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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This study was supported by Contract No. DSCX-N-02–04-A, between the National Academies and the U.S. Agency for International Development. Additional funding was provided by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. The views presented in this report are those of the National Research Council Committee on Science and Technology to Support Foreign Assistance and are not necessarily those of the funding agencies.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V.Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm. A.Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
Committee on Science and Technology in Foreign Assistance
Thomas R.Pickering (co-chair), Senior Vice President for International Relations,
the Boeing Company
Kenneth Shine, M.D. (IOM) (co-chair), Vice Chancellor for Health Affairs at
the University of Texas System
Barry Bloom, Ph.D. (NAS/IOM), Dean of the Faculty and Joan L. and Julius H.Jacobson Professor of Public Health at
the Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University
Owen Cylke, J.D. Senior Program Officer,
Macroeconomics Program for Sustainable Development, World Wildlife Fund
Lee H.Hamilton, J.D., Director,
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
Susanna Hecht, Ph.D., Associate Director, Teaching; Administrative Head,
Latin American Studies, Latin American Center, Department of Urban Planning, UCLA School of Public Policy and Social Research
Susan Henry, Ph.D., Ronald P.Lynch Dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Professor of Molecular Biology and Genetics,
W.David Hopper, Ph.D., senior vice president of Policy, Planning, and Research,
The World Bank Group (retired)
Michael Rock, Ph.D. Harvey Wexler Professor of Economics and Chair,
Department of Economics, Bryn Mawr College
Allan Rosenfield, M.D. (IOM), Dean of the School of Public Health and DeLamar Professor of Public Health,
Philip Smith, Partner,
McGeary and Smith
Barry Worthington, Executive Director,
United States Energy Association
Glenn Schweitzer, Study Director
Pat Koshel, Senior Program Officer
Laura Holliday, Senior Program Associate
Christopher Holt, Senior Program Assistant
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.
We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
Patrick Cronin, Center for Strategic International Studies
Kerri-Ann Jones, National Science Foundation
Gerald T.Keusch, Boston University
Princeton Lyman, Council on Foreign Relations
Mark L.Schneider, International Crisis Group
Charles Weiss, Georgetown University
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Alexander Flax, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.