National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants

VOLUME 1

Subcommittee on Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants

Committee on Toxicology

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by Contract No. DAMD17-99-C-9049 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.


www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
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COMMITTEE ON EMERGENCY AND CONTINUOUS EXPOSURE GUIDANCE LEVELS FOR SELECTED SUBMARINE CONTAMINANTS

Members

ERNEST MCCONNELL (Chair),

ToxPath, Inc., Raleigh, NC

RAKESH DIXIT,

Johnson and Johnson, PRD, L.L.C., San Diego, CA

DAVID DORMAN,

CIIT Centers for Health Research, Research Triangle Park, NC

MAUREEN FEUSTON,

Sanofi–Synthelabo Research, Malvern, PA

JACK HARKEMA,

Michigan State University, East Lansing

HOWARD KIPEN,

UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ

LOREN KOLLER,

Environmental Health & Toxicology, Corvallis, OR

JOHN O'DONOGHUE,

University of Rochester, Honeoye Falls, NY

JOYCE TSUJI,

Exponent, Inc., Bellevue, WA

ANNETTA WATSON,

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

CALVIN WILLHITE,

California Department of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley

Staff

ELLEN K. MANTUS, Project Director

MARY FOX, Program Officer

RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor

KELLY CLARK, Editor

JENNIFER SAUNDERS, Research Associate

MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Research Associate

LAURA E. WATERS, Senior Project Assistant

ROBERT POLICELLI, Project Assistant

Sponsor

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
×

COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

Members

WILLIAM E. HALPERIN (Chair),

New Jersey Medical School, Newark

LAWRENCE S. BETTS,

Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk

EDWARD C. BISHOP,

HDR Engineering, Inc., Omaha, NE

JAMESV. BRUCKNER,

University of Georgia, Athens

GARY P. CARLSON,

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

MARION EHRICH,

Virginia Tech, Blacksburg

SIDNEY GREEN,

Howard University, Washington, DC

MERYL KAROL,

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh

JAMES MCDOUGAL,

Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, OH

ROGER MCINTOSH,

Science Applications International Corporation, Baltimore, MD

GERALD WOGAN,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

Staff

KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology

EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis

ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer

SUSAN N. J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer

JENNIFER SAUNDERS, Associate Program Officer

AIDA NEEL, Program Associate

MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Research Associate

TAMARA DAWSON, Senior Program Assistant

RADIAH A. ROSE, Senior Editorial Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
×

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY1

Members

JONATHAN M. SAMET (Chair),

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

RAMÓN ALVAREZ,

Environmental Defense, Austin, TX

JOHN M. BALBUS,

Environmental Defense, Washington, DC

DALLAS BURTRAW,

Resources for the Future, Washington, DC

JAMES S. BUS,

Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI

COSTEL D. DENSON,

University of Delaware, Newark

E. DONALD ELLIOTT,

Willkie Farr & Gallagher LLP, Washington, DC

MARY R. ENGLISH,

University of Tennessee, Knoxville

J. PAUL GILMAN,

Oak Ridge Center for Advanced Studies, Oak Ridge, TN

SHERRI W. GOODMAN,

Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria, VA

JUDITH A. GRAHAM,

American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA

WILLIAM P. HORN,

Birch, Horton, Bittner and Cherot, Washington, DC

JAMES H. JOHNSON JR.,

Howard University, Washington, DC

WILLIAM M. LEWIS, JR.,

University of Colorado, Boulder

JUDITH L. MEYER,

University of Georgia, Athens

DENNIS D. MURPHY,

University of Nevada, Reno

PATRICK Y. O’BRIEN,

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Company, Richmond, CA

DOROTHY E. PATTON (retired),

Chicago, IL

DANNY D. REIBLE,

University of Texas, Austin

JOSEPH V. RODRICKS,

ENVIRON International Corporation, Arlington, VA

ARMISTEAD G. RUSSELL,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

ROBERT F. SAWYER,

University of California, Berkeley

LISA SPEER,

Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY

KIMBERLY M. THOMPSON,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

MONICA G. TURNER,

University of Wisconsin, Madison

MARK J. UTELL,

University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY

CHRIS G. WHIPPLE,

ENVIRON International Corporation, Emeryville, CA

LAUREN ZEISE,

California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland

Senior Staff

JAMES J. REISA, Director

DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar

1

This study was planned, overseen, and supported by the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology.

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RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

KULBIR BAKSHI, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology

EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis

KARL E. GUSTAVSON, Senior Program Officer

K. JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer

ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer

SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer

SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Senior Program Officer

STEVEN K. GIBB, Program Officer for Strategic Communications

RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
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OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

Scientific Review of the Proposed Risk Assessment Bulletin from the Office of Management and Budget (2007)

Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards (2006)

Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues (2006)

New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (2006)

Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals (2006)

Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (2006)

State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions (2006)

Superfund and Mining Megasites—Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (2005)

Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005)

Air Quality Management in the United States (2004)

Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River (2004) Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004)

Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2004)

Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003)

Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002)

Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002)

The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002)

Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001)

Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001)

Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001)

A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001)

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (five volumes, 2000-2006)

Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000)

Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000)

Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000)

Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000)

Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999)

Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999)

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (four volumes, 1998-2004)

The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997)

Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996)

Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996)

Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995)

Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
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Biologic Markers (five volumes, 1989-1995)

Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (three volumes, 1994-1995)

Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994)

Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993)

Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992)

Science and the National Parks (1992)

Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991)

Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991)

Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990)


Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press

(800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
×

OTHER REPORTS OF THE COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

Review of the Department of Defense Research Program on Low-Level Exposures to Chemical Warfare Agents (2005)

Review of the Army's Technical Guides on Assessing and Managing Chemical Hazards to Deployed Personnel (2004)

Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants (two volumes, 2004-2006)

Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 (2003)

Review of Submarine Escape Action Levels for Selected Chemicals (2002)

Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals (2001)

Evaluating Chemical and Other Agent Exposures for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity (2001)

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants (five volumes, 2000-2006)

Review of the US Navy’s Human Health Risk Assessment of the Naval Air Facility at Atsugi, Japan (2000)

Methods for Developing Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (2000)

Review of the U.S. Navy Environmental Health Center’s Health-Hazard Assessment Process (2000)

Review of the U.S. Navy’s Exposure Standard for Manufactured Vitreous Fibers (2000)

Re-Evaluation of Drinking-Water Guidelines for Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate (2000)

Submarine Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Hydrofluorocarbons: HFC-236fa, HFC-23, and HFC-404a (2000)

Review of the U.S. Army’s Health Risk Assessments for Oral Exposure to Six Chemical-Warfare Agents (1999)

Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants (three volumes, 1997-1999)

Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emission Toxicants (1998)

Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons: HFC-134a and HCFC-123 (1996)

Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors (1996)

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (four volumes, 1994-2000)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
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Preface

The submarine is an enclosed and isolated environment when submerged. The crew works, eats, and sleeps in this environment and is exposed to air contaminants 24 hours per day, unlike the typical occupational environment where workers have a respite from workplace exposures at the end of the workday or workweek. To protect the health of the submariners, the U.S. Navy has developed 1-hour and 24-hour emergency exposure guidance levels (EEGLs) and 90-day continuous exposure guidance levels (CEGLs) for a number of chemical contaminants.

In 1995, the Navy began reviewing and updating submarine exposure guidance levels and subsequently asked the Committee on Toxicology (COT) of the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct an independent review of several chemicals. As a result of the Navy’s request, the NRC formed the Subcommittee on Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants. This report is the first of two reports and provides the subcommittee’s rationale and recommendations for the following substances: acrolein, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, hydrazine, methanol, monoethanolamine, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge.

The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
×

following people for their review of this report: Janice Chambers, Mississippi State University; Rory Conolly, CIIT Centers for Health Research; Dan Costa, Environmental Protection Agency; Darol Dodd, ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc.; Mark Frampton, University of Rochester School of Medicine; Judith Graham, American Chemistry Council; Alan Hall, Toxicology Consulting and Medical Translating Services; and Barry L. Johnson, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Joseph Borzelleca, Virginia Commonwealth University. Appointed by the Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the subcommittee and the institution.

The subcommittee thanks Commander Warren Jederberg for his support of this project and his assistance in obtaining necessary background materials. The subcommittee also gratefully acknowledges the following people for making presentations: Mr. Rich Hagar (Naval Sea Systems Command), Captain Victoria Cassano (Bureau of Medicine and Surgery), Mr. James Crawl (Naval Environmental Health Center), Dr. Sal DiNardi (Naval Submarine Medical Research Lab), and Dr. Robert Young (Oak Ridge National Laboratory).

In addition, the subcommittee also had the opportunity to visit a nuclear attack submarine, the USS Hartford, in dock at the U.S. Naval Submarine Base New London in Groton, CT. The crew were extremely helpful in providing information about conditions on the submarine. The subcommittee greatly appreciated the tour and found the information useful in its deliberations.

The subcommittee is grateful for the assistance of the NRC staff in preparing this report: Ellen Mantus, project director; James Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Kulbir Bakshi, senior program officer for toxicology; Mary Fox, program officer; Jennifer Saunders and Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic, research associates; Ruth E. Crossgrove, senior editor; Kelly Clark, assistant editor;

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
×

Laura Waters and Robert Policelli, project assistants; and Sam Bardley, library assistant.

Finally, I thank the members of the subcommittee for their dedicated efforts throughout the development of this report.


Ernest McConnell, Chair

Subcommittee on Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
×
   

  

 

 

   

 Occurrence and Use,

 

167

   

 Summary of Toxicity,

 

169

   

 Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations,

 

180

   

 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the NRC and Other Organizations,

 

183

   

 Subcommittee Recommendations,

 

185

   

 Data Adequacy and Research Needs,

 

189

   

 References,

 

189

8

 

MONOETHANOLAMINE

 

195

   

 Physical and Chemical Properties,

 

195

   

 Occurrence and Use,

 

195

   

 Summary of Toxicity,

 

196

   

 Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations,

 

202

   

 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the NRC and Other Organizations,

 

202

   

 Subcommittee Recommendations,

 

206

   

 Data Adequacy and Research Needs,

 

206

   

 References,

 

206

9

 

NITRIC OXIDE

 

209

   

 Physical and Chemical Properties,

 

209

   

 Occurrence and Use,

 

209

   

 Summary of Toxicity,

 

210

   

 Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations,

 

215

   

 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the NRC and Other Organizations,

 

216

   

 Subcommittee Recommendations,

 

217

   

 Data Adequacy and Research Needs,

 

218

   

 References,

 

219

10

 

NITROGEN DIOXIDE

 

223

   

 Physical and Chemical Properties,

 

223

   

 Occurrence and Use,

 

223

   

 Summary of Toxicity,

 

224

   

 Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations,

 

235

   

 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the NRC and Other Organizations,

 

236

   

 Subcommittee Recommendations,

 

237

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
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BOXES

4-1

 

Adjustment for the Low-Oxygen Atmosphere,

 

95

11-1

 

Terms Related to Gas Pressures and Oxygen Physiology,

 

254

FIGURES

1-1

 

Generalized schematic of a nuclear-powered attack submarine,

 

13

4-1

 

Carbon monoxide concentrations reached in blood (percent saturation at various durations of exposure) in a normal human subject as a function of inspired CO,

 

70

11-1

 

Hypothetical human blood oxygen dissociation curve at 37°C, pH = 7.4,

 

268

TABLES

S-1

 

Comparison of Navy’s Exposure Guidelines with Those Recommended by the Subcommittee,

 

6

1-1

 

Characteristics of Crew and Patrols for U.S. Navy Submarines,

 

2-1

 

Physical and Chemical Properties of Acrolein,

 

24

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11170.
×
   

2-2

 

Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Acrolein from NRC and Other Agencies,

 

36

2-3

 

Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Acrolein,

 

37

3-1

 

Physical and Chemical Properties of Carbon Dioxide,

 

47

3-2

 

Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Carbon Dioxide from NRC and Other Agencies,

 

59

3-3

 

Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Carbon Dioxide,

 

60

4-1

 

Physical and Chemical Properties of Carbon Monoxide,

 

68

4-2

 

Human Toxicity Summary,

 

72

4-3

 

Animal Toxicity Summary,

 

84

4-4

 

Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Carbon Monoxide from NRC and Other Agencies,

 

91

4-5

 

Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Carbon Monoxide,

 

92

5-1

 

Physical and Chemical Properties of Formaldehyde,

 

104

5-2

 

Irritant Effects of Formaldehyde in Controlled Human Studies,

 

111

5-3

 

Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Formaldehyde from NRC and Other Agencies,

 

126

5-4

 

Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Formaldehyde,

 

128

6-1

 

Physical and Chemical Properties of Hydrazine,

 

140

6-2

 

Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Hydrazine from NRC and Other Organizations,

 

157

6-3

 

Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Hydrazine,

 

158

7-1

 

Physical and Chemical Properties of Methanol,

 

168

7-2

 

Blood Methanol and Formate Concentrations Observed in Humans Following Experimental Methanol Exposures,

 

173

7-3

 

Experimental Parameters of Batterman et al. (1998),

 

175

7-4

 

Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Methanol from NRC and Other Agencies,

 

184

7-5

 

Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Methanol,

 

186

8-1

 

Physical and Chemical Data on Monoethanolamine,

 

196

8-2

 

Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Monoethanolamine from NRC and Other Agencies,

 

203

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8-3

 

Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Monoethanolamine,

 

204

9-1

 

Physical and Chemical Data on Nitric Oxide,

 

210

9-2

 

Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Nitric Oxide from Other Agencies,

 

216

9-3

 

Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Nitric Oxide,

 

217

10-1

 

Physical and Chemical Data on Nitrogen Dioxide,

 

224

10-2

 

Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Nitrogen Dioxide from NRC and Other Agencies,

 

237

10-3

 

Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Nitrogen Dioxide,

 

238

11-1

 

Physical and Chemical Properties of Oxygen,

 

253

11-2

 

Arterial Blood Gas Values Associated with Different Altitudes,

 

257

11-3

 

Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Oxygen,

 

270

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants


VOLUME 1

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 1 Get This Book
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U.S. Navy personnel who work on submarines are in an enclosed and isolated environment for days or weeks at a time when at sea. Unlike a typical work environment, they are potentially exposed to air contaminants 24 hours a day. To protect workers from potential adverse health effects due to those conditions, the U.S. Navy has established exposure guidance levels for a number of contaminants. The Navy asked a subcommittee of the National Research Council (NRC) to review, and develop when necessary, exposure guidance levels for 10 contaminants.

Overall, the subcommittee found the values proposed by the Navy to be suitable for protecting human health. For a few chemicals, the committee proposed levels that were lower than those proposed by the Navy. In conducting its evaluation, the subcommittee found that there is little exposure data available on the submarine environment and echoed a previous recommendation from an earlier NRC report to conduct monitoring that would provide a complete analysis of submarine air and data on exposure of personnel to contaminants.

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