National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

INTERIM DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant

Committee to Assess Designs for Pueblo and Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. W911NF-05-C-0036 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 0-309-09445-3 (Book)

International Standard Book Number 0-309-54655-9 (PDF)

Limited copies of this report are available from:

Board on Army Science and Technology

National Research Council

500 Fifth Street, N.W., Room 940

Washington, DC 20001

(202) 334-3118

Additional copies are available from: The
National Academies Press
500 Fifth Street, N.W. Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Internet, http://www.nap.edu

Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

COMMITTEE TO ASSESS DESIGNS FOR PUEBLO AND BLUE GRASS CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANTS

ROBERT A. BEAUDET, Chair,

University of Southern California, Los Angeles

CHARLES BARTON,

Iowa Department of Public Health, Des Moines

JOAN B. BERKOWITZ,

Farkas Berkowitz and Company, Washington, D.C.

ADRIENNE T. COOPER,

Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

RUTH M. DOHERTY,

Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, Maryland

LAWRENCE E. EISELSTEIN,

Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Menlo Park, California

HAROLD K. FORSEN,

Bechtel Corporation (retired), Kirkland, Washington

WILLARD C. GEKLER,

PLG, Inc. (retired), Los Alamitos, California

CLAIR F. GILL,

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

HANK C. JENKINS-SMITH,

Texas A&M University, College Station

JOHN A. MERSON,

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

CHANDRA M. ROY,

Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Irvine, California

KENNETH A. SMITH,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

MICHAEL K. STENSTROM,

University of California at Los Angeles

THOMAS WEBLER,

Antioch New England Graduate School, Keene, New Hampshire

Staff

DONALD L. SIEBENALER, Study Director

NANCY T. SCHULTE, Study Director

HARRISON T. PANNELLA, Program Officer

CARTER W. FORD, Senior Project Assistant

JAMES C. MYSKA, Research Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

JOHN E. MILLER, Chair,

Oracle Corporation, Reston, Virginia

GEORGE T. SINGLEY III, Vice Chair,

Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, Virginia

SETH BONDER,

The Bonder Group, Ann Arbor, Michigan

DAWN A. BONNELL,

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

NORVAL L. BROOME, MITRE

Corporation (retired), Suffolk, Virginia

ROBERT L. CATTOI,

Rockwell International (retired), Dallas, Texas

DARRELL W. COLLIER,

U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (retired), Leander, Texas

ALAN H. EPSTEIN,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

ROBERT R. EVERETT,

MITRE Corporation (retired), New Seabury, Massachusetts

PATRICK F. FLYNN,

Cummins Engine Company, Inc. (retired), Columbus, Indiana

WILLIAM R. GRAHAM,

National Security Research, Inc., Arlington, Virginia

HENRY J. HATCH,

Army Chief of Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia

EDWARD J. HAUG,

University of Iowa, Iowa City

MIRIAM E. JOHN,

California Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore

DONALD R. KEITH,

Cypress International (retired), Alexandria, Virginia

CLARENCE W. KITCHENS,

Science Applications International Corporation, Vienna, Virginia

ROGER A. KRONE,

Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

JOHN W. LYONS,

U.S. Army Research Laboratory (retired), Ellicott City, Maryland

JOHN H. MOXLEY III,

Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles, California

MALCOLM R. O’NEILL,

Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland

EDWARD K. REEDY,

Georgia Tech Research Institute (retired), Atlanta, Georgia

DENNIS J. REIMER,

National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

WALTER D. SINCOSKIE,

Telcordia Technologies, Inc., Morristown, New Jersey

WILLIAM R. SWARTOUT,

Institute for Creative Technologies, Marina del Rey, California

EDWIN L. THOMAS,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

BARRY M. TROST,

Stanford University, Stanford, California

JOSEPH J. VERVIER,

ENSCO, Inc., Melbourne, Florida

Staff

BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director

WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Manager, Program Operations

CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate

DEANNA P. SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator

DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Research Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

Preface

The Program Manager for the U.S. Army’s Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (formerly, Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment) program requested that the National Research Council (NRC) form a committee to review and evaluate the facility design being developed for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (PCAPP) in Pueblo, Colorado. After an elaborate selection process, the Department of Defense (DOD) chose a hydrolysis (neutralization) process followed by a secondary biotreatment process to destroy the chemical agents and energetic materials in the chemical munitions at Pueblo Chemical Depot. The contract for the design for PCAPP was awarded to Bechtel National, Inc., which formed a group with subcontractors, and together they are known as the Bechtel Pueblo team.

This interim report highlights issues that the Committee to Assess Designs for Pueblo and Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants (referred to as the ACWA Design Committee) has identified on the basis of a review of the information for the initial PCAPP design made available to the committee. Although the committee first met in November 2003, the subsequent delivery of sufficiently detailed information concerning the initial design for the Pueblo facility was seriously delayed because new security regulations were instituted by the Army. The NRC is subject to Federal Advisory Committee Act and Freedom of Information Act regulations established by Congress regarding public access to the information used in developing its reports. Since the Army’s chemical stockpile is considered a possible terrorist target or source of munitions for terrorists, information about sites where these stockpiles are located is subjected to an operations security (OPSEC) clearance process to prevent the publication of information that might benefit any terrorist activity. This procedure requires that all of the design documentation, as well as related reports and briefings provided to the committee, must first be scrutinized by the appropriate Army authorities. Any sensitive material used by the committee must be exempted from public access requirements. Thus, material not cleared by OPSEC could not be used in this report. This impasse is gradually being resolved, and possible means to improve the timely availability of information for future studies by the ACWA Design Committee are being investigated.

In the meantime, the contractor has been proceeding with the facility design. Thus, while the committee has received only the initial design plans, the contractor has already completed the intermediate design. However, the committee has availed itself of all information that it could in preparing this report. The committee was briefed regularly on the design, members paid site visits to locations where the testing and construction of machinery are under way, and certain members attended the periodic design reviews given by the Bechtel Pueblo team.

The committee is indebted to both the Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives and the Bechtel Pueblo team for their complete openness, sincerity, and cooperation during the committee’s data-gathering sessions and resultant discussions. The committee believes that the overall process has been

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

effective and constructive and that it will lead to an improved plant design. Appreciation is extended to Joseph Novad and Yu-Chu Yang from the Army Program Office and to Craig Myler from the Bechtel Pueblo team, who have been primary points of contact during this study.

A study such as this always requires extensive logistics support. The committee is indebted to NRC staff for their assistance, particularly to the study director for this report, Donald L. Siebenaler, and Nancy T. Schulte, who courageously assumed responsibility for this study during Mr. Siebenaler’s leave of absence. Invaluable contributions were also made by Harrison T. Pannella, who provided suggestions for organizing the report, coordinated initial text submissions by committee members into a first draft of the report, and edited subsequent drafts. Considerable assistance was also provided by the senior project assistant Carter W. Ford and research associate James C. Myska.

Robert A. Beaudet, Chair

Committee to Assess Designs for Pueblo and Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

Acknowledgments

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Richard J. Ayen, Waste Management, Inc. (retired),

Judith A. Bradbury, Battelle Patuxent River,

John B. Carberry, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company,

Peter B. Lederman, Peter Lederman Associates,

Richard S. Magee, Carmagen Engineering,

James F. Mathis, Exxon Corporation (retired),

Ray McGuire, Consultant, and

Janice Phillips, Centocor, Inc.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Hyla S. Napadensky, Napadensky Energetics, Inc. (retired). Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

Tables and Figures

TABLES

1-1

 

Chemical Weapons Stockpile of HD- or HT-Filled Munitions at Pueblo Chemical Depot,

 

11

1-2

 

Physical Properties of Mustard Agents at Pueblo Chemical Depot,

 

12

1-3

 

Compositions of Liquid HD and Liquid HT Agent Drained from 4.2-inch Mortars at Pueblo (Excluding the Composition of Any Solids in the Munitions),

 

13

2-1

 

Estimated Quantity of Waste Feed to Dunnage Treatment,

 

22

3-1

 

Major Potential Risks and Proposed Mitigation Measures for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Identified in the Technical Risk Assessment,

 

30

3-2

 

PCAPP Risk Issues Identified for Testing or Trade Studies,

 

31

3-3

 

Equipment Summary for Offgas Treatment Systems at Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant,

 

46

C-1

 

PCAPP Design Build Plan, Appendix P,

 

64

FIGURES

ES-1

 

PCAPP process flow diagram,

 

3

2-1

 

PCAPP process flow diagram,

 

16

2-2

 

Two-cylinder continuous steam treater configuration,

 

23

2-3

 

Primary chamber of the continuous steam treater,

 

24

2-4

 

Secondary chamber of the continuous steam treater,

 

25

A-1

 

A 105-mm howitzer projectile,

 

59

A-2

 

A 155-mm howitzer projectile,

 

60

A-3

 

A 4.2-inch mortar cartridge,

 

60

A-4

 

Boxed 105-mm projectile,

 

61

B-1

 

Bechtel Pueblo team division of responsibilities,

 

62

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

Acronyms


ACWA

Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives

ANR

agent neutralization reactor

APB

agent processing building

ATS

agent transfer system


BGCAPP

Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant

BRS

brine recovery system


CAM

cavity access machine

CATOX

catalytic oxidation

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDPHE

Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment

COD

chemical oxygen demand

CST

continuous steam treater

CSTR

continuously stirred tank reactor


DCD

Deseret Chemical Depot

DOD

Department of Defense

DPE

demilitarization protective ensemble

DSC

differential scanning calorimetry


ECR

explosion containment room

EDS

engineering design study

ENR

energetics neutralization reactor

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

EPB

energetics processing building

ERH

energetics rotary hydrolyzer

ETS

energetics transfer system


HD

distilled mustard agent

HDC

heated discharge conveyor

HEPA

high-efficiency particulate air

HT

mustard agent containing mustard-T

HVAC

heating, ventilation, and air conditioning


ICB

immobilized cell bioreactor

IPT

integrated product team


JACADS

Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System


LEL

lower explosive limit


MCRT

mean cell retention time

MPT

metal parts treater

MWS

munitions washout system


NEPA

National Environmental Policy Act

NRC

National Research Council


OPSEC

operations security

OTS

offgas treatment system


PCAPP

Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant

PCD

Pueblo Chemical Depot

PMACWA

Program Manager, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives

PMD

projectile/mortar disassembly

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×

PPE

personal protective equipment


RCRA

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

RD&D

research, development, and demonstration

RFP

request for proposal


SRT

solids retention time

SSPP

system safety program plan

STEL

short-term exposure limit

SUPLECAM

Surveillance Program for Lethal Chemical Agents and Munitions


T

bis[2-(2-chloroethylthio)ethyl] ether

TAP

toxicological agent protective

TDS

total dissolved solids

TNT

trinitrotoluene

TOC

total organic carbon

TRA

technical risk assessment

TRRP

technical risk reduction program


VOC

volatile organic compound


WHEAT

water hydrolysis of agent and energetics treatment

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11213.
×
Page R16
Next: Executive Summary »
Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $29.00 Buy Ebook | $23.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

In 1996, Congress enacted directing the Department of Defense to assess and demonstrate technology alternatives to incineration for destruction of the chemical weapons stored at Pueblo Chemical and Blue Grass Army Depots. Since then, the National Research Council (NRC) has been carrying out evaluations of candidate technologies including reviews of engineering design studies and demonstration testing. Most recently, the NRC was asked by the Army to evaluate designs for pilot plants at Pueblo and Blue Grass. These pilot plants would use chemical neutralization for destroying the chemical agent and the energetics in the munitions stockpiles of these two depots. This report provides the interim assessment of the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (PCAPP) to permit adjustment of any significant problems as soon as possible. The report presents an analysis of the issues about the current PCAPP design and a series of findings and recommendations about ways to reduce concerns with involve the public more heavily in the process.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!