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MINERAL TOLERANCE OF ANIMALS S E C O N D R E V I S E D E D I T I O N , 2 0 0 5 Committee on Minerals and Toxic Substances in Diets and Water for Animals Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS â¢ 500 Fifth Street, N.W. â¢ Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appro- priate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. 223-01-2460 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Center for Veterinary Medicine of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mineral tolerance of animals / Committee on Minerals and Toxic Substances, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies.â 2nd rev. ed. p. cm. Rev. ed. of: Mineral tolerance of domestic animals / National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Mineral Toxicity in Animals. 1980. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-09654-5 (pbk.) â ISBN 0-309-55027-0 (pdf) 1. Veterinary toxicology. 2. Minerals in animal nutrition. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Minerals and Toxic Substances. II. National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Mineral Toxicity in Animals. Mineral tolerance of domestic animals. SF757.5M56 2005 636.089â²59âdc22 2005024930 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropoli- tan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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COMMITTEE ON MINERALS AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN DIETS AND WATER FOR ANIMALS KIRK C. KLASING, Chair, University of California, Davis JESSE P. GOFF, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa JANET L. GREGER, University of Connecticut, Storrs JANET C. KING, Childrenâs Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California SANTOSH P. LALL, Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council of Canada, Halifax, Nova Scotia XINGEN G. LEI, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York JAMES G. LINN, University of Minnesota, St. Paul FORREST H. NIELSEN, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks, North Dakota JERRY W. SPEARS, North Carolina State University, Raleigh Staff AUSTIN J. LEWIS, Study Director JAMIE S. JONKER, Study Director* DONNA LEE JAMEISON, Senior Program Assistant PEGGY TSAI, Research Associate *Through June 2004 v
BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES MAY R. BERENBAUM, Chair, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign SANDRA J. BARTHOLMEY, University of Illinois at Chicago ROGER N. BEACHY, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, Missouri H. H. CHENG, University of Minnesota, St. Paul W. R. (REG) GOMES, University of California, Oakland ARTURO GOMEZ-POMPA, University of California, Riverside PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN, Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts JEAN HALLORAN, Consumer Policy Institute/Consumers Union, Yonkers, New York HANS R. HERREN, Millennium Institute, Arlington, Virginia DANIEL P. LOUCKS, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York WHITNEY MACMILLAN, Cargill, Incorporated, Minneapolis, Minnesota BRIAN W. MCBRIDE, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada TERRY L. MEDLEY, E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Delaware OLE NIELSEN, Ontario Veterinary College, Spruce Grove, Canada ROBERT PAARLBERG, Wellesley College, Watertown, Massachusetts ALICE N. PELL, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York BOBBY PHILLS, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee PEDRO A. SANCHEZ, The Earth Institute at Columbia University, Palisades, New York SONYA B. SALAMON, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign B. L. TURNER, II, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts TILAHUN D. YILMA, University of California, Davis JAW-KAI WANG, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Staff ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Director* KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Assistant *Through October 2004 vi