Abhijeet, D. 2004. Reconsidering lead corrosion in drinking water: product testing, direct chloramine attack and galvanic corrosion. Virginia Tech MS Thesis.
American Water Works Association (AWWA). 2001. Reinvesting in drinking water structure: dawn of the replacement era. Denver, CO: AWWA.
AWWA. 2003. Water Stats 2002 Distribution Survey CD-ROM. Denver, CO: AWWA.
AWWA and EES, Inc. 2002a. Permeation and leaching. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/permleach.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005.
AWWA and EES, Inc. 2002b. Effects of water age on distribution system water quality. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/waterage.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005.
AWWA and EES, Inc. 2002c. Finished water storage facilities. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/storage.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005.
AWWA and EES, Inc. 2002d. Nitrification. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/nitrification.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005.
AWWA and EES, Inc. 2002e. New or repaired water mains. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/maincontam.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005.
American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF). 2004. Managing distribution retention time to improve water quality: phase I. Report no. 91006F (RFP 2769). Denver, CO: Binnie Black and Veatch and AWWARF.
American Water Works Service Co., Inc. (AWWSC). 2002. Deteriorating buried infrastructure management challenges and strategies. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/infrastructure.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005.
Anadu, E. C., and A. K. Harding. 2000. Risk perception and bottled water use. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 92 (11):82–92.
Anderson, W. B., R. M. Slawson, and C. I. Mayfield. 2002. A review of drinking-water-associated endotoxin, including potential routes of human exposure. Can. J. Microbiol. 48:567–587.
Bellen, G. E., S. H. Abrishami, P. M. Colucci, and C. Tremel. 1993. Methods for assessing the biological growth support potential of water contact materials. Denver, CO: AWWARF.
Berend, K., G. Van Der Voet, and W. H. Boer. 2001. Acute aluminum encephalopathy in a dialysis center caused by a cement mortar water distribution pipe. Kidney International 59(2):746–753.
Bitton, G. 1994. Role of microorganisms in biogeochemical cycles. Pp. 51–73 In Wastewater Microbiology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Blackburn, B. G., G. F. Craun, J. S. Yoder, V. Hill, R. L. Calderon, N. Chen, S. H. Lee, D. A. Levy, and M. J. Beach. 2004. Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks associated with drinking water—United States, 2001–2002. MMWR 53(SS-8):23-45.
Bouchard, D. C., M. K. Williams, and R. Y. Surampalli. 1992. Nitrate contamination of groundwater: sources and potential health effects. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 84(9):84–90.
Boulos, P. F., W. M. Grayman, R. W. Bowcock, J. W. Clapp, L. A. Rossman, R. M. Clark, R. A. Deininger, and A. K. Dhingra. 1996. Hydraulic mixing and free chlorine residual in reservoirs. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 88(7):48–59.
Boulos, P. F., K. E. Lansey, and B. W. Karney. 2004. Comprehensive Water Distribution Systems Analysis Handbook for Engineers and Planners. Pasadena, CA: MWH Soft Pub.
Bryant, E. A., G. P. Fulton, and G. C. Budd. 1992. Chloramination. Pp. 128-170 In Disinfection Alternatives for Safe Drinking Water. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Burlingame, G. A., and H. M. Neukrug. 1993. Developing proper sanitation requirements and procedures for water main disinfection. In Proceedings of AWWA Annual Conference. Denver, CO: AWWA.
Burlingame, G. A., and C. Anselme. 1995. Distribution system tastes and odors. In Advances in Taste-and-Odor Treatment and Control. AWWA Research Foundation Cooperative Research Report. Denver, CO: AWWARF.
Calderon, R. L., and E. W. Mood. 1991. Bacteria colonizing point-of-entry, granular activated carbon filters and their relationship to human health. CR-813978-01-0. Washington, D.C.: EPA.
Camper, A. K., M. W. LeChevallier, S. C. Broadway, and G. A. McFeters. 1986. Bacteria associated with granular activated carbon particles in drinking water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:434–438.
Carson, L. A., L. A. Bland, L. B. Cusick, M. S. Favero, G. A. Bolan, A. L. Reingold, and R. A. Good. 1988. Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in water supplies of hemodialysis centers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:3122–3125.
CDA. 2004. Copper facts. Available on-line at http://www.copper.org/education/c-facts/c-plumbing.html. Accessed February 11, 2005.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Cancer survivorship—United States, 1971–2001. MMWR 53(24):526-529.
Characklis, W. G. 1988. Bacterial regrowth in distribution systems. Denver, CO: AWWARF.
Choi, J., M. Fadel, L. Gammie, J. Rahman, and J. Paran. 1994. Sniff new mains…before customers complain. Opflow 20:10:3.
Clark, R. M., W. M. Grayman, J. A. Good rich, R. A. Deininger, and A. F. Hess. 1991. Field testing distribution water quality models. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 83(7):67–75.
Clark, R. M., E. E. Geldreich, K. R. Fox, E. W. Rice, C. H.Johnson, J. A. Goodrich, J. A. Barnick, and F. Abdesaken. 1996. Tracking a Salmonella serovar typhimurium outbreak in Gideon, Missouri: role of contaminant propagation modelling. Journal of Water Supply Research and Technology-Aqua. 45:171–183.
Colbourne, J. S., D. J. Pratt, M. G. Smith, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, and D. Harper. 1984. Water fittings as sources of Legionella pneumophila in hospital plumbing system. Lancet i:210–213.
Craun, G. F., and R. L. Calderon. 2001. Waterborne disease outbreaks caused by distribution system deficiencies. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 93(9):64–75.
Coss, A., K. P. Cantor, J. S. Reif, C. F. Lynch, and M. H. Ward. 2004. Pancreatic cancer and drinking water and dietary sources of nitrate and nitrite. Amer. J. Epidemiol. 159(7):693–701.
De Roos, A. J., M. H. Ward, C. F. Lynch, and K. P. Cantor. 2003. Nitrate in public water supplies and the risk of colon and rectum cancers. Epidemiology 14(6):640–649.
duMoulin, G. C., K. D. Stottmeier, P. A. Pelletier, T. A. Tsang, and J. Hedley-Whyte. 1988. Concentration of Mycobacterium avium by hospital hot water systems. J. Amer. Medical Assoc. 260:1599–1601.
duMoulin, G. C., and K. D. Stottmeir. 1986. Waterborne mycobacteria: an increasing threat to health. American Society for Microbiology News 52:525–529.
Edwards, M., D. Bosch, G. V. Loganathan, and A. M. Dietrich. 2003. The Future Challenge of Controlling Distribution System Water Quality and Protecting Plumbing Infrastructure: Focusing on Consumers. Presented at the IWA Leading Edge Conference in Noordwijk, Netherlands. May 2003.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1990. Fact sheet: drinking water regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Washington, DC: EPA Office of Drinking Water Criteria and Standards Division.
EPA. 1998. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: disinfectants and disinfection byproducts; Final Rule. Federal Register 63(241).
EPA. 1999. Guidelines for the certification and recertification of the operators of community and nontransient noncommunity public water systems. Federal Register 64(24).
EPA. 2002a. 2000 Community water system survey. EPA 815-R-02-005A. Washington, D.C.: EPA Office of Water.
EPA. 2002b. Potential contamination due to cross-connections and backflow and the associated health risks: an issues paper. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/ccrwhite.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005.
EPA.. 2002c. The clean water and drinking water infrastructure gap analysis. Washington, D.C.: EPA.
EPA. 2002d. Health risks from microbial growth and biofilms in drinking water distribution systems. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/biofilms.pdf. Accessed on March 16, 2005. Washington, DC: EPA.
EPA. 2002e. Technical fact sheet on: Benzene. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/OGWDW/dwh/t-voc/benzene.html. Accessed on March 16, 2005.
EPA. 2002f. Technical fact sheet on: xylenes. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/OGWDW/dwh/t-voc/xylenes.html. Accessed on March 16, 2005.
EPA. 2002g. Technical fact sheet on: Toluene. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/OGWDW/dwh/t-voc/toluene.html. Accessed on March 16, 2005.
EPA. 2002h. Technical fact sheet on: Ethylbenzene. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/OGWDW/dwh/t-voc/ethylben.html. Accessed on March 16, 2005.
EPA. 2004. Factoids: Drinking water and ground water statistics for 2003. EPA 816-K-03-001. Washington, D.C.: EPA Office of Water.
Fewtrell, L. 2004. Drinking-water nitrate, methemoglobinemia, and global burden of disease: as discussion. Environmental Health Perspectives 112(14):1371–1374.
Fischeder, R. R., R. Schulze-Robbecke, and A. Weber. 1991. Occurrence of mycobacteria in drinking water samples. Zbl. Hygiene 192:154–158.
Frost, F. J., G. F. Craun, and R. L. Calderon. 1996. Waterborne disease surveillance. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 88(9):66-75.
Geldreich, E. E., R. H. Taylor, J. C. Blannon, and D. J. Reasoner. 1985. Bacterial colonization of point-of-use water treatment devices. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 77(2):72–80.
Geldreich, E. E., K. R. Fox, J. A. Goodrich, E. W. Rice, R. M. Clark, D. L. and Swerdlow. 1992. Searching for a water supply connection in the Cabool, Missouri disease outbreak of Escherichia coli 0157:H7. Water Research 26(8):1127–1137.
Geldreich, E. E., and M. W. LeChevallier. 1999. Microbial water quality in distribution systems. Pp. 18.1–18.49 In: Water Quality and Treatment, 5th edition. R. D. Letterman (ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gerba, C. P., J. B. Rose, et al. 1996. Sensitive populations: Who is at the greatest risk? International Journal of Food Microbiology 30(1-2):113-123.
Glaza, E. C., and J. K. Park. 1992. Permeation of organic contaminants through gasketed pipe joints. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 84(7):92–100.
Glover, N. A., N. Holtzman, T. Aronson, S. Froman, O. G. W. Berlin, P. Dominguez, K. A. Kunkel, G. Overturf, G. Stelma, Jr., C. Smith, and M. Yakrus. 1994. The isolation and identification of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) recovered from Los Angeles potable water, a possible source of infection in AIDS patients. International J. Environ. Health Res. 4:63–72.
Guilaran, Y.-T. 2004. EPA Presentation to the NRC Committee of Public Water Supply Distribution Systems on October 27, 2004.
Gulis, G., M. Czompolyova, and J. R. Cerhan. 2002. An ecologic study of nitrate in municipal drinking water and cancer incidence in Trnava District, Slovakia. Environmental Research 88(3):182–187.
Haas, C. N., M. A. Meyer, and M. E. Paller. 1983. The ecology of acid-fast organisms in water supply, treatment, and distribution systems. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 75:39–144.
Haas, C. N., R. B. Chitluru, M. Gupta, W. O. Pipes, and G. A. Burlingame. 1998. Development of disinfection guidelines for the installation and replacement of water mains. Denver, CO : AWWARF.
Hannoun, I. A., and P. F. Boulos. 1997. Optimizing distribution storage water quality: a hydrodynamic approach. Journal of Applied Mathematical Modeling 21(8):495–502.
Hasit, Y. J., A. J. DeNadai, H. M. Gorrill, R. S. Raucher, and J. Witcomb. 2004. Cost and benefit analysis of flushing. Denver, CO: AWWA Research Foundation.
Haudidier, K, J. L. Paquin, T. Francais, P. Hartemann, G. Grapin, F. Colin, M. J. Jourdain, J. C. Block, J. Cheron, O. Pascal, Y. Levi, and J. Miazga. 1988. Biofilm growth in drinking water network: a preliminary industrial pilot plant experiment. Water Sci. Technol. 20:109.
Hermin, J. H. R. Villar, J. Carpenter, L. Roberts, A. Samaridden, L. Gasanova, S. Lomakina, C. Bopp, L. Hutwagner, P. Mead, B. Ross, and E. D. Mintz. 1999. A massive epidemic of multidrug-resistant typhoid fever in Tajikistan associated with consumption of municipal water. Journal of Infectious Diseases 179:1416–1422.
Holsen, T. M., J. K. Park, D. Jenkins, and R. E. Selleck. 1991. Contamination of potable water by permeation of plastic pipe. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 83(8):53–56.
Horsburgh, C. R. 1991. Mycobacterium avium complex infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine 324:1332–1338.
Hunter, P. R. 1997. Waterborne disease: epidemiology an ecology. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
Hunter, P. R., R. M. Chalmers, S. Hughes, and Q. Syed. 2005. Self-reported diarrhea in a control group: a strong association with reporting of low-pressure events in tap water. Clinical Infectious Diseases 40:e32–34.
ICF Consulting, Inc. 2004. Exposure assessment of pathogens and toxic chemicals in drinking water distribution systems workshop. Washington, D.C.: EPA.
Khiari, D., S. Barrett, R. Chinn, A. Bruchet, P. Piriou, L. Matia, F. Ventura, I. Suffet, T. Gittelman, and P. Luitweiler. 2002. Distribution generated taste-and-odor phenomena. Denver, CO: AWWARF.
Kirmeyer, G., W. Richards, and C. D. Smith. 1994. An assessment of water distribution systems and associated research needs. Denver, CO: AWWARF.
Kirmeyer, G. J., L. Kirby, B. M. Murphy, P. F. Noran, K. D. Martel, T. W. Lund, J. L. Anderson, and R. Medhurst. 1999. Maintaining and operating finished water storage facilities. Denver, CO: AWWARF.
Kirmeyer, G. K., M. Freidman, K. Martel, D. Howie, M. LeChevallier, M. Abbaszadegan, M. Karim, J. Funk, and J. Harbour. 2001. Pathogen intrusion into the distribution system. Denver, CO: AWWARF.
Kumar, S., A. B. Gupta, and S. Gupta. 2002. Need for revision of nitrates standards for drinking water: a case study of Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Environmental Health 44(2):168–172.
LeChevallier, M. W., and G. A. McFeters. 1988. Microbiology of activated carbon. Pp. 104-119 In: Drinking Water Microbiology, Progress and Recent Developments. G. A. McFeters (ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag.
LeChevallier, M., R. Gullick, and M. Karim. 2002. The potential for health risks from intrusion of contaminants into the distribution system from pressure transients. Draft Distribution System White Paper. Washington, D.C.: EPA
Lee, S. H., D. A. Levy, G. F. Craun, M. J. Beach, and R. L. Calderon. 2002. Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks in the United States, 1999–2000. MMWR 51(No. SS-8):1–49.
Mackey, E. D., J. Davis, L. Boulos, J. C. Brown, and G. F. Crozes. 2003. Consumer perceptions of tap water, bottled water, and filtration devices. Denver, CO: AWWARF.
Morris J. G., and M. Potter. 1997. Emergence of new pathogens as a function of changes in host susceptibility. Emerg. Inf. Dis. 3(4):435–441
National Research Council (NRC). 1999. Watershed Management for Potable Water Supply: the New York City Strategy. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
National Resources Defense Council (NRDC). 1999. Bottled water: Pure drink or pure hype? Executive Summary, Chapter 2. Available on-line at http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/bw/exesum.asp. Accessed February 6, 2005.
Nightingale, S. D., L. T. Byrd, P. M. Southern, J. D. Jockusch, S. X. Cal, and B. A. Wynne. 1992. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex bacteremia in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients. Journal of Infectious Disease 165:1082–1085.
Older Americans. 2004. Key indicators of well-being. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. Available on-line at http://www.agingstats.gov/chartbook2004/population.html. Accessed February 6, 2005.
Parsons, S., R. Stuetz, B. Jefferson, and M. Edwards. 2004. Corrosion control in water distribution systems: One of the grand engineering challenges for the 21st century. Water Science and Technology 49(2):1–8.
Payment, P. L., E. Franco, L. Richardson, and J. Siemiatycki. 1991. Gastrointestinal health effects associated with the consumption of drinking water produced by point-of-use domestic reverse-osmosis filtration units. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:945–948.
Payment, P. L., L. Richardson, J. Siemiatycki, R. Dewar, M. Edwards, and E. Franco. 1991. A randomized trial to evaluate the risk of gastrointestinal disease due to consumption of drinking water meeting current microbiological standards. American Journal of Public Health 81:703–708.
Payment, P. L., J. Siemiatycki, L. Richardson, G. Renaud, E. Franco, and M. Prevost. 1997. A prospective epidemiological study of gastrointestinal health effects due to the consumption of drinking water. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 7:5–31.
Payment, P., and P. R. Hunter. 2001. Endemic and epidemic infectious intestinal disease and its relationship to drinking water. Pp. 62-88 In Water Quality: Guidelines, Standards and
Health: Assessment of Risk and Risk Management for Water-Related Infectious Disease. L. Fewtrell and J. Bartram (eds.). London: IWA Publishing.
Pierson, G., K. Martel, A. Hill, G. Burlingame, and A. Godfree. 2001. Methods to prevent microbiological contamination associated with main rehabilitation and replacement. Denver, CO: AWWARF.
Reasoner, D. J., J. C. Blannon, and E. E. Geldreich. 1987. Microbiological characteristics of third-faucet point-of-use devices. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 79(10):60–66.
Rogers. M. R., B. J. Backstone, A. L. Reyers, and T. C. Covert. 1999. Colonisation of point-of-use water filters by silver resistant non-tuberculous mycobacteria. J. Clin. Pathol. 52(8):629.
Rogers, J., A. B. Dowsett, P. J. Dennis, J. V. Lee, and C. W. Keevil. 1994. Influence of materials on biofilm formation and growth of Legionella pneumophila in potable water systems. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:1842–1851.
Rose, C. S., J. W. Martyny, L. S. Newman, D. K. Milton, T. E. King, Jr., J. L. Beebe, J. B. McCammon, R. E. Hoffman, and K. Kreiss. 1998. Lifeguard lung: endemic granulomatous pneumonitis in an indoor swimming pool. American Journal of Public Health 88(12):1795–1800.
Sandor, J., I. Kiss, O. Farkas, and I. Ember. 2001. Association between gastric cancer mortality and nitrate content of drinking water: ecological study on small area inequalities. European Journal of Epidemiology 17(5):443–447.
Schoenen, D. 1986. Microbial growth due to materials used in drinking water systems. In: Biotechnology, Vol. 8. H. J. Rehm and G. Reed (eds.). Weinheim: VCH Verlagsgesellschaft.
Smith, C. D., and G. Burlingame. 1994. Microbial problems in treated water storage tanks. Proceedings of the 1994 Annual AWWA Conference. Denver, CO: AWWA.
Spinks, A. T., R. H. Dunstan, P. Coombes, and G. Kuczera. 2003. Thermal destruction analyses of water related pathogens at domestic hot water system temperatures. The Institution of Engineers. 28th International Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium.
Stout, J. E., V. L. Yu, and M. G. Best. 1985. Ecology of Legionella pneumophila within water distribution systems. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:221–228.
Thofern, E., D. Schoenen, and G. J. Tuschewitzki. 1987. Microbial surface colonization and disinfection problems. Off Gesundh.-wes. 49:Suppl:14-20.
Tobin, R. S., D. K. Smith, and J. A. Lindsay. 1981. Effects of activated carbon and bacteriostatic filters on microbiological quality of drinking water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41(3):646–651.
University of Southern California (USC). 2002. Prevalence of cross connections in household plumbing systems. www.usc.edu/dept/fcchr/epa/hhcc.report.pdf. Los Angeles, CA: USC Foundation for Cross-Connection Control and Hydraulic Research.
Van der Leeden, F., F. L. Troise, and D. K. Todd. 1990. Water quality. Pp. 417-493 In: The Water Encyclopedia, Second Edition. Michigan: Lewis Publishers.
van der Wende, E., and W. G. Characklis. 1990. Biofilms in potable water distribution systems. Chapter 12 In: Drinking water microbiology. G. A. McFeters (ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag.
van der Wende, E., W. G. Characklis, and D. B. Smith. 1989. Biofilms and bacterial drinking water quality. Water Research 23:1313.
Vikesland, P., K. Ozekin, and R. L. Valentine. 2001. Monochloramine decay in model and distribution system water. Water Research 35(7):1766–1776.
von Reyn, C. F., J. N. Maslow, T. S. Barber, J. O. Falkinham, III, and R. D. Arbeit. 1994. Persistent colonisation of potable water as a source of Mycobacterium avium infection in AIDS. Lancet 343:1137–1141.
von Reyn, C. F., R. D. Waddell, T. Eaton, R. D. Arbeit, J. N. Maslow, T. W. Barber, R. J. Brindle, C. F. Gilks, J. Lumio, J. Lahdevirta, A. Ranki, D. Dawson, and J. O. Falkinham, III. 1993. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from water in the United States, Finland, Zaire, and Kenya. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 31:3227–3230.
Wadowsky, R. M., and R. B. Yee. 1983. Satellite growth of Legionella pneumophila with an environmental isolate of Flavobacterium breve. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46:1447–1449.
Wadowsky, R. M., and R. B. Yee. 1985. Effect of non-legionellaceae bacteria on the multiplication of Legionella pneumophila in potable water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:1206–1210.
Water Quality Association (WQA). 2001. National consumer water quality survey fact sheet. April 23, 2001. Lisle, IL: WQA.
WQA. 2003. Heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water from POU & POE devices. Lisle, IL: WQA.
Wolfe, R. L., E. G. Means, M. K. Davis, and S. E. Barrett. 1988. Biological nitrification in covered reservoirs containing chloraminated water. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 80(9):109–114.
Wolfe, R. L., N. I. Lieu, G. Izaguirre, and E. G. Means. 1990. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria in a chloraminated distribution system: seasonal occurrence, distribution, and disinfection resistance. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56(2):451–462.
Wood, D. J., S. Lingireddy, and P. F. Boulos. 2005. Pressure wave analysis of transient flow in pipe distribution systems. Pasadena, CA: MWH Soft Pub.