LEARNING FROM THE PAST: PANDEMICS AND OTHER THREATS TO PUBLIC HEALTH
Henzler DJ, Kradel DC, Davison S, Ziegler AF, Singletary D, DeBok P, Castro AE, Lu H, Eckroade R, Swayne D, Lagoda W, Schmucker B, Nesselrodt A. 2003. Epidemiology, production losses, and control measures associated with an outbreak of avian influenza subtype H7N2 in Pennsylvania (1996–98). Avian Diseases 47(Suppl 3):1022–1036.
Kobasa D, Takada A, Shinya K, Hatta M, Halfmann P, Theriault S, Suzuki H, Nishimura H, Mitamura K, Sugaya N, Usui T, Murata T, Maeda Y, Watanabe S, Suresh M, Suzuki T, Suzuki Y, Feldmann H, Kawaoka Y. 2004. Enhanced virulence of influenza A viruses with the haemagglutinin of the 1918 pandemic virus. Nature 431(7009):703–707.
Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network. 2004. NISN statement on antiviral resistance in influenza viruses. Weekly Epidemiological Record 79(33):306–308.
Simonsen L, Fukuda K, Schonberger LB, Cox NJ. 2000. The impact of influenza epidemics on hospitalizations. Journal of Infectious Diseases 181(3):831–837.
Snacken R, Kendal AP, Haaheim LR, Wood JM. 1999. The next influenza pandemic: Lessons from Hong Kong, 1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(2):195–203.
Stevens J, Corper AL, Basler CF, Taubenberger JK, Palese P, Wilson IA. 2004. Structure of the uncleaved human H1 hemagglutinin from the extinct 1918 influenza virus. Science 303(5665):1866–1870.
Tumpey TM, Garcia-Sastre A, Mikulasova A, Taubenberger JK, Swayne DE, Palese P, Basler CF. 2002. Existing antivirals are effective against influenza viruses with genes from the 1918 pandemic virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99(21):13849–13854.
Tumpey TM, Garcia-Sastre A, Taubenberger JK, Palese P, Swayne DE, Basler CF. 2004. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of influenza viruses with genes from the 1918 pandemic virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101(9):3166–3171.
Webby RJ, Webster RG. 2003. Are we ready for pandemic influenza? Science 302(5650):1519–1522.
GLOBAL PREVENTION OF AND PREPARATION FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZA
Health Canada. 2004. Table of contents, preface, and introduction. In: Canadian Pandemic Influenza Plan. Pp. i–vii, 3–14. [Online]. Available: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/pphb-dgspsp/cpip-pclcpi/ [accessed June 8, 2004].
Health, Welfare and Food Bureau, The Government of Hong Kong SAR. 2004. Prevention of Avian Influenza: Consultation on Long-term Direction to Minimize the Risk of Human Infection. [Online]. Available: http://www.hwfb.gov.hk/download/consult/040402_feh/e_avian_flu.pdf [accessed May 2004].
WHO (World Health Organization). 2004. National Influenza Pandemic Plans. [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/nationalpandemic/en/print.html [accessed June 7, 2004].
WHO. 2004. WHO Consultation on Priority Public Health Interventions Before and During an Influenza Pandemic. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response.
WHO. 2004. WHO Guidelines on the Use of Vaccines and Antivirals During Influenza Pandemics. WHO/CDS/CSR/RMD/2004.8. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/influenza/WHO_CDS_CSR_RMD_2004_8/en [accessed December 16, 2004].
PREPARING THE UNITED STATES FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZA
Amendment to the Public Health Service Act to ensure an adequate supply of vaccines. S. 371, 108th Congress, 1st Session (2003).
Earls MJ, Hearne SA. 2004. Facing the Flu: From the Bird Flu to a Possible Pandemic, Why Isn’t America Ready? Issue Report by Trust for America’s Health. [Online]. Available: http://healthyamericans.org/reports/files/AvianFlu.pdf [accessed December 20, 2004].
Harper SA, Fukuda K, Uyeki TM, Cox NJ, Bridges CB; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. 2004, May 28. Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Recommendations and Reports 53(RR-6):1–40.
Improved Vaccine Affordability and Availability Act. S. 754, 108th Congress, 1st Session (2003).
Slater EE. 2004. Industry and government perspective in influenza control. Texas Heart Institute Journal 31(1):42–44.
The Flu Protection Act of 2004. S. 2038, 108th Congress, 2d Session (2004).
STATE AND LOCAL PREPARATION MEASURES
Gensheimer KF, Meltzer MI, Postema AS, Strikas RA. 2003. Influenza pandemic preparedness. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9(12):1645–1648.
Glaser CA, Gilliam S, Thompson WW, Dassey DE, Waterman SH, Saruwatari M, Shapiro S, Fukuda K. 2002. Medical care capacity for influenza outbreaks, Los Angeles. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8(6):569–574.
Misegades L. 2002. Nature’s Terrorist Attack: Pandemic Influenza. Preparedness planning for state health officials. Washington, DC: Association of State and Territorial Health Officials.
State of California Hospital Bioterrorism Preparedness Program: 2003 Implementation Plan. 2003. Emergency Medical Services Authority, Department of Health Services, State of California. Pp. 1–6, 35–36.
Texas Department of Health. 2004, January 15. Texas Department of Health Pandemic Influenza Plan [Draft]. [Online]. Available: http://www.cste.org/specialprojects/Influenza%20Pandemic%20State%20Plans/TxPanFluPlan1.15.2004.pdf [accessed December 20, 2004].
STRATEGIES TO PREVENT AND CONTROL TRANSMISSION AMONG BIRDS AND OTHER ANIMALS
Bulaga LL, Garber L, Senne DA, Myers TJ, Good R, Wainwright S, Trock S, Suarez DL. 2003. Epidemiologic and surveillance studies on avian influenza in live-bird markets in New York and New Jersey, 2001. Avian Diseases 47(Suppl 3):996–1001.
Buranathai C. 2004 (June 16–17). Information Sheet 1: Summary of Avian Influenza Outbreak in Thailand, 2004. Prepared for Institute of Medicine (IOM) Forum on Microbial Threats workshop: Pandemic Influenza: Assessing Capabilities for Prevention and Response, Washington, DC.
Buranathai C. 2004 (June 16–17). Information Sheet 2: Avian Influenza Outbreak in Thailand: Virological Aspects. Prepared for IOM Forum on Microbial Threats workshop: Pandemic Influenza: Assessing Capabilities for Prevention and Response, Washington, DC.
Buranathai C. 2004 (June 16–17). Information Sheet 3: Avian Influenza Outbreak in Thailand: Detection of H5N1 from Cats and Tigers. Prepared for IOM Forum on Microbial Threats workshop: Pandemic Influenza: Assessing Capabilities for Prevention and Response, Washington, DC.
Buranathai C. 2004 (June 16–17). Information Sheet 4: Avian Influenza Outbreak in Thailand: Movement Control. Prepared for IOM Forum on Microbial Threats workshop: Pandemic Influenza: Assessing Capabilities for Prevention and Response, Washington, DC.
Buranathai C. 2004 (June 16–17). Information Sheet 5: Avian Influenza Outbreak in Thailand: Current Policies. Prepared for IOM Forum on Microbial Threats workshop: Pandemic Influenza: Assessing Capabilities for Prevention and Response, Washington, DC.
Cardona C. 2002. Recommendations to prevent the spread and/or introduction of avian influenza virus. Fact Sheets & Information: Poultry. UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine Cooperative Extension. [Online]. Available: http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/vetext/INF-PO_AI-Recommendations.pdf [accessed June 8, 2004].
Cardona C. Undated. Avian influenza: AI recommendations. Fact Sheets & Information: Poultry. UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine Cooperative Extension. [Online]. Available: http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/vetext/INF-PO_AI.html [accessed May 20, 2004].
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2004, February 13. Outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) in Asia and interim recommendations for evaluation and reporting of suspected cases—United States, 2004. MMWR 53(5):97–100.
Ehlers M, Moller M, Marangon S, Ferre N. 2003. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) in the frame of the contingency plan implemented during the 1999–2001 avian influenza (AI) epidemic in Italy. Avian Diseases 47(Suppl 3):1010–1014.
Fouchier RA, Osterhaus AD, Brown IH. 2003. Animal influenza virus surveillance. Vaccine 21(16):1754–1757.
Guan Y, Poon LL, Cheung CY, Ellis TM, Lim W, Lipatov AS, Chan KH, Sturm-Ramirez KM, Cheung CL, Leung YH, Yuen KY, Webster RG, Peiris JS. 2004. H5N1 influenza: A protean pandemic threat. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101(21):8156–8161.
Halvorston D, Capua I, Cardona C, Frame D, Karunakaran D, Marangon S, Ortali G, Roepke D, Woo-ming B. 2003, March. The Economics of Avian Influenza Control. Presented at the Western Poultry Disease Conference.
Koopmans M, Wilbrink B, Conyn M, Natrop G, van der Nat H, Vennema H, Meijer A, van Steenbergen J, Fouchier R, Osterhaus A, Bosman A. 2004. Transmission of H7N7 avian influenza A virus to human beings during a large outbreak in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands. Lancet 363(9409):587–593.
Liu M, Guan Y, Peiris M, He S, Webby RJ, Perez D, Webster RG. 2003. The quest of influenza A viruses for new hosts. Avian Diseases 47(3 Suppl):849–856.
Myers TJ, Rhorer MD, Clifford J. 2003. USDA options for regulatory changes to enhance the prevention and control of avian influenza. Avian Diseases 47(Suppl 3):982–987.
Neumann G, Hatta M, Kawaoka Y. 2003. Reverse genetics for the control of avian influenza. Avian Diseases 47(Suppl 3):882–887.
Pearson JE. 2003. International standards for the control of avian influenza. Avian Diseases 47:972–975.
Pharo HJ. 2003. The impact of new epidemiological information on a risk analysis for the introduction of avian influenza viruses in imported poultry meat. Avian Diseases 47(Suppl 3):988–995.
Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Welfare, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General, European Commission. 2000. The Definition of Avian Influenza: The Use of Vaccination Against Avian Influenza.
Sims LD, Ellis TM, Liu KK, Dyrting K, Wong H, Peiris M, Guan Y, Shortridge KF. 2003. Avian influenza in Hong Kong, 1997–2002. Avian Diseases 47(Suppl 3):832–838.
Sims LD, Guan Y, Ellis TM, Liu KK, Dyrting K, Wong H, Kung NY, Shortridge KF, Peiris M. 2003. An update on avian influenza in Hong Kong, 2002. Avian Diseases 47(Suppl 3):1083–1086.
Spackman E, Senne DA, Bulaga LL, Myers TJ, Perdue ML, Garber LP, Lohman K, Daum LT, Suarez DL. 2003. Development of real-time RT-PCR for the detection of avian influenza virus. Avian Diseases 47(Suppl 3):1079–1082.
Stöhr K. 2003. The WHO global influenza program and its animal influenza network. Avian Diseases 47:934–938.
Symposium Organizing Committee. 2003. Recommendations of the Fifth International Symposium on Avian Influenza. Avian Diseases 47(Suppl 3):1260–1261.
Tran TH, Nguyen TL, Nguyen TD, Luong TS, Pham PM, Nguyen VC, Pham TS, Vo CD, Le TQ, Ngo TT, Dao BK, Le PP, Nguyen TT, Hoang TL, Cao VT, Le TG, Nguyen DT, Le HN, Nguyen KT, Le HS, Le VT, Christiane D, Tran TT, Menno de J, Schultsz C, Cheng P, Lim W, Horby P, Farrar J; World Health Organization International Avian Influenza Investigative Tea. 2004. World Health Organization International Avian Influenza Investigative Team. Avian influenza A (H5N1) in 10 patients in Vietnam. New England Journal of Medicine 350(12):1179–1188.
van der Goot JA, Koch G, de Jong MC, van Boven M. 2003. Transmission dynamics of low-and high-pathogenicity A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/83 avian influenza viruses. Avian Diseases 47(Suppl 3):939–941.
Webster R. 2004. Wet markets—a continuing source of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and influenza? Lancet 363:234–236.
World Health Organization. 2004, March 2. Avian Influenza A(H5N1)—Update 31: Situation (Poultry) in Asia: Need for a Long-Term Response, Comparison with Previous Outbreaks. [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/csr/don/2004_03_02/en/print.html [accessed June 7, 2004].
BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES TO PREVENTING OR CONTROLLING A PANDEMIC
Bowles SK, Lee W, Simor AE, Vearncombe M, Loeb M, Tamblyn S, Fearon M, Li Y, McGeer A; Oseltamivir Compassionate Use Program Group. 2002. Use of oseltamivir during influenza outbreaks in Ontario nursing homes, 1999–2000. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 50(4):608–616.
Cooper NJ, Sutton AJ, Abrams KR, Wailoo A, Turner D, Nicholson KG. 2003. Effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors in treatment and prevention of influenza A and B: Systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal 326(7401):1235.
Ferguson NM, Mallett S, Jackson H, Roberts N, Ward P. 2003. A population-dynamic model for evaluating the potential spread of drug-resistant influenza virus infections during community-based use of antivirals. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 51(4):977–990.
Hayden FG. 2001. Perspectives on antiviral use during pandemic influenza. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 356(1416):1877–1884.
Kaiser L, Wat C, Mills T, Mahoney P, Ward P, Hayden F. 2003. Impact of oseltamivir treatment on influenza-related lower respiratory tract complications and hospitalizations. Archives of Internal Medicine 163(14):1667–1672.
Kati WM, Montgomery D, Carrick R, Gubareva L, Maring C, McDaniel K, Steffy K, Molla A, Hayden F, Kempf D, Kohlbrenner W. 2002. In vitro characterization of A-315675, a highly potent inhibitor of A and B strain influenza virus neuraminidases and influenza virus replication. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 46(4):1014–1021.
Longini IM Jr, Halloran ME, Nizam A, Yang Y. 2004. Containing pandemic influenza with antiviral agents. American Journal of Epidemiology 159(7):623–633.
Monto AS. 2003. The role of antivirals in the control of influenza. Vaccine 21(16):1796–1800.
Oxford J, Balasingam S, Lambkin R. 2004. A new millennium conundrum: How to use a powerful class of influenza anti-neuraminidase drugs (NAIs) in the community. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 53(2):133–136.
Peltola VT, McCullers JA. 2004. Respiratory viruses predisposing to bacterial infections: Role of neuraminidase. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 23(Suppl 1):S87–S97.
Zambon M, Hayden FG; Global Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network. 2001. Position statement: Global Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network. Antiviral Research 49(3):147–156.
Adis Data Information BV. 2003. Influenza virus vaccine live intranasal—MedImmune vaccines: CAIV-T, influenza vaccine live intranasal. Drugs R&D 4(5):312–319.
Chen Z. 2004. Influenza DNA vaccine: An update. Chinese Medical Journal 117(1):125–132. [Online]. Available: http://www.cmj.org/information/full.asp?pmid=20041125 [accessed June 8, 2004].
Epstein SL, Tumpey TM, Misplon JA, Lo CY, Cooper LA, Subbarao K, Renshaw M, Sambhara S, Katz JM. 2002. DNA vaccine expressing conserved influenza virus proteins protective against H5N1 challenge infection in mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8(8):796–801.
Fedson DS. 2004. Vaccination for pandemic influenza: A six point agenda for interpandemic years. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 23(Suppl 1):S74–S77.
Ferguson NM, Galvani AP, Bush RM. 2003. Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution. Nature 422(6930):428–433.
Glezen WP. 2004. Control of influenza. Texas Heart Institute Journal 31(1):39–41.
Hoch D. 2004, May. Influenza pandemic preparedness: The European vaccine manufacturers’ perspective. ESWI Bulletin. [Online]. Available: http://www.eswi.org/ [accessed June 8, 2004].
Jin H, Zhou H, Lu B, Kemble G. 2004. Imparting temperature sensitivity and attenuation in ferrets to A/Puerto Rico/8/34 influenza virus by transferring the genetic signature for temperature sensitivity from cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60. Journal of Virology 78(2):995–998.
Kemble G, Greenberg H. 2003. Novel generations of influenza vaccines. Vaccine 21(16):1789–1795.
Lambert LC, Kim S. 2004, May. Pandemic preparedness: Developing a clinical trial research plan. ESWI Bulletin. [Online]. Available: http://www.eswi.org/ [accessed June 8, 2004].
McElhaney JE, Aoki FY. 2004, May. FluMist™: History and future. ESWI Bulletin. [Online]. Available: http://www.eswi.org/ [accessed June 8, 2004].
Palese P, García-Sastre A. 2002. Influenza vaccines: Present and future. Journal of Clinical Investigation 110(1):9–13.
Webby RJ, Perez DR, Coleman JS, Guan Y, Knight JH, Govorkova EA, McClain-Moss LR, Peiris JS, Rehg JE, Tuomanen EI, Webster RG. 2004. Responsiveness to a pandemic alert: Use of reverse genetics for rapid development of influenza vaccines. Lancet 363(9415):1099–1103.
LEGAL ISSUES IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF A PANDEMIC
Barbera J, Macintyre A, Gostin L, Inglesby T, O’Toole T, DeAtley C, Tonat K, Layton M. 2001. Large-scale quarantine following biological terrorism in the United States: Scientific examination, logistic and legal limits, and possible consequences. Journal of the American Medical Association 286(21):2711–2717.
Epstein RA. 2003, Summer. Let the shoemaker stick to his last: A defense of the “old” public health. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46(Suppl 3):S138–S159.
Fedson, DS. 2004 (June 16–17). Reverse Genetics, Intellectual Property and Influenza Vaccination. Prepared for IOM Forum on Microbial Threats workshop: Pandemic Influenza: Assessing Capabilities for Prevention and Response, Washington, DC.
Gostin LO. 2004. International infectious disease law: Revision of the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations. Journal of the American Medical Association 291(21):2623–2627.
Gostin LO, Bayer R, Fairchild AL. 2003. Ethical and legal challenges posed by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Implications for the control of severe infectious disease threats. Journal of the American Medical Association 290(24):3229–3237.
Gostin LO, Bloche MG. 2003. The politics of public health: A response to Epstein. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46(Suppl 3):S160–S175.
Mair JS, Mair M. 2003. Vaccine liability in the era of bioterrorism. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science 1(3):169–184.
IMPROVING PREPAREDNESS: SURVEILLANCE, PREDICTION, AND COMMUNICATION
Brunell PA, ed. 2004, February. Importance of Vaccinating Healthcare Workers Against Influenza. CME monograph from Infectious Diseases in Children. Selected articles: Eickhoff TC, Keys to compliance; Piedra PA, Time has come to make vaccination mandatory; The literature’s message; Glezen WP, Influenza past and present. [Online]. Available: http://idinchildren.com/monograph/0402/cmei.pdf [accessed June 8, 2004].
Cain KP, Blitz SG. 2004. Integration of clinical practice, publicity, and policy: A shot in the arm for influenza control. American Journal of Managed Care 10(1):11–12.
Davis MM, McMahon SR, Santoli JM, Schwartz B, Clark SJ. 2002. A national survey of physician practices regarding influenza vaccine. Journal of General Internal Medicine 17(9):670–676.
Fraser C, Riley S, Anderson RM, Ferguson NM. 2004. Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101(16):6146–6151.
Gensheimer KF, Fukuda K, Brammer L, Cox N, Patriarca PA, Strikes RA. 2002. Preparing for pandemic influenza: The need for enhanced surveillance. Vaccine 20(Suppl 2): S63–S65.
Glass TA, Schoch-Spana M. 2002. Bioterrorism and the people: How to vaccinate a city against panic. Clinical Infectious Diseases 34(2):217–223.
Mooney JD, Holmes E, Christie P. 2002. Real-time modelling of influenza outbreaks: A linear regression analysis. Eurosurveillance Monthly 7(12):184–187. [Online]. Available: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/em/v07n12/0712-225.asp [accessed June 8, 2004).
Participants of the WHO Consultation on Global Priorities in Influenza, 2002 May 6–7. 2003. The Global Agenda on Influenza Surveillance and Control. [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/csrinfluenzaglobalagenda/en/print.html [accessed June 7, 2004].
Pavlin J. Epidemiologic Surveillance in Developing Countries. Global Emerging Infections System, U.S. Department of Defense.
Perdue ML. 2003. Molecular diagnostics in an insecure world. Avian Diseases 47(Suppl 3):1063–1068.
Schoch-Spana M. 2000. Implications of pandemic influenza for bioterrorism response. Clinical Infectious Diseases 31(6):1409–1413.
Schopflocher DP, Russell ML, Svenson LW, Thu-Ha N, Mazurenko I. 2004. Pandemic influenza planning: Using the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention FluAid software for small area estimation in the Canadian context. Annals of Epidemiology 14:73–76.
Shult PA, Kirk C. 2003. Laboratory-based surveillance for influenza: Role of the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene. Wisconsin Medical Journal 102(6):26–30.
Simonsen L, Clarke MJ, Schonberger LB, Arden NH, Cox NJ, Fukuda K. 1998. Pandemic versus epidemic influenza mortality: A pattern of changing age distribution. Journal of Infectious Diseases 178(1):53–60.
Working Group on Governance Dilemmas in Bioterrorism Response. 2004. Leading during bioattacks and epidemics with the public’s trust and help. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science 2(1):25–40.
World Health Organization. 2004. WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network. [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/surveillance/en/print.html [accessed June 7, 2004].