

Local area networks, fiber optics applications, 52, 53

M

Malaysia

added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116

comparative advantage by industry, 117–119

GNP and growth rate, 110–114, 143

political stability, 119

U.S. 806/807 imports from, 89

Management

construction, advances in, 7, 75

in manufacturing, importance, 7, 81, 84

Manufacturing industries

apparel, 90, 98

ASEAN, 119–121

automation and robotization, 8, 24, 82

competitors, major companies, 177

computer applications, 8, 81, 82

construction industry contrasted with, 68

consumer demands, 8, 81

economic growth role of, 165–167

effects of advanced technologies on, 1, 5, 8, 81–82

employee demands, 8, 81

employment, 116

in Europe, 85

flexible systems, 8, 82 209

high-tech, 87

importance, 5, 24

information flows across borders, 20–21

Japanese competitiveness in, 80, 178–180

management changes, 7, 81, 84

military technologies applied to, 18

patient capital for, 8, 85

product changes and challenges, 24, 25, 80–81

productivity, 166–167

public attitudes toward, 80

quality control, 180

R&D, 165

rejuvenation of mature sectors, 24–25

service sector dependence on and competition with, 8, 24, 85, 165

small-scale, 82

structural changes in, 2–3, 23, 25, 80–85

traditional, 87

in U.S., 68, 85, 90–91, 116, 165–166, 168, 171–172

value added, global trends, 116

See also Automotive industry;

Production;

Production sharing

Maquiladoras

access to U.S. markets, 90–92

assembly industry and production, 95–96 , 98–101

labor force and, 97–98, 104

locations in Mexico, 95

Mexican economy and, 96–97

regulation of, 94–95

See also Production sharing

Materials science

advances in, 41–44

basic science contributions to, 42

See also Advanced materials

Mexico

added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116

border industrialization program, 94, 97–98

competitiveness, enhancement, 99–100

economy, 91–93, 96–97, 142

employment, 91, 95, 97–98, 104

GNP and growth rate, 92, 110, 143

production sharing with U.S., 8, 87–103

trade policy, 93, 94, 100–101

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 88–89

wage rates, 93, 98, 165

See also Maquiladoras

Microcircuits

chip component density, 45

competition in, 25

discovery-application interval, 25

dynamic random access memory chips, 47–48

feature size and design complexity, 46, 48, 63

interconnection and packaging, 47

obsolescence, 63

production facilities, 47–48, 77

telecommunications applications, 7, 57, 63

three-dimensional, 47

worker-years in design of, 46

See also Semiconductors;

Very-large-scale-integration technology

Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, 33

Military technology

defense systems, 17

electronic equipment production globally, 46

European, 17

expenditures, 16

first-strike capabilities, 16–17

manufacturing applications, 18

national security, 19

peacetime spin-offs, 4, 17–18

predictions, 4, 17–18

semiconductor component consumption, 46

strategic nuclear weaponry, 13, 16;

see also Nuclear weapons technology

U.S., 35

verification systems, 17

Models/modeling, economic development dynamics in Pacific Rim countries, 107–119

Multinational corporations

examination of condition and future of, 15–16

role in promoting technological development, 3–4, 30–31, 132

size, importance of, 5, 25

subsidiaries, 32

technology trading, 15

transnational joint ventures, 4, 6;

see also Production sharing

U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89

N

Natural resources

Australian, development of, 127–129

consumption by industrialized nations, 30

in developing countries, 31

Neodymium, processing costs, 42–43

Networks/networking

access to, 20

bit rates needed for, 53

in construction industry, 71, 76, 78

electronic fund transfers, 20

fiber optic applications in, 51, 53–54

government role in, 20–21

influences on information technologies, 53–54

integrated services digital network, 53

ISDN/broadband, 54

intelligent nodes, 54

need for, 60

standards for, 20

subscriber, 52;

see also Television

two-way national in U.S., impacts, 19–20

See also Local area networks

New Zealand, GNP and growth rate, 111–112 , 114, 143

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), technology trading with Warsaw Pact countries, 18

Nuclear weapons technology

predicted patterns, 17

social impacts, 13

O

Office automation

labor market effects of, 23–24, 64

See also Word processing

Organization of American States (OAS)

Regional Scientific and Technological Development Program, 154

P

Pacific Economic Community (PEC)

characteristics, 107

GNP and growth rate, 9, 110–113, 137–138 , 143

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

goods, 107

Japanese influence in, 114

product cycle, 107–109, 114

regional and national consequences of globalizing industries of, 9, 106–138

structural change from industrial globalization, 113–119

U.S. influence in, 114

theoretical construct, 9, 107–118

trade growth, 107

trade liberalization, 114

transfer of technology in, 9, 109–110

See also Association of Southeast Asian Nations;

and specific countries

Papua, New Guinea, GNP and growth rate, 111, 144

Particle accelerators, international cooperation on, 4, 18

Patent and copyright protection for software, 64, 126

People’s Republic of China, 28

contribution to world gross domestic product, 145

GNP and growth rate, 110–111, 113–114 , 143

industrialization, 138

superconductor research, 43

Philippines

added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116

agriculture trade problems, 120–121

GNP and growth rate, 110–114, 143

sociopolitical character, 121

U.S. 806/807 imports from, 89

Privacy protection

concerns, 7, 67

responsibility for, 20

Private sector

dissemination of advanced technology, 14–15

influence on directions of commercial technology, 19

role in developing and using technology, 3

See also Multinational corporations

Production

automotive industry, 83–84

employee-oriented, 83–84

raw materials consumption, 5, 26–27

small-scale units, advantages, 25

structural changes in, 23

technological innovations in, 25

Production sharing

advantages, 1, 8, 87, 90–94, 99, 101

by Australia, 132

dependency issue, 8, 98–99

disadvantages, 8, 95–99, 101

employment and, 8, 97–98

evolution and growth, 87–88, 95

industry life cycles and, 87

linkages with national economy in host country, 96–97

organizational arrangements, 89–90, 94–95

policy objectives, 99–103

principal participants, 88

siting factors, 90–94

on software development, 64

tariffs, U.S., 88–89

technology transfer through, 97

by U.S. with Mexico, 8, 87–103

See also Maquiladoras

Productivity

advanced manufacturing technologies and, 1

computerization and, 13

in construction, strategies for increasing, 7

Japanese, 160, 161

labor requirements and, 152

U.S., 160–161

Western European, 29, 161

Professional engineering societies, role in policy formation, 21–22

Protectionism

between companies, 33–34

disadvantages, 27, 102

Japanese, 116

R&D as, 106–107

role in industrialization, 109

trends, 14

U.S., 126, 174, 175

Public sector

influence on civilian commercial technology, 19

role in economic growth, 168–169

role in information flow and processing, 20

Q

Quality of life, improvement through technology, 1, 10, 177–180

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

R

Republic of Korea

added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116

competitiveness, 117–119, 126, 177

education in, 124, 126

foreign investment value in, 123–124

GNP and growth rate, 112–114, 121, 143

growth strategies, 122–126, 130

Japanese influence in, 122

problems and challenges, 9, 126

science R&D, 124, 126

technology acquisition, 121–125

trade policies, 121

U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89

wage rates, 93, 165

Research and development (R&D)

academic, 6, 34–35

BRITE project, 36

and comparative advantage in international trade, 146–147

in construction, 7

employment in, 146

EUREKA Program, 30

European, 6, 35–36, 145–146

expenditures, 3, 6, 145–146

Japanese, 6, 35, 145–146

industry, 6, 32–34, 35

international cooperation in, 32–34

military, 146

obstacles to, 36

support for, 34–35

U.S., 6, 35, 145–146

See also Scientific research

Robotics/robots

articulated, for welding, 74

combined with computer-aided design/ manufacturing, 74–75

construction applications, 7, 72–75, 78

costs, 75

job losses to, 64

manufacturing applications, 8

military applications, 17

quality control impacts, 76

remotely controlled for hazardous environments, 74

in U.S., 74

S

Scientific research

contributions to materials science, 42

cross-disciplinary approach, 5

data sharing, scientists views on, 18–19

government decision-making role on, 19

predicted patterns, 18

Western European, 30

See also Research and development

Security

information integrity, 7, 67

in telecommunications, 7, 66–67

Semiconductor industry

contributions to fiber optics, 42

U.S.-Japanese competition, 135

Semiconductors

complementary metal-oxide, 48

consumption globally by industry, 45, 46

telecommunications applications, 57

Service sector, dependence on manufacturing industry, 85, 165

Singapore

added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116

GNP and growth rate, 110–114, 143

U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89

wage rates, 93, 177

Software

advances, 6, 37–40

business applications, 38

costs, 64

crisis, 7, 49, 51, 63–64

demand, 64

development projects, 39

developmental boundaries for industry, 6, 38

employment opportunities, 64

engineering, definition, 38

human interface, 37–38, 50

industry applications, 50

influences on information technologies, 49–51

for large computer systems, 38

management and planning, 50

methodology and tools, 51

patent and copyright protection, 64, 126

for personal computers, 38

programming languages, 6, 39–40, 49–51 , 64

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

reliability, 66

reusable, 50

rigidification in development, 6, 40

standardization, 20, 40, 51, 65

telecommunications, 20, 63–64

technological advances contributing to advances in, 38

See also Artificial intelligence

South Korea, see Republic of Korea

Soviet Union

construction importance in, 69

economic needs, 17

economic weight, 142, 145

nuclear first-strike potential and capabilities, 16–17

Space exploration

international cooperation on, 4, 18

manned exploration of Mars, 18

Standards/standardization

in computer-assisted design, 70

in computer hardware and software, 20, 40, 65

economics of, 65

in information technologies, basis, 54, 65–66

obstacles to, 65

open system interconnection, 54, 55, 65

responsibility for setting, 20

in telecommunications, 20, 55, 58, 65–66

Supercomputers, Cray XMP, 48

Superconducting materials

applications, 6, 26, 43–44

discovery-applications interval, 43

high-temperature, 43, 44

Sweden

cellular phone penetration, 58–59

social impact of information technologies, 59–60

T

Taiwan

comparative advantage, 117–118, 177

GNP and growth rate, 112–113

growth turning point, 110

U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 89

wage rates, 93, 165

Tariffs

ASEAN, 120 213

Australian, 129

GATT, 93, 100, 115

Republic of Korea, 124

U.S. policy 807/808, 88–90, 103

Taxation, 170–171, 173

Technological advances

acceptance by workers, 76–77, 178

availability, 11, 13

commercialization, 10, 11, 28, 29, 33

comparative advantage, 146–147;

see also International competitiveness/ comparative advantage

in construction, 68–79

discovery-application interval, 25, 41–42

economic restructuring and, 1, 3, 23–31, 160–161, 167–168, 178–180

engineers’ role in policy formation, 11, 21

financial market effects of, 27

free-market forces in, 19

globalization, mode of, 109–110

government influence on and responses to, 3, 4–5, 19, 21

human-level changes from, 2–3

indicators of potential for, 154

institutional-level changes, 2

international cooperation and, 13

international-level changes from, 2, 26–27

life cycle, 107–109

in manufacturing, 5

military, 16;

see also Military technology

national-level changes from, 2

negative effects, 152

obsolescence, 33, 65, 131

positive effects, 151–152

predictions, 4

private sector influences on, 3–4, 19

proprietary advantage, 33–34;

see also Protectionism

public attitudes on, 3

quality of life improvements through, 11, 177–180

raw materials consumption and, 5, 26–27

rejuvenation of mature sectors, 24–25

scientific nature, 26

social progress and, 12–13

in telecommunications, 62–67

trading of, 15, 18

Technology flows/transfer

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

from academia, 34–35

Australian contributions to, 127–129

barriers to, 4, 5, 13, 14, 16, 27, 33, 126;

see also Protectionism

between NATO and Warsaw Pact countries, 18

dynamics, 109

fixed-factor, 130

internal, 24, 155–156

from industry, 35, 109

Japanese and U.S. strategies compared, 133–135

in Latin America and Caribbean, 155–156

negotiated military reductions and, 18

obstacles, 155–156

into Pacific rim countries, 9, 109–110, 122–125, 126

predicted trends, 4

private-sector forces in, 14–15

through production sharing, 97, 103

rates, 4, 10, 33–34, 164

strategies for encouraging, 24, 103, 155–156

See also International technological cooperation

Telecommunications

advances in, 7

bit rates, 53

coaxial cable transmission technology, 52

in construction industry, 71

contribution to international technological cooperation, 32

convergence of service modes, 7, 62–63

digitalization, 62, 63

electronic equipment production globally, 46

electronic mail, 32

electro-optical directional coupler, 52

fiber optics applications, 32, 63

globalization, 62

information integrity, 7, 67

inter-LAN/PBX, 53

microelectronics revolution, 7, 63

objectives, 67

optical fiber applications, 27, 51–53, 62

privacy protection, 7, 67

problems and challenges, 7

regulation of, 63

reliability, 7, 62, 66

satellite, 32, 62

security, 7, 62, 66

semiconductor component consumption, 46

social impacts of advances, 13

software applications and needs, 7, 50, 62, 63–64

standardization in, 7, 34, 55, 63, 65–66

structural changes in industry, 7, 64–65

switching technology, 50, 55, 57, 62

technologies contributing to advances in, 62, 63

See also Data processing and communications;

Networks/ networking

Telephony

access to, globally, 55–56, 59

advances, 55–59

bit rates, 53

fiber optic networks, 51–52

growth forecasts, 57

job losses in, 64

local telephone exchange market, 56

main lines in service globally, 56–57

mobile cellular, 7, 54, 57–59

normal voice, 7, 53–57

standards, 58

switching technology, 50, 55, 57

technological advances contributing to, 57

See also Data processing and communications

Television

cable, 53, 63

high-definition, 52, 53

Thailand

added value in agriculture and manufacturing, 116

GNP and growth rate, 110–114, 143

Trade and trade policy

agriculture, by Pacific Economic Community, 116

ASEAN, 120–121

Australia, 131

barriers, 103

competitiveness and, 86, 116–118

for developed countries, 101–103

free-trade benefits, 14

GATT, 93, 100

incentives, 86, 101

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

Japan, 115, 121, 136–137

Mexico, 93, 94, 165

protectionist-nationalist approach to, 14, 102

R&D and comparative advantage in, 146–147

technological impacts on, 1, 27

technology marketing, 15

U.S. tariff policy 806/807, 88–89, 103

volume, 27

See also Maquiladoras;

Production sharing;

Tariffs

Transportation

effects of technological advances on, 1, 13

electronic equipment production globally, 46

semiconductor component consumption, 46

See also Automotive industry

U

United Kingdom

cellular phone penetration, 58–59

construction importance in, 69

contribution to world gross domestic product, 145

economic growth rate, 160

industry cooperation in R&D, 33

military R&D expenditures, 146

United Nations Development Program, 154

United States

agriculture, 116

application of new technologies, 10–11, 29

budget deficit, 5, 17, 28, 170–171, 173

cellular telephone use, 59

competition with Japan, 133–137

competitiveness/comparative advantage, 10, 93–94, 117–119, 165, 169–175, 177

contribution to world gross domestic product, 145

cultural barriers to cooperative efforts, 33

debt servicing, 170–171

deindustrialization, 28

economic growth obstacles, 5, 9–10, 28

economic growth strategies, 10, 159–175

electronic equipment production by industry, 46

employment, civilian, 172

exporters and R&D spenders, leading, 166

financial assets trading, 165

GNP and growth rate, 68, 110–114, 142, 143, 159–160, 161, 165

graduate programs, foreign nationals in, 34

income per capita, 160

industry cooperation in R&D, 33

information technologies, economic and social impacts, 19–20

investment and technology transfer strategies, 133–135

manufacturing industry, 85, 90–91, 116, 165–166, 168, 171–172

military R&D, 146

nuclear first-strike potential and capabilities, 16–17

production sharing with Mexico, 8, 87–103

productivity, 160–161, 166

protectionism, 126, 174, 175

R&D support in, 6, 35, 145–146

regulation and industrial growth, 162, 174–175

savings rates, 169

South Korean investments by, 123

tariff provisions 806/807, 88–90, 103

technology transfer to South Korea, 122–123 , 125

telecommunications networks in, 19–20

trade deficit, 5, 28, 173

trade policies, 103, 121, 126, 173–174

wage rates, 93, 104, 165

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, construction research, 73

U.S. National Bureau of Standards, construction research, 73

V

Very-large-scale-integration technology

challenges, 46–48

computer-aided design applications in, 46

computer applications of, 48, 59

contributions to information technologies, 45–48

feature size, design complexity, and facilities for production, 46

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
×

pace of development, 45–46

quality control, 66

See also Microcircuits;

Semiconductors

W

Warsaw Pact countries, technology trading with NATO countries, 18

Word processing, labor market changes due to, 24, 64

X

Xerox Corporation, Palo Alto Research Center, 37

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1988. Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1101.
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Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives Get This Book
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The technological revolution has reached around the world, with important consequences for business, government, and the labor market. Computer-aided design, telecommunications, and other developments are allowing small players to compete with traditional giants in manufacturing and other fields. In this volume, 16 engineering and industrial experts representing eight countries discuss the growth of technological advances and their impact on specific industries and regions of the world. From various perspectives, these distinguished commentators describe the practical aspects of technology's reach into business and trade.

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