Adequate Intake, AI
The recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate—used when an RDA cannot be determined (IOM, 2004).
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
A range of intakes (represented as percent of energy intake) for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients.
A substance that decreases urinary excretion of sodium.
acute respiratory distress syndrome
Life-threatening condition in which inflammation of the lungs and accumulation of fluid in the air sacs (alveoli) leads to low blood oxygen levels. While it shares some similarities with infant respiratory distress syndrome, its causes and treatments are different.
body mass index
A key index for relating a person’s body weight to their height. The body mass index is a person’s weight in kilograms (kg) divided by their height in meters (m) squared and is associated with body fat and health risk.
basal metabolic rate
The rate at which energy is used by the body to maintain basal metabolism when a person is awake but inactive and has fasted for 14 to 18 hours. It typically accounts for 60 to 70 percent of daily energy use, but its value depends on body weight and other factors.
Dietary Reference Intake
Quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes that can be used for planning and assessing diets for apparently healthy people.
Delayed Type Skin Hypersensitivity
Test used as an indicator of the immune system function and that shows skin tissue injury due to phagocytic cell activation and inflammation induced by cell-mediated immunity. In experimental animal models, the injury is characterized by a granulomatous response consisting of macrophages, monocytes, and T lymphocytes.
Estimated Average Requirement
The average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group (IOM, 2004)
Generally Recognized As Safe
Status of a food ingredient based on common knowledge about the safety of the ingredient through the scientific community that is knowledgeable in food toxicology and related disciplines specific to the safety and intended use of the ingredient under consideration.
Military Dietary Reference Intake
Nutritional standards, based on the Food and Nutrition Board’s Dietary Reference Intakes, and intended for use by professional personnel involved in menu development, menu evaluation, nutrition education, nutrition research, and food research and development.
Because 60 mg of the amino acid tryptophan is equivalent to 1 mg of preformed dietary niacin, niacin equivalents are estimated by adding preformed niacin intake plus one-sixtieth of tryptophan intake.
Profile of Mood States
A 65-item, adjective rating subjective scale that measures moods and was used in the National Hospice Study and The Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes, and Risks of Treatments.
Recommended Dietary Allowance
The average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group (IOM, 2004).
The specific biological activity of 1.0 microgram of all-trans retinol, 6.0 micrograms of b-carotene, or 12.0 micrograms of other provitamin A carotenoids; it is equivalent to 3.3 international units of vitamin A activity from retinol (10 from b-carotene).
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
The highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase (IOM, 2004).
The maximum amount (usually expressed as a volume, liter) of oxygen that an individual can consume in a defined period of time (usually 1 minute). It may be expressed per kilogram of body weight (ml/kg/min). It reflects the upper limit of aerobic metabolism and limited by the amount of oxygen that can be delivered into the working muscle cells. Basically a product of the maximal cardiac output and maximal arterial-venous oxygen difference at the capillary-cell interface.
IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2004. Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.