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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

Index

A

AAAS. See American Association for the Advancement of Science

AAPT. See American Association of Physics Teachers

Access, to large databases, 32

Accidents, frequency of, 186–187

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 20, 28, 54, 63, 83

American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), 158

American Chemical Society, 64–65, 67

American College Testing Service, 47

American Geological Institute, 65

American Institute of Biological Sciences, 64

American Institute of Physics, 65

American Physiological Society, 64

Arons, Arnold, 24

Assessment

large-scale, 68

of student learning in laboratory experiences, 10, 200

in support of learning, informing integrated instructional units, 81

Assistance, expert, providing to schools and teachers, 155–156

B

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 28

BGuILE science instructional unit, 94, 105

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), 23, 154

Brunner, Jerome, 26

BSCS. See Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

Budgeting for laboratory facilities, equipment, and supplies, 173–174

Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc., 183

C

California Department of Education, 30–31

California Institute of Technology, 155

Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), 106

Changing goals

for the nature of science, 23

for science education, 22–23, 28–29

Chemical Education Materials group, 23

Chemical hygiene plan (CHP), 183

Chemistry That Applies (CTA), scaling up, 82–83

CHP. See Chemical hygiene plan

City University of New York, 155

Clearly communicating purposes, 101

CLP. See Computer as Learning Partner

Community-centered environments, informing integrated instructional units, 81

Complex phenomena and ideas, structured interactions with, 105

Computer as Learning Partner (CLP), 84–85

Computer technologies and laboratory experiences, 103–106

computer technologies designed to support learning, 103–105

computer technologies designed to support science, 105–106

scaffolded representations of natural phenomena, 103–104

structured interactions with complex phenomena and ideas, 105

structured simulations of inaccessible phenomena, 104–105

Conclusions

regarding current high school laboratory experiences, 6

regarding definitions and goals of high school science laboratories, 2

regarding effectiveness of laboratory experiences, 6

regarding laboratory facilities and school organization, 8

regarding state standards and accountability systems, 9

regarding teacher preparation for laboratory experiences, 7

Continued learning about laboratory experiences, 10, 200

Course-taking, disparities in laboratory experiences by variation in, 120–121

CTA. See Chemistry That Applies

Cultivating interest in science and interest in learning science, 77

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

Current debates, 30–31

Current high school laboratory experiences, 6–9, 197

conclusions regarding, 6

laboratory facilities and school organization, 7–8

state standards and accountability systems, 8–9

teacher preparation for laboratory experiences, 7

Current laboratory experiences, 116–137

features of, 119–120

quality of current laboratory experiences, 123–133

quantity of laboratory instruction, 118–123

summary, 133–134

the unique nature of laboratory experiences, 117–118

Current patterns in implementing safety policies, 184–186

estimated costs of improving laboratory safety, 186

laboratory science safety checklists, 185

Current state of teacher knowledge, in preservice education, 145–148

uneven qualifications of preservice science education, 147–148

uneven qualifications of science teachers, 145–147

Curricula. See also New science curricula, developing;

Post-Sputnik science curricula

changing roles of, 29–30

influence on science instruction, 7, 61–64

D

Databases, access to large, 32

Daugherty, Ellyn, 65

Design of effective laboratory experiences

clearly communicated purposes, 101

integrated learning of science concepts and processes, 102

ongoing discussion and reflection, 102

principles for, 101–102

sequenced into the flow of information, 4, 102

Developing new science curricula, 23–26

new approaches included in post-Sputnik science curricula, 25

Developing practical skills, 77, 92–93

evidence from research on integrated instructional units, 93

evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences, 92–93

Developing scientific reasoning, 76–77, 90–92

evidence from research on integrated instructional units, 91–92

evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences, 90–91

Developing teamwork abilities, 77

Dewey, John, 20–21

Diffusion, across a selectively permeable membrane, 125

Disabilities Education Act, 50

Discovery learning and inquiry, 26–27

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

Discussion, ongoing, 102

Disparities

in laboratory equipment, 179–180

in supplies, 180–182

Disparities in laboratory experiences, 120–123

by ethnicity, 122–123

and science course offerings, 121–122

variation in course-taking, 120–121

Disparities in laboratory facilities, 177–179

by proportion of minority students, 178

by proportion of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, 179

Diverse populations of learners, 10, 200

Diversity increases, 48–51

linguistic and ethnic diversity, 49

in schools, 27

special educational needs, 49–51

in U.S. science education, 48–51

E

The education context, 42–74

policies influencing high school laboratory experiences, 51–67

recent trends in U.S. science education, 43–51

summary, 67–68

Educational goals. See Goals for laboratory experiences

Effectiveness of laboratory experiences, 4–6, 10, 86–101, 200

conclusions regarding, 6

description of the literature review, 86–88

developing practical skills, 92–93

interest in science and interest in learning science, 95–98

mastery of subject matter, 88–90

overall effectiveness of laboratory experiences, 99–101

teamwork, 98–99

understanding the nature of science, 93–95

Emergency Planning and Right-to-Know laws and regulations, 183

Empirical work, understanding the complexity and ambiguity of, 77

Enrollment increases, 48–51

linguistic and ethnic diversity, 49

special educational needs, 49–51

in U.S. science education, 48–51

EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Estimated costs, of improving laboratory safety, 186

Ethnicity, disparities in laboratory experiences by, 122–123

Evidence from research on integrated instructional units

on developing practical skills, 93

on interest in science and interest in learning science, 97–98

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

on mastery of subject matter, 89–90

on teamwork, 98–99

on understanding the nature of science, 94–95

Evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences

on developing practical skills, 92–93

on interest in science and interest in learning science, 95–96

on mastery of subject matter, 88–89

on teamwork, 98

on understanding the nature of science, 94

Evidence on the effectiveness of laboratory experiences, 195–197

attainment of educational goals in different types of laboratory experiences, 196

principles of instructional design, 197

Examples

of high school chemistry laboratory experiences, 130

of integrated instructional units, 82–85

Examples of professional development focused on laboratory teaching, 151–156

13-week science methodology course, 152–153

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 154

Laboratory Learning: An Inservice Institute, 152

professional development partnerships with the scientific community, 154–155

Project ICAN, 153

providing expert assistance to schools and teachers, 155–156

Expert assistance, providing to schools and teachers, 155–156

F

Facilities, equipment

and safety, 168–192

disparities in laboratory equipment, 179–180

disparities in laboratory facilities, 177–179

disparities in supplies, 180–182

laboratory safety, 182–189

providing, 168–192

summary, 189

and supplies, 168–192

budgeting for laboratory facilities, equipment, and supplies, 173–174

designing laboratory experiences and facilities when resources are scarce, 175–177

laboratories on wheels, 176

laboratory design and student learning, 169–173

Feedback, 81

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, 132

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 154

Frequency of accidents and injuries, 186–187

Future perspectives, 199–201

assessment of student learning in laboratory experiences, 10, 200

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

continued learning about laboratory experiences, 10, 200

diverse populations of learners, 10, 200

effective teaching and learning in laboratory experiences, 10, 200

school organization for effective laboratory teaching, 10, 200

G

General pedagogical knowledge, 142–143

GenScope program, 104

Goals for laboratory experiences, 3–4, 76–78

cultivating interest in science and interest in learning science, 77

developing practical skills, 77

developing scientific reasoning, 76–77

developing teamwork abilities, 77

in different types of laboratory experiences, attainment of, 196

enhancing mastery of subject matter, 76

understanding the complexity and ambiguity of empirical work, 77

understanding the nature of science, 77

H

Hall, Edwin, 19

Harvard University, 19

HHMI. See Howard Hughes Medical Institute

High school science

role and vision of laboratory experiences in, 16

and undergraduate science achievement, in U.S. science education, 47–48

High school science laboratories

committee definition of laboratory experiences, 3

conclusions regarding, 2

definitions and goals of, 2–4

goal of laboratory experiences, 3–4

History of laboratory education, 18–30

1850-1950, 18–22

1950-1975, 22–27

1975 to present, 27–30

changing goals for science education, 22–23, 28–29

changing goals for the nature of science, 23

changing role of teachers and curriculum, 29–30

development of new science curricula, 23–26

discovery learning and inquiry, 26–27

diversity in schools, 27

How People Learn, 79

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), 64, 66, 154, 175

I

ICAN. See Project ICAN

Inaccessible phenomena, structured simulations of, 104–105

Injuries, frequency of, 186–187

Instruction, teachers’ duty of, 182

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

Instructional design, principles of, 6, 197

Instructional design principles, quality of current laboratory experiences compared with, 123–127

Integrated instructional units, 82–85, 196

assessment to support learning, 81

in community-centered environments, 81

Computer as Learning Partner, 84–85

design of, 81–82

effectiveness of, 5

in knowledge-centered environments, 80–81

in learner-centered environments, 79

principles of learning informing, 79–81

scaling up Chemistry That Applies, 82–83

for science concepts and processes, 102

ThinkerTools, 84

Interactions

with complex phenomena and ideas, structured, 105

with data drawn from the real world, 3, 32

with simulations, 31–32

Interest in science and interest in learning science, 95–98

evidence from research on integrated instructional units, 97–98

evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences, 95–96

student perceptions of typical laboratory experiences, 96–97

International comparative test results, 46–47

International Technology Education Association, 172–173

Internet links, 32, 120

Introductory Physical Science, 23–24

K

Kilpatrick, William, 21

Knowledge-centered environments, informing integrated instructional units, 80–81

Knowledge Integration Environment project, 92

Knowledge of assessment, 143–144

L

Laboratories on wheels, 176

Laboratory design and student learning, 169–173

Laboratory experiences, 127–131

approaches to learning physics using a pendulum, 128–129

attainment of educational goals in different types of, 196

committee definition of, 3

continued learning about, 10, 200

defining, 31–34, 37

diffusion across a selectively permeable membrane, 125

disparities in, 120–123

examples of, 130

overall effectiveness of, 99–101

quality of current laboratory experiences compared with a range of, 127–131

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

role in science education, 193–194

science courses and, 118–120

what students do in, 132–133

Laboratory experiences and facilities, designing when resources are scarce, 175–177

Laboratory experiences and student learning, 75–115, 194–197

computer technologies and laboratory experiences, 103–106

defining, 194–195

effectiveness of laboratory experiences, 86–101

evidence on the effectiveness of laboratory experiences, 195–197

goals of laboratory experiences, 76–78, 195

principles for design of effective laboratory experiences, 101–102

recent developments in research and design of laboratory experiences, 78–85

summary, 106–108

Laboratory experiences for the 21st century, 193–201

current high school laboratory experiences, 197

readiness of teachers and schools to provide laboratory experiences, 198–199

role of laboratory experiences in science education, 193–194

toward the future, 199–201

Laboratory facilities and equipment

role of the scientific community in providing, 65–66

and school organization, 7–8

Laboratory-focused curriculum, role of the scientific community in providing, 65

Laboratory Learning: An Inservice Institute, 152

Laboratory safety, 182–189

checklists for, 185

current patterns in implementing safety policies, 184–186

estimated costs of improving, 186

frequency of accidents and injuries, 186–187

lack of systemic safety enforcement, 187–189

liability for student safety, 182

standards of care for student safety, 183–184

Laboratory Science Teacher Professional Development Program, 154

Laboratory teaching and learning, scheduling, 157–159

Learner-centered environments, informing integrated instructional units, 79

Learners, diverse populations of, 10, 200

Learning goals, need for focus on clear, 6, 123–124

Liability for student safety, 182

teachers’ duty of instruction, 182

teachers’ duty of maintenance, 182

teachers’ duty of supervision, 182

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

Limitations of the research, 86–87

Linguistic and ethnic diversity, 49

The literature review, 86–88

description of, 86–88

limitations of the research, 86–87

scope of the literature search, 87–88

M

Maintenance, teachers’ duty of, 182

Mann, Charles, 20

Mastery of subject matter, 88–90

evidence from research on integrated instructional units, 89–90

evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences, 88–89

Material Safety Data Sheets, 183

Miller, Jon, 43

Minority students, disparities in laboratory facilities by proportion of, 178

N

NAEP. See National Assessment of Educational Progress

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 64

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 1, 44–46, 56, 119–120

National Center for Education Statistics, 146

Schools and Staffing survey, 177

National Education Association, 19

National Education Longitudinal Study, 122

National Fire Protection Association, Inc., 183

National Human Genome Research Institute, 67

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 183

National Institutes of Health (NIH), 67

National Research Council (NRC), 2, 14, 57, 79, 129, 146, 149, 171

National Science Achievement test results, 44–46

National Science Education Standards (NSES), 26, 28, 54–56, 59–60, 63

National Science Foundation (NSF), 2, 14, 22–24, 29–30, 43, 59, 65, 106, 119, 175

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), 159, 172, 183, 187–188

“Negligence,” 182–183

New approaches, included in post-Sputnik science curricula, 25

New science curricula, developing, 23–26

New York, hands-on performance assessment of laboratory learning experiences in, 58

New York State Regents exam, 20, 58, 174

NIH. See National Institutes of Health

No Child Left Behind Act, 54, 57

Noble Foundation, 67

Northeastern University, 155

NRC. See National Research Council

NSF. See National Science Foundation

NSTA. See National Science Teachers Association

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

O

Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), Programme for International Student Assessment, 44, 46–47

OSHA. See U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

P

Partnership for the Assessment of Standards-Based Science (PASS), 59

Pedagogical knowledge

content, 141–142

general, 142–143

Pendulum, approaches to learning physics using, 117, 126, 128–129

Performance assessment of laboratory learning, 58–59

experiences in New York, 58

experiences in Vermont, 59

Physical manipulation, of the real-world substances or systems, 31

Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC), 22–24

Piaget, Jean, 24

PISA. See Programme for International Student Assessment

Polanyi, Michael, 23

Policies influencing high school laboratory experiences, 51–67

influence of curriculum on science instruction, 61–64

role of the scientific community, 64–67

science standards and assessments, 53–61

state high school graduation requirements, 51–52

state requirements for higher education admissions, 52–53

Post-Sputnik science curricula, 22

new approaches included in, 25

Practical skills, developing, 77, 92–93

Preservice science education, uneven qualifications of, 147–148

Principles of learning informing integrated instructional units, 79–81

assessment to support learning, 81

community-centered environments, 81

knowledge-centered environments, 80–81

learner-centered environments, 79

Professional development, partnerships with the scientific community, 154–155

Professional development for laboratory teaching, 149–156

examples of professional development focused on laboratory teaching, 151–156

potential of professional development for improved laboratory teaching, 150–151

Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 44, 46–47

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

Project ICAN, 153

Project Physics, 24

Project SEED, 67

PSSC. See Physical Science Study Committee

Public understanding of science, in the United States, 43–44

Purposes, clearly communicating, 101

Q

Qualifications

of preservice science education, uneven, 147–148

of science teachers, uneven, 145–147

Quality of current laboratory experiences, 6, 123–133

comparison with a range of laboratory experiences, 127–131

comparison with instructional design principles, 123–127

isolation from the flow of science instruction, 124–126

lack of focus on clear learning goals, 123–124

lack of reflection and discussion, 127

little integration of science content and science process, 126–127

what students do in laboratory experiences, 132–133

Quantity of laboratory instruction, 118–123

disparities in laboratory experiences, 120–123

science courses and laboratory experiences, 118–120

R

Readiness of teachers and schools to provide laboratory experiences, 198–199

Reflection and discussion

lack of, 127

ongoing, 102

Remote access to scientific instruments and observations, 32

Representations of natural phenomena, scaffolded, 103–104

Research, development, and implementation of effective laboratory experiences, 9–11, 79–85

assessment of student learning in laboratory experiences, 10, 200

continued learning about laboratory experiences, 10, 200

design of integrated instructional units, 81–82

diverse populations of learners, 10, 200

effective teaching and learning in laboratory experiences, 10, 200

examples of integrated instructional units, 82–85

principles of learning informing integrated instructional units, 79–81

recent developments in, 78–85

school organization for effective laboratory teaching, 10, 200

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

RE-SEED. See Retirees Enhancing Science Education through Experiments and Demonstration

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 183–184

Retirees Enhancing Science Education through Experiments and Demonstration, 155

S

School organization, for effective laboratory teaching, 10, 200

Schools and Staffing Survey, 177

Schwab, Joseph, 23, 26

Science achievement in secondary school, 44–47

results of international comparative tests, 46–47

results of National Science Achievement Tests, 44–46

in U.S. science education, 44–47

Science content knowledge, 140–141

little integration with science process, 126–127

Science course offerings, 118–119

disparities in laboratory experiences by, 121–122

Science courses and laboratory experiences, 118–120

features of current laboratory experiences, 119–120

science course-taking, 118–119

Science for All Americans, 26

Science instruction, isolation from the flow of, 124–126

Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI), 96–97

Science standards and assessments, 53–61

hands-on performance assessment of laboratory learning, 58–59

implementing state standards, 57, 60–61

state science assessments and the goals of laboratories, 55–57

state science standards and the goals of laboratories, 54–55

The scientific community, 64–67

providing laboratory facilities and equipment, 65–66

providing laboratory-focused curriculum, 65

providing student internships, 66–67

Scientific issues, making informed decisions about, 1

Scientific reasoning, developing, 76–77, 90–92

Scientific societies, 64

Silliman, Benjamin, 19

Simulations of inaccessible phenomena, structured, 104–105

SLEI. See Science Laboratory Environment Inventory

Special education, need for, 49–51

Sputnik. See Post-Sputnik science curricula

State high school graduation requirements, 51–52

State requirements for higher education admissions, 52–53

State science assessments and the goals of laboratories, 55–57

State standards, implementation of, 57, 60–61

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

State standards and accountability systems, 8–9

conclusions regarding, 9

and the goals of laboratories, 54–55

Structured interactions, with complex phenomena and ideas, 105

Structured simulations, of inaccessible phenomena, 104–105

Student activities included among laboratory experiences, 31–32

access to large databases, 32

enabling by Internet links, 32

interaction with data drawn from the real world, 32

interaction with simulations, 31–32

physical manipulation of the real-world substances or systems, 31

remote access to scientific instruments and observations, 32

Student perceptions of typical laboratory experiences, and interest in science and interest in learning science, 96–97

Student safety, standards of care for, 183–184

Students

carrying out laboratory investigations, 1

diverse populations of, 10, 200

eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, disparities in laboratory facilities by proportion of, 179

role of the scientific community in providing internships for, 66–67

Subject matter, enhancing mastery of, 76

Supervision, teachers’ duty of, 182

Support

for laboratory teaching, 156–159

scheduling laboratory teaching and learning, 157–159

for teachers with professional development, 156–157

Systemic safety enforcement, lack of, 187–189

T

Teacher and school readiness for laboratory experiences, 138–167

summary, 160

supporting laboratory teaching, 156–159

Teacher knowledge for a range of laboratory experiences, 139–145

general pedagogical knowledge, 142–143

knowledge of assessment, 143–144

pedagogical content knowledge, 141–142

science content knowledge, 140–141

Teachers

changing roles of, 29–30

knowledge in action, 144–145

preparation for laboratory experiences, 7

uneven qualifications of, 145–147

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
×

Teachers’ capacity to lead laboratory experiences, 139–156

current state of teacher knowledge—preservice education, 145–148

professional development for laboratory teaching, 149–156

Teachers’ duties

instruction, 182

maintenance, 182

supervision, 182

“Teaching for understanding,” 157

Teamwork, 98–99

evidence from research on integrated instructional units, 98–99

evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences, 98

Teamwork abilities, developing, 77

ThinkerTools, 81, 84, 94, 97–98, 103–104

13-week science methodology course, 152–153

TIMSS. See Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

Toxic Substances Control Act, 183–184

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 44, 46, 62–63

Trends in U.S. science education, 43–51

high school science and undergraduate science achievement, 47–48

public understanding of science, 43–44

rising enrollments and increasing diversity, 48–51

science achievement in secondary school, 44–47

toward the future, 199–201

Typology

of school laboratory experiences, 36

of scientists’ activities, 35

U

Understanding the nature of science, 77, 93–95

evidence from research on integrated instructional units, 94–95

evidence from research on typical laboratory experiences, 94

U.S. Census Bureau, 177

U.S. Constitution, 27

U.S. Department of Energy, 64, 154

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 183

U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), 169, 177

U.S. Geological Survey, 65

U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 183

V

Vanderbilt University, 154

Variety in laboratory experiences, 33–34

Vermont, hands-on performance assessment of laboratory learning experiences in, 59

Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI), 65–66, 175

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11311.
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von Liebig, Justus, 19

VPI. See Virginia Polytechnic Institute

W

Waterman, Alan, 22

Z

Zacharias, Jerrold, 22, 24

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America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science Get This Book
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Laboratory experiences as a part of most U.S. high school science curricula have been taken for granted for decades, but they have rarely been carefully examined. What do they contribute to science learning? What can they contribute to science learning? What is the current status of labs in our nation�s high schools as a context for learning science? This book looks at a range of questions about how laboratory experiences fit into U.S. high schools:

  • What is effective laboratory teaching?
  • What does research tell us about learning in high school science labs?
  • How should student learning in laboratory experiences be assessed?
  • Do all student have access to laboratory experiences?
  • What changes need to be made to improve laboratory experiences for high school students?
  • How can school organization contribute to effective laboratory teaching?

    With increased attention to the U.S. education system and student outcomes, no part of the high school curriculum should escape scrutiny. This timely book investigates factors that influence a high school laboratory experience, looking closely at what currently takes place and what the goals of those experiences are and should be. Science educators, school administrators, policy makers, and parents will all benefit from a better understanding of the need for laboratory experiences to be an integral part of the science curriculum�and how that can be accomplished.

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