National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Committee Biographies
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

Index

A

Abscopal effect. See Bystander effects

Absolute risk.

See also Excess absolute risk

defined, 132, 373

Absorbed dose

atomic bomb survivors, 20, 27, 142

and biological effect, 20

defined, xi, 373

neutron weighting factor, 296-297

photon energy fluence and, 22

Achondroplasia, 92, 98, 125

Activity

defined, 373

units of, 373

Acute myocardial infarction, 95

ada gene, 36, 37

Adaptive response

animal studies, 51, 52, 53, 55, 78-79, 251

bacteria, 50

bystander effect and, 55

and cancer risk assessment, 250-251

cell cycle alterations, 51, 53

for cell lethality, 51, 52, 55, 78

in Chernobyl children, 51

to chromosomal aberrations, 51, 53, 55

cumulative effect of multiple low doses, 53

DDREF and, 78-79

to DNA damage and repair, 39, 50, 51, 52, 53, 251

dose fractionation and, 78

dose-response relationships, 45, 50-53, 62, 89

genotype and, 53

and hormesis, 333

in humans, 50

to iodine-131, 51

in lymphocytes, 51, 53

malignant transformation as, 51-52, 62, 78-79

in mammalian cells in vitro, 51, 52, 62

mechanisms, 11, 29, 39, 51-53

to medical uses of radiation, 51

in mice, 51, 52, 53, 55, 78

microarray expression studies, 39, 53

modeling, 250-251

mutagenesis as, 51

to occupational exposures, 51, 53

to oxidative stress, 50

priming dose and, 51-53, 55, 78, 251

radiation resistance as, 37, 51

research needs, 53

signal transduction pathways, 51, 53

in tumorigenesis, 12, 51-52, 78-79, 250-251

variation in, 51

Additive effects, 148, 150, 297, 373

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, 46

Adenocarcinomas, 50, 74, 76

Adenomas, 69, 151, 168

Adrenal cortical carcinoma, 86, 161

Adriamycin, 130

Adult Health Study, 142, 150, 151, 153

Aflatoxins, 242

Air and space travel, 3, 19

occupational exposures, 204

Alcohol consumption, 242

All-Union Distributed Registry, 202

Alpha particles

and bone cancer, 87, 269

bystander effect, 53-54, 55

cell killing/lethality, 54

chromosome aberrations, 53

genetic susceptibility, 53, 87

and genomic instability, 70, 71

internal contamination, 199-200

LET value, 21

and leukemia, 71

and liver cancer, 68

and lung cancer, 242

mutagenesis, 53, 54, 68

RBE, 71

and tumorigenesis, 70

Amelogenesis imperfecta, 98

American Registry of Radiologic Technologists, 205

Animal studies.

See also specific animals

adaptive response, 78-79, 251

bone cancer, 74

breast/mammary cancer, 74, 82, 83, 88

DDREF from, 77-79, 254-258

DNA damage and repair mechanisms, 34, 36, 42, 52, 69, 71

dose-response relationships, 73-75, 89, 245

extrapolation to humans, 73, 96-98, 109-111, 114, 115

genetic effects of radiation, 12, 68-70, 73, 82-83, 92, 96-97

genetic susceptibility to cancer, 68-70, 71, 73, 82-83, 87-88, 89

of growth and developmental effects, 115

of hormesis, 334

leukemia, 68-70, 71, 72, 73-74, 87

life-shortening effects of radiation, 246

limitations of, 245

lung cancer, 28, 50, 74, 76, 87

lymphoma, 68, 73, 74, 76, 78

mutation rates, 68-70, 96-98

neutron RBE, 28-29, 68, 126

predictive value, 73, 75, 241

radiosensitivity, 34, 69, 71, 82-83

skin cancer, 74, 75, 76, 87

tumorigenesis, radiation-induced, 11, 12, 67, 68-70, 73-79, 82-83, 89, 240, 241, 246

X-ray exposure, 68, 69, 100-101

Aniridia, 98

Ankylosing spondylitis cohorts

bone cancer, 164

breast cancer, 164-165, 176, 177

cancer mortality, 164, 165

cohort description, 164

colon cancer, 164

dosimetry, 164, 165

esophageal cancer, 164

kidney cancer, 164

leukemia, 164, 165, 183, 289

lung cancer, 164, 174

malignant lymphoma, 164

modeling cancer risk in, 287

multiple myeloma, 164

pancreatic cancer, 164

prostate cancer, 164, 288

radiotherapy-related cancer risks, 164-165, 174, 176, 177, 185, 287, 288, 289

stomach cancer, 164, 185, 287, 288, 289

urinary tract cancer, 164, 288

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

Antibody genes, 34

Antitumorigenic defenses, 67

APC gene, 66, 80, 82, 83

Apert’s syndrome, 98, 103

Aplastic anemia, 153

Apoptosis, 48-49, 54, 55, 67, 80, 81, 88, 373

Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), 32, 33

Apurinic nucleases, 35, 42

Arthroses, 165

Asbestos, 200

Ashkenazi Jews, 85

Ataxia telangiectasia, 35, 36, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 86, 93

ATF3, 56

Atherosclerosis, 185, 186

ATM gene, 67, 80, 84, 86

ATM kinase, 35, 36, 37, 39, 50, 56

Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, 91, 141

Atomic bomb survivors

Adult Health Study, 142, 150, 151, 153

age and cancer risks, 72, 143, 144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 240, 297-298

autopsy data, 151, 152, 153

benign neoplasms, 150, 151-152

bladder cancer, 147, 148, 269, 303-306

bone cancer, 269

breast cancer, 12, 26, 85, 135, 147, 148-149, 170, 177, 180, 243, 269, 303-306

cancer risk assessment, 7-8, 138, 143-154, 239-240, 241-245, 262, 275-276, 285-286, 296-308

cardiovascular disease and stroke, 1, 8, 152, 153, 185

cataracts, 153

children of, 6, 8-9, 114, 118, 129, 130-131, 149, 151

chromosome nondisjunctions, 131

cohort description, 13, 141, 142-143

colon cancer, 147, 148, 149, 151, 269, 303-306

compatibility of data with other cohorts, 267-268

Committee’s analysis of data, 267-268, 296-308

confounding and bias in studies, 141, 146, 152-153, 268, 297

cytogenetic studies, 68

data used in this study, 13, 142, 144

DDREF, 246-250, 254-258

deaths from cancer, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 151

digestive system cancers, 149

dose-response relationships, 6, 13, 24, 45, 68, 72, 137, 140, 142, 143, 144, 145-146, 147, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 245

dosimetry, 6, 9, 10, 20, 24, 27, 72, 129, 134, 139, 141, 142-143, 144, 266

doubling dose, 7, 8, 118, 124, 130-131, 252

DREF, 146

esophageal cancer, 147, 148, 149, 215, 269

extrapolation to low dose rates, 146

follow-up, 8, 134, 239-240, 245

gall bladder cancer, 147, 148, 149, 269

genetic risk assessment, 8-9, 91, 92, 114, 115, 118, 131, 252

health end point data, 13, 76-77, 130, 131, 142

healthy survivor effect, 152

in utero exposures, 151, 172

incidence of cancer, 13, 130, 142, 144-145, 148-149, 151, 298-307

infant and childhood mortality, 8

kidney cancer, 149, 269

leukemia, 68, 72, 142, 143, 144, 153, 172, 240, 244, 245, 269, 307-308

life shortening, 153-154

Life Span Study, 9, 12-13, 26, 141-154, 239-240, 242, 245, 246-250, 267-268, 296-308

limitations of studies, 141, 240

liver cancer, 147, 150, 148, 149, 242, 269, 303-306

lung cancer, 68, 147, 148, 150, 215, 242, 269, 276, 303-306

lymphoma, 151, 153

medical exposure data combined with, 146-147

mental retardation, 1

mortality data, 130, 131, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 151, 152-153, 298-307

multiple myeloma, 151

mutation rates, 6, 114, 129, 130-131

nervous system cancers, 148, 149, 151, 152

neutron RBE, 20, 27, 142, 143, 146

nonneoplastic disease, 13, 143, 152-153

nuclear industry workers compared, 201, 203

oropharyngeal cancers, 148, 149

ovarian cancer, 147, 148, 149, 269, 303-306

pancreatic cancer, 147, 148, 149

prostate cancer, 147, 148, 149, 303-306

rectal cancer, 147, 148, 149

respiratory system cancers, 149

salivary gland cancer, 149-150, 269

sex differences, 144, 145, 150, 151, 153

site-specific cancers, 147-151, 303-307

skin cancers, 148, 149, 150-151, 269, 295

smoking effects, 150, 276

solid cancers, 13, 45, 130, 142, 143, 144-147, 149, 245, 297-305

statistical analyses, 143-144

stomach cancer, 147, 148, 149, 150, 173-174, 215, 240, 242, 269, 303-306

suicides, 153

thyroid cancer, 148, 149, 181, 269, 295

transport of risks to other populations, 14, 240, 241-245, 267-268, 275-276

two-stage clonal expansion model applied to, 262

uncertainties in data, 130, 131, 141, 147, 172, 285-286

urinary tract cancer, 148, 149

uterine cancer, 147, 148, 149, 303-306

Atomic Energy Authority (UK), 190, 191, 192, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 232, 233

Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., 191, 192, 195, 196, 197, 199

Atomic Weapons Establishment (UK), 190, 191, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197-198, 232, 233

ATR, 36, 37, 39

Attributable risk, defined, 373

Autoimmune diseases, 225

Autoimmune hypothyroidism, 151

Autopsy data

atomic bomb survivors, 151, 152, 153

noncancer diseases, 151, 152, 153

B

Background radiation. See Natural background radiation

Bacteria

adaptive response, 50

DNA repair, 36, 37

tumor promotion, 241-242

Basal cell carcinoma, 66, 68, 69, 80, 84, 150-151, 167.

See also Skin cancer

BAX, 56

Bcl2, 49

BEAR report

doubling dose method for humans, 96, 123

Becquerel, Henri, 2

BEIR I report

doubling dose method for humans, 96, 97, 118, 122, 123

genetic effects estimation, 94

principles of risk estimation, 138

BEIR III report

cancer risk models, 138

doubling dose method for humans, 118, 122-124

genetic risk estimates, 94, 94-95

BEIR V report, 92, 373

advances in risk estimates since, 115-116, 187

baseline frequencies of genetic diseases, 94-95, 96, 115, 117-118

cancer risk assessment, 138, 174, 187, 246, 265, 275, 282, 283, 291-292, 299

dose-rate reduction factor, 100 n.1, 246

doubling dose calculation, 94-96, 100 n.1, 115, 118, 123, 124, 252

environmental exposure studies, 208, 209-214

extrapolation of animal data to humans, 115

genetic disease risk estimates, 12, 94-95, 96, 115-116, 117-118, 252

leukemia model, 246, 282, 283

multifactorial disease estimates, 95, 96, 115, 117

mutation component, 94, 106, 115

occupational exposure studies, 190

Benign diseases.

See also Ankylosing spondylitis cohorts;

Thyroid diseases;

Tinea capitis cohorts;

other specific diseases

in adults, 162-166, 183

age at exposure and, 151

in atomic bomb survivors, 150, 151-152

breast disease, 26, 151, 163, 174, 177, 180, 185, 287

in children, 26, 68, 155, 156, 166-170, 174, 176, 177, 180, 181, 182, 183

dose-response relationship, 151

genetic susceptibility, 80

hormonal infertility, 164

neoplasms, 80, 150, 151-152

peptic ulcer, 163, 174, 175, 185

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

radiotherapy effects, 155, 162-167, 181, 289

salivary tumors, 150

skin hemangiomas, 26, 168-169, 174, 175, 176, 177, 180, 181, 183, 185

thymus gland enlargement, 26, 167-168, 176, 177, 180, 181, 182

tonsil enlargement, 169

uterine bleeding, 163-164, 183

Beryllium, 200

Best’s macular dystrophy, 125

Beta particles

defined, 373

skin cancer in mice, 75

Bias.

See also Confounding factors;

Uncertainties

assessment of, 139

DDREF estimate, 250

defined, 373

in epidemiological studies, 132, 133, 135-136, 139, 140, 152, 173, 187, 208

information, 135-136, 139, 208, 276

misclassification of disease, 139, 152-153, 285

misclassification of exposure, 139, 207, 266, 285

random errors, 296

reduction strategies, 140

selection, 135, 139, 152, 203, 208

systematic errors, 266, 296

underascertainment or misclassification of cancer incidence, 285

Biological damage. See Chromosome aberrations;

DNA damage;

Genetic effects of radiation;

Relative biological effectiveness

critical sites, 27, 29, 47, 48, 54, 74

models, 147, 262-263

process during energy transfer, 20, 245

responses to, 11;

see also DNA repair mechanisms and defects;

Tumorigenesis, radiation induced

Bladder cancer.

See also Urinary tract cancer

in atomic bomb survivors, 147, 148, 298, 303-306

radiotherapy-related, 157, 158, 162, 163, 164

risk models and estimates, 272, 278, 279, 280, 282, 284, 285, 294, 303-306

Bleomycin, 130

Blindness, 98

Bloom’s syndrome, 93

Bone cancer

age factors and, 264

animal studies, 74

ankylosing spondylitis cohort, 164

in cervical cancer survivors, 157

childhood exposure and, 161, 167

dose-response relationship, 74, 75, 201, 264

genetic susceptibility, 80, 84

high-LET radiation and, 87, 269

human data, 84

in nuclear industry workers, 201

protracted exposure and, 75

radiotherapy-related risks, 157, 161, 162, 164, 167

risk models and estimates, 269, 282, 294

Bone marrow cells, 71, 72, 74, 80, 173

Bowen’s disease, 151

Brachytherapy, 162

Brain tumors, 80, 162, 164, 166, 167, 168, 169, 218

BRCA1 gene, 67, 80, 82, 83

BRCA2 gene, 80, 82, 83

Brca1 protein, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39

Brca2 protein, 35, 38

Breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, 48, 71

Breast cancer, female

additive risk, 148

age at exposure and, 26, 147, 149, 160, 167, 170, 176, 180

age-specific rates, 149

animal studies, 74, 82, 83, 88;

see also Mammary cancer;

specific animals

in ankylosing spondylitis cohort, 164-165, 176, 177

in atomic bomb survivors, 12, 26, 85, 135, 147, 148-149, 170, 177, 180, 243, 269, 287

baseline lifetime risk estimates, 278

BEIR V model, 291-292

in benign breast disease cohorts, 26, 163, 177, 180, 243, 287

BRCA-type heritable, 67, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85-86, 243

cardiovascular disease mortality, 186-187

in cervical cancer survivors, 26, 157-158, 176, 177

chemotherapy and, 159

Chernobyl accident and, 227

childhood exposures to radiation and, 26, 167, 168, 169, 172, 175, 176, 177, 180, 243, 287

chromosomal radiosensitivity and, 86

cobalt-60 irradiation, 186-187

coherence of BEIR VII model with other studies, 287

contralateral, in radiotherapy recipients, 160

diagnostic irradiation and, 170, 172, 176, 177, 287

dose fractionation and, 26, 170, 176-177

dose-response relationships, 74, 76, 86, 149, 157-158, 159, 160, 163, 168, 170, 172, 176, 178-180

dosimetry, 159, 178-180

epidemiological studies, 24-26, 157, 287

etiology, 243

excess absolute risk, 12, 25, 26, 149, 168, 243, 287, 305, 306

excess relative risk, 12, 25, 26, 148, 149, 159, 164, 175, 240, 242, 243, 244, 303, 304

in fluoroscopy cohorts, 26, 170, 176, 177, 180, 243, 287, 293

genetic susceptibility, 67, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85-86, 87-88, 103, 243

in Hodgkin’s disease survivors, 158, 159, 176, 177

hormonal/reproductive factors, 76, 157-158, 159, 168, 169, 241, 243

hypersensitivity to radiation and, 56, 82

incidence, 148-149, 176, 177, 243, 278, 279, 280, 298, 303, 305

LET of radiation and, 24-26

leukemia in radiotherapy recipients, 159-160

lung cancer in radiotherapy recipients, 160, 174, 175

in mastitis treatment group, 26, 163, 177, 180, 287

MCF-7:W58 cell lines, 56

medical-exposure-related risks, 12, 26, 84, 86, 157, 160, 163, 176-180, 286, 287

modeling, 148, 273

mortality, 170, 172, 176, 177, 243, 278, 279, 280, 287, 298

multiplicative model, 148, 163, 243

pooled analyses of data, 12, 169, 180, 243, 268-269, 287

protracted exposure and, 176, 180, 243

in radiologic technologists, 205

radiotherapy-related risks, 26, 84, 86, 157, 159-160, 164-165, 167, 168, 169, 174, 175, 176, 177, 186-187, 205, 243, 287

risk assessment, 25-26, 85-86, 148-149, 176-180, 241, 243, 244, 272, 273, 275, 286, 287, 293, 303-306

risk estimates, 173, 176-180, 278, 279, 280, 282, 294

spontaneous rates, 26, 86

uncertainties in risk models, 25-26, 285

British Nuclear Fuels, 232, 233

Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), 48, 60-61

bub1, 39

Building materials, 3

Bystander effects, 9, 11, 29, 37, 39, 45, 53-55, 62, 70, 251

C

c-fos transcription factor, 51, 53

c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), 55

c-jun transcription factor, 51, 53

Californium-252, 113

Canadian fluoroscopy study, 176

Canadian National Dose Registry, 190-191, 192, 194, 195, 196, 198, 199, 230, 262

Canadian National Mortality Data Base, 198

Canadian nuclear workers, 192-193, 195, 196, 197

Cancer.

See also Carcinogenesis;

Genetic susceptibility to cancer;

Tumorigenesis, radiation induced;

specific sites

age (attained) and incidence of, 72, 143, 144, 145, 148, 149, 167-168, 180-181

age at exposure and, 7, 26, 74, 76, 86, 143, 147, 149, 150, 160, 167, 170, 176, 180, 181-182, 311

apoptosis and, 49

baseline rates, 268, 275, 373

in childhood following in utero exposure, 1, 6, 10, 112, 151, 172-173, 211, 226

data availability, 6

defined, 373

genes, 12, 67, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85-86, 243;

see also Oncogenes

incidence, 73, 130, 142, 144-145, 148-149, 151, 194-198, 200, 201, 202, 203, 298-307

inherited predisposition, see Genetic susceptibility to cancer

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

metastatic, 150

misclassification of disease status, 139

mortality/life shortening, 2, 4-5, 28-29, 68, 76-77, 142, 144, 145, 151, 165, 170, 172, 174, 175, 176, 177, 181, 189, 191, 194-198, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 209-212, 242, 243, 298-307

multifactorial nature of, 81, 88

multistep process, 75, 240, 241

registries, 13, 141, 142, 147-148, 150, 151, 152, 160, 166, 202, 203, 205, 226, 268

sex differences, 7, 73, 74, 144, 145, 150, 151, 161, 167, 176, 181, 244

Cancer cells.

See also Cell cultures;

In vitro assays

Cancer patients. See Radiotherapy studies

Cancer risk assessment.

See also Atomic bomb survivors;

Excess absolute risk;

Excess relative risk;

Linear no-threshold model;

Linear-quadratic model;

Model fitting;

Models/modeling;

Risk assessment;

specific cancer sites

absolute risk model, 242, 244, 245, 253-254, 268, 279-281, 283

adaptive response and, 250-251

additive model, 148, 150, 240, 241, 244-245, 254, 276

age dependencies, 143, 144-145, 147, 148, 149, 240, 262, 268, 269, 270, 271, 273, 274, 275, 278, 284, 285, 286, 296, 297-298, 311

alternative models, 271, 285-286, 298-302

analytical approach, 269, 296-302

atomic bomb survivors, 7-8, 12-13, 138, 143-154, 239-240, 241-245, 267-276, 285-286, 296-308

baseline incidence and mortality data, 268, 275, 278, 373

BEIR III estimates, 138

BEIR V estimates, 138, 174, 187, 265, 268, 275, 277, 282-283, 291-292, 299

biologically based models, 241, 245, 262-263

for bone cancer, 269

breast cancer (female), 25-26, 85-86, 148-149, 163, 176-180, 241, 243, 244, 268, 272, 273, 275, 282, 286, 287

bystander effects and, 251

calculation of lifetime risk, 264-265, 266, 277-278, 284-286, 310-312

for children, 10, 26, 161-162, 166-170, 181, 209

cohort effects in, 297, 302

comparability of study designs and, 241

comparison of BEIR VII estimates with other sources, 282-284, 291-296

confidence intervals, 14, 278, 279, 284, 286, 296, 299, 309

data used for BEIR VIII model, 267-268, 277, 283-284, 296-308

DDREF adjustment, 246-250, 254-258, 274, 275-276, 279, 280, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286

dose-response functions, 245-246, 262, 269, 274, 280, 298

dosimetry and, 241, 266, 268, 269, 285, 286, 296

DREF, 146

endpoints, 268-269

EPA estimates, 274, 275, 282-283, 293

estimates of lifetime risk, 145, 278-286

etiology at different histologic sites and, 241-245

examples of estimates, 310-312

extrapolation from high to low doses, 50, 146

genetic susceptibility and, 85-87, 88, 241, 251

genomic instability and, 251

human data for;

see Epidemiological studies;

Human cell lines/systems;

Human studies

ICRP estimates, 274, 282-283, 292-293

incidence data, 146, 268, 270, 271, 272, 273, 278, 279, 280, 281, 283, 284, 298-302, 311, 312

internal exposure and, 276

latent period, 302

for leukemia, 143, 144, 173, 183-185, 244, 245, 246, 268, 273-274, 275, 277, 278, 280-282, 289-290, 307-308, 309

lifetime attributable risk, 277-286, 309-312

liver cancer, 242, 272, 278, 279, 280, 282

lung cancer, 147, 148, 173, 174-176, 242, 244-245, 272, 275, 278, 279, 280, 282, 286

measures of risk, 268-269, 277

medical uses of radiation, 12, 26, 173-187, 240, 241, 276, 286-290

method of calculating lifetime risk, 277-278

model selection for this study, 6-8, 138, 269-274

modifying factors and, 240, 268-269

mortality data, 144-145, 268, 273, 275, 278, 280, 281, 282, 283, 298-302, 311, 312

multiplicative model, 148, 163, 240, 241, 242, 243, 254, 292

NCRP review of models, 274, 293

neutron RBE and, 28-29

NIH model, 268, 269, 273, 277-278, 293, 294-296, 299

nuclear industry workers, 138, 262, 268, 275, 290

parameter estimates, 268, 278, 279, 280, 284, 285, 308-309

parametric model, 143, 299

pooled analyses of data, 169, 180, 181, 243, 268-269, 273, 286

population modeling, 85, 88, 286

postirradiation cancer mechanisms and, 241

preferred (BEIR VII) model, 244, 269-278, 296-312

probability of causation in, 265, 294

RBE and, 28-29, 146, 276, 286

REID measure, 277

relative risk model, 25, 26, 148, 149, 159, 164, 175, 240, 242, 243, 244, 253, 279-281, 283, 307

RERF model, 269, 270, 271, 285, 286, 296, 298, 297, 301, 302, 307

results of calculations, 278-284

Rochester thymus cohort, 26, 180, 181, 273, 292

sex-specific, 267, 271, 274, 275, 278-281, 282-283, 284, 298, 301, 311, 312

site-specific, 88, 241-242, 268-269, 272-273, 275, 278, 282, 283, 284, 285, 292, 303-307, 311, 312

skin cancer, 245, 270-271, 282, 294, 295

solid cancers (all), 144-145, 268-273, 278, 279-280, 281, 282, 284, 287-289, 296, 297-302, 312

stratified-background relative risk model, 299

temporal projections, 239-240, 275

threshold models, 12, 74-75, 105-108, 120-121, 124

thyroid cancer, 181, 244, 268, 270-271, 272, 273, 275, 282, 286, 287

time since exposure, 271, 274, 275, 289, 296

tonsil irradiation cohort, 273

total cancer, 268, 282

transport between different populations, 85, 88, 240-245, 253-254, 265, 275-276, 277, 278-281, 284, 285, 286, 292

uncertainties in, 25-26, 147, 174, 241, 244, 251, 268, 272-273, 275, 276, 278, 279, 280, 284-286, 297, 308-310

UNSCEAR approach, 138, 240, 268, 272, 274, 275, 277-278, 282-283, 293-294, 297-298, 307

for U.S. population, 274-284, 286

Capenhurst nuclear workers, 191, 192, 195, 196

Carbon-14, 3

Carcinogenesis.

See also Tumorigenesis, radiation induced

age and, 262

Armitage-Doll model, 262

bystander effects and, 9, 29, 54

cell cycle effects, 49, 50, 86

frequency, 52

general mutagen model, 262

genetics of, see Genetic susceptibility to cancer

latent damage, 65, 68, 72, 76, 78, 159, 167, 215

LET of radiation and, 24-26, 49

malignant transformation, 51-52, 62, 78-79, 262

mathematical theory of, 262

modifiers of, 200-201

protooncogenes, 66, 68, 80, 81-82

repair of injury, 76

smoking and, 242

two-stage clonal expansion model, 241, 253-254, 262

Carcinogens

chemical, 244

defined, 373

and genetic polymorphism, 87

Cardiovascular disease, 8

in atomic bomb survivors, 1, 8, 152, 153, 185

in breast cancer survivors, 186-187

dose-response relationships, 152, 153

genetic factors, 95, 96

medical-exposure-related risks, 12, 159, 160, 163, 185-187

occupational exposures and, 199

Case control studies, 84, 133, 134-135, 136, 148, 172, 173, 190, 207, 208.

See also Epidemiological studies;

individual cohorts

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

Chernobyl accident, 224, 225, 226

defined, 373

environmental radiation exposures, 211-212, 224-225, 229, 230, 233, 235

Casein kinase I and II, 39

Caspase cleavage, 49

Cataracts (early onset), 28, 98, 112, 115, 116, 153

Cell cultures.

See also Human cell lines;

In vitro assays;

Lymphocytes systems;

individual animal cell lines

defined, 373

Cell cycle phase

adaptive response in, 51, 53

and carcinogenesis, 49, 50, 86

and cell killing, 49, 50

and cellular response, 45, 49-50

checkpoint kinase gene, 86

and chromosome aberrations, 45, 46, 48, 49, 82

and DNA repair, 34, 37, 39, 48-49, 50, 245-246

dose-rate effects, 49-50, 55

dose-response relationship, 45, 50

and genomic instability, 49, 113

and mutagenesis, 49, 50, 81, 113

and neutron RBE, 50

and radiosensitivity, 45, 49-50, 55, 82, 83, 86, 113

regulator protein, 39

and translocations, 45

Cell cyclin proteins, 52

Cell killing/lethality.

See also Apoptosis

adaptive response, 51, 52, 55, 78

by alpha particles, 54

bystander effects, 9, 29, 54-55

cell cycle phase and, 49, 50

chemical modification of radiation effects, 31

delayed, 55

DNA damage response disorders and, 82

dose-response relationships, 55-57, 75, 78

gene mutation and, 47

hypersensitivity to radiation and, 55-57

by low-LET radiation, 55-57

and lymphoma, 74, 78

by neutrons, 28

oocyte sensitivity, 75, 98-99, 119

in radiotherapy patients, 155

signal, 56

target for, 27, 29, 74

and tumorigenesis, 12, 74, 75, 76, 82

Cell senescence, 72

Cellular response.

See also Adaptive response;

Cell killing/lethality;

Chromosome aberrations;

Genomic instability, radiation induced;

Germ cells;

Somatic cells

bystander effects, 9, 29, 37, 39, 47, 53-55

cell cycle effects, 45, 49-50

hypersensitivity to radiation, 11, 32, 45, 47, 51, 55-57, 82

membrane damage, 29

multilocus mutations, 46

Central nervous system cancers, 151, 161, 166-167, 168-169

Cerebrovascular injury, 185

Cervical cancer survivors

bone cancer, 157

breast cancer risk, 26, 157-158, 176, 177

dosimetry for radiotherapy, 26, 157

leukemia in, 157, 158, 183, 289

lung cancer, 157

lymphoma, 157

rectal carcinoma, 157

risk estimates, 287

secondary cancers in radiotherapy cohort, 26, 135, 157-158, 174, 176, 177, 185

stomach cancer, 158, 185, 288

thyroid cancer, 181

urinary tract cancer, 157, 158

uterine cancer, 157

Cervical polyps, 153

Cervical tubercular adenitis, 169

Cesium-137, 114, 128, 202, 212, 213, 214, 215-226, 276

Chalk River plant, 191

Chapelcross nuclear workers, 191

Chemical aspects of radiation

background radiation, 30-31

DNA damage mechanisms, 29-30

electron ionization of water, 20, 21, 29-30

in locally multiply damaged sites, 31-32

oxidation reactions, 30, 31-32, 40-42, 48, 50, 54

spontaneous DNA damage, 29-30

Chemotherapy, additive effects of, 159, 244

Chernobyl accident

adaptive response in children, 51

brain cancer, 218

breast cancer, 227

case control studies, 224, 225, 226

childhood cancers, 51, 68, 72, 114, 128, 215-226, 227, 235, 246

chromosome aberrations, 57

cleanup (liquidation) workers, 57, 58, 60, 114, 129, 202-204, 226, 227

congenital abnormalities, 218

DNA damage repair indicators, 222, 228

dose-response relationships, 224, 225, 226-227

dosimetry, 114, 128, 129, 202, 203, 216-223, 224

Down’s syndrome, 216

ecologic studies, 215, 216-223, 226

environmental exposures, 215-228, 234-235, 236

follow-up, 202-203

gastrointestinal cancers, 218

goiter, 218

human minisatellite loci mutations, 128-129

internal exposures, 276

kidney cancer, 227, 228

leukemia, 203-204, 216-222, 225-227

lymphoma, 217, 227

mutation rates, 114, 128, 129-130

population exposures, 114, 202, 215-228

registries, 202, 203

renal cell carcinoma, 222

respiratory tract cancers, 218

risk estimates, 203-204

solid tumors (nonthyroid), 227-228

thyroid cancer, 68, 72, 203-204, 215-226, 234-235, 246, 276

uncertainty in data, 128, 129, 202-203

urinary bladder cancer, 223, 227-228

Chernobyl Registry, 202

Children/childhood.

See also Postradiation generation progeny

of atomic bomb survivors, 6, 8-9, 114, 118, 129, 130-131, 149, 151

benign diseases, 26, 68, 155, 156, 166-170, 174, 176, 177, 180, 181, 182, 183

bone cancer, 161, 167

brain and central nervous system tumors, 161, 166-167, 168-169

breast cancer in women exposed during, 26, 167, 168, 169, 172, 175, 176, 177, 180, 243

cancer risk estimates, 10, 26, 161-162, 166-170, 181, 209

Chernobyl, 51, 68, 72, 114, 128, 215-226, 227, 235, 246

CT scans, 172-173

cytogenetic study, 68

descriptive studies, 208

diagnostic exposures, 155, 156, 172-173, 211

dose-response relationships, 10, 161, 162, 168, 169

doubling doses in, 130-131

endocrine gland tumors, 168

environmental exposures, 208, 209-210, 211, 212, 213, 215-226, 229, 233, 234, 235-238

genetic effects of radiation, 8-9, 68, 114, 118, 161

in utero radiation exposure, 1, 6, 10, 112, 151, 172-173, 211, 226

infants, 167-168, 175, 211, 218, 226, 287

iodine-131 exposure, 68, 169, 173, 215

leukemia, 84, 161, 168, 172, 209, 210, 211, 212, 214, 216-222, 226-227, 233, 244

lung cancer, 168, 175

lymphoma, 209, 210

melanoma, 161

mental retardation, 1

mutation frequencies, 114, 128, 130-131

pancreatic cancer, 168

parental preconception exposures, 8-9, 114, 130-131, 175, 214, 228-233

radiotherapy-related risks, 9, 84, 161-162, 166-170

retinoblastoma, 161

risk assessment, 6, 8-9

salivary gland tumors, 167

scoliosis, 172, 176, 177, 187

skin cancer, 161, 167

skin hemangioma cohort, 26, 168-169, 172, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 180, 181, 183, 185, 287

soft tissue sarcoma, 161

stomach cancer, 168, 185

thymus radiography cohort, 26, 167-168, 176, 177, 180, 181, 182, 243, 287, 292

thyroid cancer, 68, 72, 149, 161, 162, 166, 167, 168, 169, 181, 182, 214, 215-226, 234, 244, 246, 287

thyroid diseases, 169

tinea capitis cohort, 68, 155, 156, 166-167, 181, 182, 183

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

tonsil enlargement, 169

X-ray exposures, 211

Cholangiocarcinomas, 150

Chromatid instability

breaks and gaps, 47, 58

in hematopoietic cells, 70-71, 86

in mouse mammary epithelial cells, 71-73

Chromatin remodeling, 69

Chromium-51, 200

Chromosomal diseases, 93, 96, 117, 119

Chromosome aberrations

adaptive response, 51, 53, 55

alpha particles and, 53

aneuploidy, 48, 49, 69, 70, 83, 130, 131

breaks, 51

and breast cancer, 86

bridge formations, 45, 47, 48, 71

bystander effect, 53, 54, 55

cell cycle stage and, 45, 46, 48, 49, 82

centric rings, 45, 57, 58

centrosome defects, 48, 49

Chernobyl accident and, 57

and colon cancer risk, 86

complex exchanges, 46, 48, 67, 68

delayed, 54

deletions, 29, 30, 35, 46, 68, 69, 93

detection methods, 45-46, 57

dicentric exchanges, 24, 25, 28, 45, 46, 57, 58, 71

diseases arising from, 82, 93, 96

DNA repair defects and, 45-46, 57, 65

dose fraction and, 57

dose-response relationship, 24, 25, 45-46, 57-59, 60-61, 73, 74, 256, 257

frequencies, 46, 47-48

and genomic instability, 46, 47-48, 49, 54, 58, 59, 60-61, 70, 251

gross loss events, 66

heritable fragile sites, 69

in human lymphocytes, 24, 25, 28, 45, 46, 51, 53, 57, 58, 59, 61, 86

inversions, 48

late effects, 24

LET dependence, 45

in mammalian cells, 45

in mammary epithelial cells, 61, 71

mechanisms of induction, 45-46, 74

microsatellite sequence instability, 68, 72

monocentric exchanges, 45;

see also Translocations

neutron RBE and, 28

nondisjunctions, 131

in plant cells, 45

proximity effects, 45

rate of formation, 46

RBE and, 24, 27-28, 276

saturation effects at high doses, 45

spontaneous, 53

telomere-associated instability, 71-73

trisomy, 93

and tumorigenesis, 24, 46, 48, 66, 68-69, 70, 72-73, 74, 82, 86

Chromosomes

basic concepts, 327

human, 5, 11, 21, 58, 59, 61, 93

Cigarette smoking. See Smokers/smoking

Cisplatin, 34-35, 40

Cleft lip/palate, 93, 98

Coal-fired power plant emissions, 3

Cobalt-60

breast cancer and, 186-187

chromosome aberrations, 57

and heart disease mortality in breast cancer survivors, 186-187

LET value for electrons, 19 n.1, 21, 22, 24, 276

occupational exposure, 200

RBE, 24, 276

Cockaynes syndrome, 80

Cohort studies, 133, 134.

See also Atomic bomb survivors;

Radiotherapy studies

Colon cancer

in atomic bomb survivors, 147, 148, 149, 151, 269, 303-306

baseline lifetime risk estimates, 278

chromosome aberrations and, 86

genetic susceptibility, 66, 67, 79, 80, 86-87

hereditary nonpolyposis, 79

incidence, 278, 279, 284, 298, 303, 305

mortality, 278, 280, 282, 298, 304, 306

in radiologists and radiologic technologists, 205

in radiotherapy recipients, 163, 164, 288

risk models and estimates, 272, 275, 278-280, 282, 284, 287, 288, 294, 303-306

Colorectal cancer, 80, 82, 161

Combined UK Industrial Workforce study, 200

Committee of the British Medical Research Council, 91

Compton scattering, 20, 22

Computed tomography (CT) scans, 4-5, 156

Computer monitors, 3

Confounding factors

in atomic bomb survivor studies, 141, 146, 152-153, 268, 297

birth cohort effects, 297, 302

chemical exposures, 233

control of, 138

country differences in baseline cancer rates, 268

defined, 133

in ecologic studies, 207

healthy worker/survivor effect, 136, 152, 189, 194, 205

lifestyle-related, 57, 138, 198, 199, 240

occupational exposures, 136, 189, 194, 198, 199-200, 205

socioeconomic status, 198

species variation in susceptibility, 73

stress, 71

Congenital disorders

Chernobyl accident and, 218

doubling dose, 131

environmental radiation exposures and, 211, 229, 230, 232, 233, 235

frequencies, 112

in mice, 115, 116, 131

multifactorial nature of, 93, 95, 96, 112, 117

mutation component, 105-106, 111, 116

PRCF, 111

risk estimates, 115, 116, 117, 120

Connexin, 43, 54

Consumer product radiation, U.S. population exposure to, 3, 5

Contiguous gene deletion syndromes, 112

Cooperative Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-up Study, 165, 166

Coronary heart disease, 81, 93, 106, 111

Cosmic radiation, 3, 4, 30, 43, 204

Cri du chat syndrome, 93

Crouzon’s syndrome, 103

CS-A, CS-B genes, 80

Cumene hydroperoxide, 40

Curie, Marie and Pierre, 2

Cyclin B1, 53

Cyclin-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, 127

Cyclodeoxynucleosides, nucleotide-excision repair, 32, 34-35

Cyclophosphamide, 130

Cystic fibrosis, 8, 93

Cytochrome c, 49

Cytogenetic studies, 68

Cytokines, 54

D

Dally, Clarence, 2

Danish Cancer Registry, 160, 205

Deaf mutism, 98

Death certificates, reliability of data from, 142, 150, 152-153, 208, 303

Defense Radiological Protection Service (British), 190

Delayed lethality, 47

Dementia, 153

Dental radiography, 156

Dentinogenesis imperfecta, 98

Denys Drash syndrome, 80

Development. See Growth and Development effects

Diabetes mellitus, 8, 93, 111, 113

Diagnostic radiography.

See also Medical uses of radiation

adults, 170-172

angiography, 156

and breast cancer, 170, 172, 176, 177

cancer mortality risk, 4-5, 68, 170, 176

children, 155, 156, 172-173, 211

CT scans, 4-5, 155, 172

cumulative doses, 156

dosimetry, 155, 156, 170, 176

fluoroscopy for pulmonary tuberculosis follow-up, 155, 170-171, 174, 175, 176, 177, 187

in utero exposures, 172-173

interventional procedures, 156

iodine-131 exposures, 171, 173, 234

and leukemia, 170, 171, 172

limitations of studies, 187

and liver tumors, 68

and lung cancer, 170, 174, 176

and lymphoma, 171

mammography, 4, 20, 21, 22, 24

photon energies, 20

radioisotope studies, 156

scoliosis, 155, 172, 176, 177, 187

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

techniques, 156

Thorotrast exposure, 68, 150

and thyroid cancer, 171, 234

uncertainties in risk estimates, 286

X-rays, 3, 4, 5, 6, 21, 22, 156, 171, 286

Diamide, 40, 42

Digestive system cancer.

See also Colon cancer;

Esophageal cancer;

Rectal cancer;

Stomach cancer

in atomic bomb survivors, 149

risk estimates compared, 282, 292, 294

secondary, in radiotherapy patients, 159

DIR1 gene, 52, 56

DNA amplification, 48

DNA-binding proteins, 34

DNA concepts, 327, 374

DNA damage

adaptive response to, 39, 50, 51, 52, 53

base removal, destruction, or mutation, 29, 30, 31, 32, 46, 54

and cancer risk, 239

chain breakage, 30, 46

chemically induced, 34-35

Chernobyl accident and, 222, 228

and chromosome aberrations, 45

dose-response relationship, 31, 73, 246-247

double strand breaks, 29, 30, 31, 45-46, 48, 52, 65, 70, 73, 245

free radicals and, 19, 29-30, 239

internucleosomal digestion of DNA, 49

LET of radiation and, 26-27, 31, 62

lethal, 31, 35, 42

locally multiply damaged sites (clustered damage), 26-27, 31-32, 34, 46, 48

low vs high dose and, 9-10, 31, 45, 46

measurement, 31

mechanisms, 29-30, 26-27, 29-32, 62

mutagenic, 35, 40, 65, 112

natural background radiation and, 30-31

oxidative, 19, 30-32, 34, 40-42, 50

prevention, 29-30, 34

probability from energetic electrons, 26-27

protracted, low-dose exposure and, 31

proximity-promoted interaction of lesions, 45

and radiosensitivity, 32, 34, 37, 56

resonance phenomenon, 29-30

sensors, 31, 50, 56, 69, 86

signaling presence of, 36, 50, 65

single-strand breaks, 29, 30, 31

spontaneous vs. induced, 30, 31, 34

strand invasion, 38

time dependence, 46

track characteristics and, 10, 45

from X-rays, 30, 32, 33, 36

DNA-DNA covalent cross-links, 30

DNA ligases, 32, 33, 34, 35

DNA-membrane complex, 29

DNA-PK, 35, 36, 39, 42, 71

DNA-protein covalent cross-links, 30

DNA radical, 29

DNA repair mechanisms and defects

animal studies, 34, 36, 42, 52, 69, 71

in bacteria, 36, 37

base-excision, 32-34, 51, 53, 80, 87

bystander effect, 54

cell cycle phases and, 34, 37, 39, 48-49, 50, 245-246

and cell lethality, 82

in chick cells, 36

and chromosomal aberrations, 45-46, 57, 65

cross-overs, 32, 80

of cyclodeoxynucleosides, 34-35

dose-rate effects, 49, 56

of double-strand breaks, 32, 34-35, 36-39, 42, 45-46, 47, 49, 51, 65, 73, 81, 87

fast reaction, 35-36

and gene amplification, 47

genes, 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, 71, 86, 87-88

and genetic susceptibility to cancer, 71, 79-81, 87

and genome instability, 48, 49, 72

and growth and development, 34

Holliday junction, 36, 38

homeologous recombination, 36, 245-246

homologous recombination, 32, 35, 36, 38, 49

hypersensitivity to radiation and, 56, 71, 239

inducible, 36-39

of locally multiply damaged sites, 27, 31, 34, 35, 36

loss-of-function mutations, 67

in mammalian cells, 35, 36-37

microhomology-mediated, 38

of mismatches, 34, 80

molecular mechanisms, 32-39

nonhomologous end joining, 29, 32, 35-36, 40, 42, 46, 47, 48, 68, 70, 71, 80, 87, 245

normal processes, 32

nucleotide-excision, 32, 34-35, 87

oxidative processes and, 31-32, 40-42, 48

radiation resistance and, 49

and radiosensitivity, 32, 34, 37, 40, 56, 69, 71, 80, 82, 83, 87, 239

of refractory, complex breaks, 35, 36

signal transduction pathways, 32, 34, 36-39, 48, 49, 54, 80

of single-strand breaks, 32, 34, 56, 80

slow reaction, 35, 36

in somatic cells, 36

spontaneous vs. induced damaged, 31, 34

track of radiation and, 10, 43-44

and tumorigenesis, 6, 11, 65, 68, 69, 70, 73, 82, 83, 227-228, 239, 246

xeroderma pigmentosum patients, 79, 80, 81

in yeast, 30, 36, 40-42

Dogs, life-span shortening, 76

Dose.

See also Absorbed dose;

Effective dose;

Equivalent dose, defined;

Low doses

combining low- and high-LET radiations, 2, 3, 199

conversion factors, xi

defined, 374

estimating, 137, 166, 203, 207, 266;

see also Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

extrapolation of high to low, 9, 29, 44, 50, 54, 62, 146, 296

of internally deposited radionuclides, 3, 4

linear-quadratic function, 143

organ, 4, 143

population, 207

priming, 51-53, 55, 78

skin erythema, 2

units, xi, 2

variability within populations, 207

weighting factor, xi, 142, 143, 204, 275-276, 378

Dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF)

for acute doses, 60

adaptive response and, 78-79

from animal studies, 77-79, 246, 254-258

applications, 44, 282

for atomic bomb survivors, 246-250, 254-258

bias and variance of sample estimate of, 250

calculation, 44-45, 254-258

cancer risk assessment, 246-250, 254-258, 274-278, 282, 309

from cellular and molecular studies, 246, 256

defined, 246, 248, 374

derivation by Bayesian analysis, 246-250, 254-258

and dose-response relationship, 44-45, 60, 246-250, 254-258

extrapolation of high to low dose rates, 44, 247

gamma rays, 61

genetic risk assessment, 92, 246

ICRP value, 246, 282, 293, 297

for mutagenesis, 246

rationale for, 247

for tumorigenesis, 77-79, 246-250

uncertainties in, 279, 284, 285, 286, 295, 296, 310

UNSCEAR value, 131, 246, 249

Dose effectiveness factor (DEF), 44, 246

Dose fractionation.

See also Diagnostic radiography

adaptive response, 78

and breast cancer risk, 26, 170, 176-177

and chromosome aberrations, 57

defined, 374

and dose-response relationship, 44, 55, 73, 74, 75-76

and hypersensitivity to radiation, 55

kinetics, 75-76

and leukemia risk, 73

and lung cancer risk, 176

and mutagenesis, 57

and mutation rates, 99

and tumorigenesis, 68, 73, 75-76, 78-79, 182

Dose rate

and chromosome aberrations, 24

defined, 374

and dose-response relationship, 73, 74

extrapolation from high to low dose, 50

and mutation rate, 100 n.1

in radiotherapy patients, 156-157

and RBE, 24

reduction factor, 100 n.1, 116, 130-131

and tumorigenesis, 73, 74

Dose-rate effect

cell cycle phase and, 49-50, 55

defined, 374

DNA repair defects, 49, 56

inverse, 49-50, 55, 57, 60

life shortening, 77

protracted dose distinguished from, 77

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

Dose-rate effectiveness factor (DREF)

for solid tumors, 146

Dose-response relationships.

See also Radiosensitivity

adaptive response and, 45, 50-53, 62, 89

animal models, 73-75, 89, 245, 246, 249, 255, 256

assessment of, 139, 140

atomic bomb survivors, 6, 24, 45, 68, 72, 137, 140, 142, 143, 144, 145-146, 147, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 245, 256

Bayesian statistical analysis of, 246-250, 254-258

benign neoplasms, 151

biophysical modeling, 45, 139, 246

bone cancer, 74, 75, 201

breast cancer, 74, 76, 86, 149, 157-158, 159, 160, 163, 168, 170, 172, 176, 178-180

bystander effect and, 45, 53, 54-55

cancer mortality, 145

for cancer-risk assessment model, 245-246, 262, 269, 274

cell cycle phase and, 45, 50

cell killing/lethality, 55-57, 75, 78

Chernobyl accident and, 224, 225, 226-227

in children, 10, 161, 162, 168, 169

chromosome aberrations, 24, 25, 45-46, 57-59, 60-61, 73, 74, 256, 257

chronic exposure, 43

control population, 43

DDREF and, 44-45, 60, 246-250, 254-258

DNA damage and response, 31, 73, 246-247

dose fractionation and, 44, 55, 73, 74, 75-76

dose rate and, 73, 74

environmental radiation exposures, 224-225, 233, 234, 235

in epidemiological studies, 132, 137, 139, 140, 189, 208, 245, 246

extrapolating from high dose to low dose, 44-45

general aspects, 43-45, 73

genomic instability and, 45, 46, 48, 49, 60-61

hypersensitivity to radiation and, 55-57

for internally deposited radionuclides, 43, 276

iodine-131 exposure, 235, 276

LET of radiation and, 9, 24, 43, 45, 126, 158, 245

leukemia, 71, 72, 73-74, 76, 77, 142, 144, 157, 158, 160, 161, 163-164, 165, 183, 184, 245, 264, 295

life shortening, 76-77, 89, 249, 255, 257, 258

linear, 13, 47, 60, 62, 73, 74, 77, 137, 201, 246, 247, 250, 264, 269, 299

linear no-threshold, 246

linear-quadratic, 7, 24, 43-44, 47, 74, 201, 247-248, 250, 255, 257, 274, 280

liver cancer, 150, 201

at low doses, 10, 43-45, 57-62, 73

lung cancer, 74, 76, 158, 160, 163, 201, 255, 262

in lymphocyte assays, 57, 58, 60

lymphoma, 73, 74, 77, 78, 151

maxiumum likelihood estimates, 250

modifying variables, 264-266

mouse studies at low doses, 58, 60, 73-75, 76, 78, 126

mutations, 47, 50, 57, 59-60, 61, 73, 108, 113, 114, 245, 246

noncancer mortality, 152, 153

occupational exposures, 189

ovarian cancer, 12, 50

quadratic, 74

radiotherapy-related cancers, 157-170

sex differences, 73, 74

signal transduction pathways and, 62

single-tracks with repair factor, 44-45

skin cancer, 74, 76, 151, 245

solid tumors, 74-75, 142, 144, 145-146, 201, 245, 298

temporal relationships, 45, 50, 60, 61-62, 68, 70, 73-77, 245-246

threshold model, 12, 74-75

thyroid cancer, 149, 160, 162, 167, 168, 169, 182, 215, 224, 225, 276

thyroid diseases, 153

translocations, 57, 58, 60, 61

in tumorigenesis, 12, 45, 50, 55, 59, 60, 61-62, 68, 73-77, 84, 89, 140, 245-246

in tumor-suppressor gene disorders, 84

uncertainties in, 246

X-rays, 49, 56, 61, 62

Dosimeters, personal, 189, 193-194, 201

Dosimetry of ionizing radiation.

See also Microdosimetry

ankylosing spondylitis cohort, 164, 165

atomic bomb survivors, 6, 9, 10, 20, 24, 27, 72, 129, 134, 139, 141, 142-143, 144

and breast cancer, 159, 178-180

and cancer risk assessment, 241, 266, 268, 269

cervical cancer treatment cohort, 26, 157

Chernobyl accident, 114, 128, 129, 202, 203, 216-223, 224

defined, 374

diagnostic radiation, 155, 156, 170, 176

DS02 system, 27, 142, 269, 285, 296

DS86 system, 27, 142, 285

fallout from nuclear weapons testing, 212, 213, 214

fluoroscopy studies, 170, 176

natural background radiation, 228

neutron component, 27, 143-144

nuclear-facility-related population exposures, 209-211, 212, 213, 214, 229-232

nuclear industry workers, 60, 138-139, 190, 191, 192, 193, 198-199, 201, 202, 203, 231, 233, 290

postpartum mastitis study, 163

radiotherapy recipients, 164, 165

uncertainties in, 3, 14, 128, 129, 139, 142, 169, 198-199, 233, 241, 266, 285

Doubling dose

acute, 60, 122

advances in methodology, 94-101, 119, 122-124

atomic bomb survivor data, 7, 8, 118, 124, 130-131, 252

baseline frequencies of genetic diseases, 94-96, 115

basis for, 8, 96, 122-124

BEAR Committee estimates, 96, 123

BEIR I estimates, 96, 97, 118, 122, 123

BEIR III estimates, 118, 122-124

BEIR V estimates, 12, 94-96, 100 n.1, 115, 118, 123, 124

children of atomic bomb survivors, 130-131

chromosomal diseases, 96

chronic multifactorial diseases, 12, 115, 119

defined, 8, 93, 111

dose rate and, 130-131

end points, 122, 123, 124, 130-131

equation, 8, 101-102, 115

estimation, 8, 93-94, 97-101, 113, 115

ESTR mutations, 126

extrapolation from mice to humans, 96-97, 109-111, 252

first-generation mortality and, 130

gametic, 130

Mendelian diseases, 12, 94-95, 115

minimum, 130

mouse vs human mutation rates, 12, 96-101, 113, 119, 122-124

multifactorial diseases, 95-96

mutation component, 8, 101-105, 113, 117

in nuclear test site populations, 128

radiation-induced mutation rates, 99, 101, 119

reciprocal, 93

spontaneous mutation rates, 8, 96-101, 119, 122, 123

uncertainties, 98-99, 130, 131

UNSCEAR estimates, 96, 122, 123, 124

zygotic, 96, 102, 113

Down’s syndrome, 93, 216, 244

Dpc4 gene, 69

Drosophila melanogaster, 53, 91

Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, 93

Duodenal ulcer, 153

E

Edison, Thomas, 2

Effective dose

background radiation worldwide, 43

defined, 374

by source of radiation, 22-24

Electricité de France, 191, 192, 197

Electromagnetic radiations. See Gamma rays;

X- rays

Electrons

binding energy, 20

hydrated, 29-30, 54

ionization of water, 20, 21, 29-30

LET, 19, 20

penetration depth, 21

secondary, 27, 29, 31

Endocrine glands, cancer of, 168

Endometrial carcinoma, 67, 80, 86

Energy transfer process

biological damage process, 20

direct effects, 26

indirect effects, 29-30

of low-LET radiation, 20-21

Environmental radiation exposures

from atmospheric releases, 212-215

cancer incidence and/or mortality, 209-212

case control studies, 211-212, 224-225, 229, 230, 233, 235

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

cesium-137, 215

Chernobyl accident, 215-228, 234-235, 236

children, 208, 209-210, 211, 212, 213, 215-226, 229, 233, 234, 235-238

cohort studies, 212, 213-214, 229, 231-232, 235

congenital defects, 211, 229, 230, 232, 233, 235

dose-response relationships, 224-225, 233, 234, 235

ecologic studies, 208-211, 212, 215, 216-223, 228-229, 235, 236-237

fallout from weapons tests, 212-215, 234, 235

iodine-131, 215, 233-236

and leukemia, 209, 210, 211, 212, 214, 216-222, 226-227, 228-229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 235

limitations and weaknesses of studies, 207-208, 233, 235

and lymphoma, 209, 217, 228-229, 230, 231

natural background, 3, 4, 8, 31, 43, 209, 228, 236-237

nuclear facility proximity and, 208-212, 229, 230, 233, 234, 235-236

parental preconception, 211, 212, 215, 228-233, 235, 237

and reproductive outcomes, 211, 229, 231, 232, 233

surrogates for, 207

Three Mile Island accident, 208, 209, 211

and thyroid cancer, 215-226, 234, 236

uranium mines, 211

Epidemiological studies.

See also specific cohorts

analysis of data, 136-139

assessment of associations, 132-133, 139-140

BEIR V principal environmental studies, 208, 209-214

bias, 132, 133, 135-136, 139, 140, 152, 173, 187, 208

Bradford Hill criteria, 140

breast cancer, 24-26, 157

case control, 133, 134-135, 136, 148, 172, 190, 207, 208

childhood cancer, 173, 208

cohort, 133, 134, 135, 136, 173, 207, 208

comparability in study design, 133, 135-136, 241

confounding, 133, 136, 138, 141, 199-201, 207, 240

control group, 134, 136, 204

data collection, 133-136, 208

defined, 132, 374

descriptive, 207, 208

design issues, 135-136, 187, 198, 207-208, 287

dose-response relationships, 132, 137, 139, 140, 189, 208, 245, 246

ecologic design, 10, 207, 208, 215, 216-223, 226

exposure assessment, 134-135, 137, 139, 193-194, 207

extrapolation of risks from, 240-241

high-dose studies, 139

hybrid (“nested”), 135, 148, 190

interpretation of data, 139-140, 141

of LET-related risks, 24-26

linear relative risk model, 137, 138-139

measurement errors, 139, 266

measures of association, 132, 137

meta-analyses, 139-140, 268

nuclear industry workers, 189, 190-193

pooled analyses of data, 169, 180, 181, 243, 268-269

randomized intervention trials, 133-134

retinoblastoma, 84

statistical power, 136, 189, 204, 208, 241, 245

tools of statistical inference, 137-138

types, 133

uncertainty in, 133, 207, 208, 265

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), 55

Equivalent dose, defined, 374

Escherichia coli, 36

Esophageal cancer, 147, 148, 149, 164, 170, 215, 269, 282, 294

Ethylnitrosourea (ENU), 69

Etoposide, 130

age at exposure and, 149

European Childhood Leukemia-Lymphoma Incidence Study, 226

Excess absolute risk (EAR), 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277

age at exposure, 298, 301

application, 137, 143, 240-241

breast cancer, 12, 25, 26, 149, 168, 243, 287

comparison of alternative models, 300

defined, 132, 137, 143, 374

leukemia, 144, 307

linear dose-response function, 299

parametric model, 306

model fitting, 296, 299, 304-306

modeling, 143, 285-286

site-specific cancer in atomic bomb survivors, 147, 149, 304-306

solid cancer mortality, 145

tumorigenic radiosensitivity, 84

uncertainty in, 285-286

Excess relative risk (ERR), 144, 268, 269, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277

age at exposure and, 148, 285-286, 296, 297-298, 299, 300, 301

application, 137, 143, 240

bias and, 152

breast cancer, 12, 25, 26, 148, 149, 159, 164, 175, 240, 242, 243, 244

coherence of BEIR VII estimates with other estimates, 287-288

comparison of alternative models, 300

defined, 132, 137, 143 n.3, 374

follow-up period and, 297

in heritable retinoblastoma patients, 84

leukemia, 12, 295, 307-308

linear dose-response function, 299

liver cancer, 148, 301, 302

lung cancer, 12, 148, 150, 159

model fitting, 296, 299-301

excess relative risk, 132, 143, 285-286

for radioepidemiological tables, 306

RERF, 301

sex-specific, 287, 301

site-specific cancer in atomic bomb survivors, 147-150

site-specific cancers, 303-304

skin cancer, 148

solid cancer mortality, 145

statistical precision, 137-138

stomach cancer, 12, 287, 288, 289, 301-302

stratified baseline risks, 299

thyroid cancer, 12

uncertainty in, 285-286

Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci, 113-114

Experimental studies

defined, 133

potential disease phenotypes, 112-113

RBE of neutrons, 28-29

spontaneous vs. induced mutations, 124-125

Exposure to ionizing radiation.

See also Dosimetry of ionizing radiation;

Environmental radiation exposures;

Low doses;

Occupational radiation exposure;

Protracted exposure

annual worldwide, from natural sources, 2, 3, 4

atomic bomb survivors, 6, 9, 129, 139, 141

chronic, 11, 43, 56, 68, 129, 280

CT scans, 4-5

defined, 374

factors affecting, 4

high-dose, 4, 9, 141

hypoxic conditions, 34

limits, 5, 43

misclassification, 139, 207

priming dose, 51-53, 55, 78, 251

scenarios, 4-6

surrogate indicators, 207, 208

uncertainties in data, 3, 139, 174

U.S. population, 3-4

whole body scans, 4-5, 141

Extrapolation of data

from animals to humans, 73, 96-98, 109-111, 114, 115, 252

BEIR V report, 115

cross-population, 85, 88, 240-245, 253-254, 265, 266, 275-276, 278-281, 284, 285, 286, 292

from high dose to low dose, 9, 29, 44, 50, 54, 62, 146, 247, 296

from in vitro to in vivo transformation systems, 52, 53

Moolgavkar and Knudson two-stage clonal expansion model, 241, 253-254

postirradiation cancer mechanisms and, 241

F

FA-A to FA-C genes, 80

Fabry’s disease, 93

Fallout. See Nuclear weapons testing

Familial adenomatus polyposis, 67, 80, 82, 83, 98

Familial hypercholesterolemia, 98, 125

Fanconi’s anemia, 80

Fbxw7 gene, 69

FEN-1 structure-specific nuclease, 32, 33, 38

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

Fenton oxidants, 30

Fernald facility, 191, 200

Fetal exposure to radiation

atomic bomb survivors, 151

and cancer in childhood, 6

IEER issues, 330

and mental retardation, 1

Fifteen-Country Workers Study, 336

Finite-locus threshold model, 105-108, 124

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method of chromosome painting, 45-46, 57

Fluoroscopy

and breast cancer, 26, 170, 176, 177, 180, 243

Canadian epidemiological study, 176, 287

dosimetry, 170, 176

and lung cancer, 174, 175, 176, 288, 289

Massachusetts tuberculosis cohort, 170-171, 174, 176, 243, 273, 287, 292

and skin cancer, 2

14-3-3 proteins, 39

Free radicals, DNA damage from, 19, 29-30, 239

French Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique, 28, 190

G

GADD45 gene, 39

Gall bladder cancer, 147, 148, 149, 269

Gamma rays

bystander effects, 54-55

cancer risk estimates, 276

carcinogenesis, 24-26, 28

cobalt-60, 19 n.1, 21, 22, 24

damage mechanisms, 26-27

DDREF, 61

defined, 374

dose-rate effect, 28

dosimetry for atomic bomb survivors, 6, 142

environmental exposures, 212

extrapolation to X-ray exposures, 24

high-energy, 24

mutations in mice from, 126

occupational exposures, 204

photon energies, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 276

RBE, 21, 22, 24, 25, 28, 126, 276

signal transduction study, 56

terrestrial, 30

Gap junctions, 39, 54, 55

Gastric ulcer, 153, 241

Gastrointestinal cancers, 218

Gene amplification, 47, 49, 72

Gene transcription, 55, 113

Gene-environment interactions, 12, 86, 87, 88

Genes.

See also specific genes

antibody, 34

autosomal recessive disorders, 80

basic concepts, 327

breast cancer, 67, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85-86, 243

caretaker, 67

checkpoint kinase, 86

deletions, 11, 58, 61, 66, 67, 86, 109, 110, 111, 112, 119, 124, 125

DNA repair, 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, 71, 86, 87-88

epigenetic silencing events, 66, 67

functional polymorphisms, 12, 86-88, 113, 114

gatekeeper, 66-67, 69, 81

haploinsufficiency, 125

human counterparts in mice, 98-99

interactions (epistasis), 12, 70, 108

low-penetrance, 85-88

oxidative damage resistance, 40-42

proto-oncogenes, 81-82

radiation resistance, 30, 40-42

radiation-responsive, 39

recoverability of induced mutations in live births, 109-111, 124, 125

tumor-supressor, 39, 65, 66, 69, 80, 80, 81

X-linked HPRT, 47, 54

Genetic diseases.

See also Genetic susceptibility to cancer;

specific diseases

absolute risk, 110

autosomal dominant, 79, 80, 81, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97-98, 101, 102, 103-105, 110, 112, 115, 116, 117, 125

autosomal recessive, 79, 80, 81, 92-93, 94-95, 96, 101, 104, 105, 110-111, 115, 117-118

baseline frequencies, 12, 92, 94-95, 96, 115, 117-118

basic concepts, 328

chromosomal, 93, 96, 115, 119

chronic, 111, 115, 116, 119

congenital, 93, 95, 105-106, 112, 115, 117, 119

defined, 92

experimental data, 112-113

frequency, 105

inborn errors of metabolisms, 113

marker, 125

Mendelian, 92-93, 94-95, 96, 98, 105, 111, 112, 113, 115, 119

MIM maps, 125

minisatellite polymorphisms and, 113, 114

multifactorial, 8, 93, 95, 96, 101, 112, 115, 117, 119

multisystem developmental abnormalities, 12, 112

mutation component, 98, 101-105, 117

potential phenotypes, 111-113

PRCF estimates, 110-111

prevalence, 80, 96, 98, 110

“radiation-inducible,” 92

risk estimation by class of, 94, 115, 116

spontaneous mutation rates, 97-98, 109

sporadic cases, 108

UNSCEAR estimates, 94-95, 96

X-linked, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 101, 104-105, 110, 115, 116, 125

Genetic effects of radiation.

See also Chromosome aberrations;

DNA damage;

Mutations

animal studies, 12, 68-70, 73, 82-83, 92

background data from humans, 8

basic concepts, 328

BEIR I estimates, 94

cardiovascular disease, 95, 96

in children, 8-9, 68, 114, 118, 161

detection, 8

disease liability concept, 107, 120-121

germ-cell mutations at ESTR loci and, 113-114, 125-130

heritability concept, 121-122

at human minisatellite loci, 126, 128-130

indicators of risk, 8, 118

models of multifactorial diseases, 120-122, 252

multifactorial threshold model, 120-121, 252

Genetic risk assessment.

See also Mutation component of genetic diseases

advances since BEIR V, 115-116

in atomic bomb survivors, 8-9, 91, 92, 114, 115, 118, 131, 252

autosomal dominant disorders, 94, 111, 115, 116, 117

autosomal recessive diseases, 94, 112, 115

back calculation, 94, 117

baseline disease frequencies, 12, 94-96, 115, 117, 252

bases for, 8, 96, 115-116

BEIR III estimates, 94-95

BEIR V estimates, 12, 94-95, 96, 115-116, 117-118, 252

calculations, 109, 115, 116

chromosomal diseases, 115, 117

chronic multifactorial diseases, 115, 116, 117

by class of disease, 94, 117

congenital abnormalities, 115, 116, 117, 120

current estimates, 116, 118-120

DDREF and, 92, 246

direct method, 8, 112

doubling dose method, 8, 12, 93-101, 102, 111, 115, 117, 118, 119, 252

endpoints, 118, 130, 131

equilibrium effects, 94, 117

extrapolation of animal data to humans, 96-97, 109-111, 114

first postradiation generation, 94, 116, 117, 118

framework, 92

germ cell stages and, 92

goal, 92

indirect method, 8, 93-94

methods, 91, 92

mouse data, 92, 96-97, 98-101, 109-111, 112-113, 114, 115-116, 252

mutation component, 12, 81, 94, 101-113, 115, 116, 117, 119, 252

overlap in estimates, 119-120

potential recoverability correction factor, 12, 109-110, 115, 119, 252

reconciliation of present and past estimates, 117, 118

reproductive outcomes, 252

second-generation progeny, 116

sex differences, 119, 120

spontaneous mutations, 8, 96-101

UNSCEAR estimates, 92, 94, 95, 96, 109, 111, 112, 115, 118

X-linked disorders, 94, 111, 115, 116, 117

Genetic susceptibility to cancer.

See also Radiosensitivity;

Tumorigenesis, radiation induced

age of onset in carriers, 81

alpha particles and, 53, 87

animal studies, 68-70, 71, 73, 82-83, 87-88, 89

autosomal dominant disorders, 66, 79-81, 85

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

autosomal recessive disorders, 79, 80, 85

breast cancer, 67, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85-86, 87-88, 103, 243

and cancer risk assessment, 85-87, 88, 241, 251

cancer-prone human disorders, 79-81, 85

cellular mechanisms, 79, 81-82

children, 161

colonic and other neoplasms, 66, 67, 79, 80, 86-87

DNA repair defects and, 71, 79-81, 87

genes of low penetrance and, 85-88

heritable radiosensitivity and, 82-85

human data on, 83-87

leukemia, 80

low-penetrance genes, 85-89

lymphoma, 80

mutations, 66-67, 73, 81, 113

population modeling, 85, 88

proto-oncogenes and, 79, 80, 81-82

risk modeling, 81-82, 85, 86, 88, 120-122, 251

secondary cancer in radiotherapy patients, 161

skin cancer, 79, 80

species variation in, 73

spontaneously arising human tumors, 66-67

strengths and weaknesses of current estimates, 118-120

thyroid cancer, 80, 81-82, 244, 246

tumor suppressor genes and, 79, 80, 81

twin studies, 88

to virally associated neoplasia, 79

X-linked disorders, 79

Genomic instability, radiation-induced, 11, 43

alpha particles and, 70, 71

apoptosis and, 48-49

in bone marrow cells, 72

bystander effects, 54, 55, 70

and cancer risk assessment, 251

cell cycle effects, 49, 113

in CHO cells, 58

chromatid instability, 70-73

chromosomal aberrations and, 46, 47-48, 54, 58, 59, 60-61, 70, 251

defined, 47

delayed, in somatic cells, 127

DNA repair defects and, 48, 49, 72

dose-response relationship, 45, 46, 48, 49, 60-61

frequencies, 47-48, 61

gene mutations and, 61, 66, 68, 70, 87, 88, 113, 126-127

guardian-of-the-genome hypothesis, 48-49

in hematopoietic cells, 70-71

hypersensitivity to radiation and, 57, 71

manifestations, 47, 54, 55, 57, 58, 70

at minisatellite and ESTR loci, 113, 126-127

modeling, 251

in mouse mammary epithelial cells, 71-73

in mouse melanocytes, 58

persistent, 46

reactive oxygen species and, 48

RBE, 71

target and lesions resulting in, 48

telomere-associated, 48, 71-73, 251

transgenerational, 127

and tumorigenesis, 39, 46, 48-49, 65, 67, 69, 70-73, 78, 251

in zygotes, 127

Genotype, and adaptive response, 53

Germ cells.

See also Genetic diseases;

Genetic susceptibility to cancer

defined, 374

ESTR loci, 113-114, 125-130

minisatellite loci, 113-114, 128-129

mutations, 6, 8, 81, 97, 109, 113-114, 125-130

polymorphisms, 87

stages and radiation conditions of relevance, 92

German Childhood Cancer Registry, 226

Gliomas, 55, 82, 166, 168

Glycosylases, 32, 34, 35, 42

Goiter, 218, 226, 244

Grave’s disease, 165, 166

Growth and development effects

animal studies, 115

DNA repair defects, 34

human studies, 8

mental deficiency, 112

multisystem abnormalities, 112, 115

Guardian-of-the-genome hypothesis, 48-49

H

H2AX histone protein, 31, 36, 50

Hamsters

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, 48, 55, 58, 59, 61

DNA repair rates in Chinese hamster V79 cells, 52

malignant transformation in embryo cells, 59, 61

mutation studies, 59

Hanford Site, 135, 190, 191, 192, 193, 197, 199, 200, 213, 215, 230, 234, 235, 276

HAP1, 32

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 102

Health end point data, 76-77, 142

Heart disease. See Cardiovascular disease

Heat shock-related proteins, 52-53

Heavy metal exposures, 128, 242

Helicobacter pylori infection, 241-242, 302

Hemangiosarcomas, 150

Hematopoietic cells, chromatid instability in, 70-71

Hemochromatosis, 93

Hepatitis, 150, 153, 242, 302

Hepatoblastoma, 150

Hepatocellular carcinomas, 150, 242

Heritable genetic effects in humans. See Genetic diseases;

Genetic effects of radiation;

Genetic risk assessment;

Genetic susceptibility to cancer

High-LET radiation.

See also Alpha particles;

Neutrons

bystander effects, 53-54

carcinogenesis, 49

chromosome aberrations, 45

damage mechanisms, 2, 19, 36, 45

defined, 375

dose units, xi, 2

dose-rate effects, xi

epidemiological studies, 198-199

mutation rates, 9, 126

physics and dosimetry, 19, 198-199

RBE, 31, 126

sources, 4

Hiroshima Tumor Registry, 268

Histones, 30, 31

hMre11/hRad50/Nbs1 DNA-binding and exonuclease complex, 35, 36, 39

Hodgkin’s disease, 12, 130, 151, 158-159, 174, 175, 176, 177, 242-243

Hormesis, 11

adaptive response, 333

animal studies, 334

cell studies, 333

and epidemiology, 334-335

life span data, 334

theoretical considerations, 332

tumor incidence data, 334

Hormones

and breast cancer, 76, 157-158, 159, 168, 169, 241, 243

and thyroid cancer, 244

and tumorigenesis, 75

HPRT gene, 44-45, 47, 51, 53, 54, 58, 61

hRad51 protein, 35, 36

hRad52 protein, 35, 36

hRad54 protein, 35

HRAS1 gene, 113

HSP70 proteins, 52-53

HSP90 proteins, 52

HTLV-1, 244

Human cell lines/systems

chromosomal instability in diploid fibroblasts, 72

fibroblasts, 51, 54, 55, 57, 58, 72

Hela hybrid system, 52, 59, 62

human-hamster hybrid, 51, 72

hypersensitivity to killing, 56

immortalized, 52, 58

keratinocytes, 54-55

malignant transformation, 59, 62

MCF-7:W58 breast cancer, 56

mutagenesis in lymphoblastoid cells, 51, 59-60

myeloid tumor, 56

oocyte radiosensitivity, 99

TK6 lymphoblasts, 58, 59-60, 61

Human studies.

See also Epidemiological studies

bone cancer, 84

genomic instability, 71

mutations at minisatellite loci, 113, 114, 128-130

Hungarian congenital disease population, 95

Huntington’s disease, 98, 125

Hydrogen peroxide, 29, 30, 31, 40, 41, 42, 50, 53

8-Hydroxyguanine, 31

Hydroxyl radical

bystander effect and, 54

damage mechanisms, 29-30

production during energy transfer processes, 31

Hyperparathyroidism, 151, 153

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

Hypersensitivity to radiation at low doses, 11, 32, 45, 47, 51, 55-57, 71, 82, 239

Hypertension, 93, 95, 111, 153

Hyperthyroidism, 165-166, 169, 182, 185, 226, 234

Hypothyroidism, 226

Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPT) mutation, 44-45

I

IDDM2 gene, 113

Immune disorders, virally associated neoplasia, 79

Immune response, 66-67

Immunodeficiency, 34, 80

Immunoglobulin, 34, 66

Immunologic rearrangement, 35

Immunophilins, 52

In vitro assays. See also;

Human cell lines/systems;

Lymphocytes;

individual animal species

adaptive response in mammalian cells, 51, 52, 62

bystander effect in, 53, 54-55

CHO cells, 48, 58, 61

chromatid instability in bone marrow cells, 71

chromosome aberrations in human cells, 24, 53, 58, 61, 72

defined, 375

extrapolation to in vivo transformation systems, 52, 57

genomic instability, 58

of LET-related risks, 24

M5S mouse embryonic skin cells, 52

malignant transformation, 51-52, 61-62

priming dose, 52

RBE, 24

somatic mutagenesis, 69

trypsinization and replating, 52, 62

Inelastic scattering, 20

Infertility, hormonal, 164

Institut Gustave Roussy, 160, 161, 169

Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, issues raised by, 330-331

Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusology (Belarus), 203

Internally deposited radionuclides.

See also Iodine-131;

other specific radionuclides

alpha particles, 199-200

cancer risk estimates, 200, 276

Chernobyl accident and, 276

dose estimates, 3, 4

dose-response relationships, 43, 276

and lung cancer, 200

measurement problems, 199-200

naturally occurring, 30, 43

nuclear industry worker exposure, 190, 199-200

and prostate cancer, 200

International Agency for Research on Cancer, 336

International Cervical Cancer Survivor Study, 181

International Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 181

International Classification of Diseases, 95

International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, 22, 375

International Commission on Radiological Protection, 22, 81, 85, 103, 105, 109, 124, 165, 197, 246, 274, 282, 283, 292-293, 294, 297, 375

Intestinal carcinoma, 69, 70, 87, 88, 166

Iodine deficiency, 244

Iodine-131

adaptive response to, 51

childhood exposure, 68, 169, 173, 215

diagnostic exposures, 171, 173, 234

dose-response relationship, 235, 276

environmental exposures, 68, 209, 214, 215, 233-235

radiotherapy-related risks, 161, 165-166, 171, 182, 234

and salivary gland tumors, 165

thyroid cancer, 68, 161, 165, 171, 182, 214, 215-226, 233-235, 276

Iododeoxyuridine (125Idu), 48

Ionizing radiation.

See also Alpha particles;

Beta particles;

Exposure to ionizing radiation;

Gamma rays;

High-LET radiation;

Low-LET radiation;

Natural background radiation;

Neutrons;

X-rays

background, 30-31

chemical aspects, 29-32

damage mechanisms, 6, 26-27, 29-30, 40-42, 239

defined, 1, 375

detection, 2

direct effects, 19, 29-30, 31

discovery, 1-2

indirect effects, 19, 29-30

late effects, 11

low doses defined, 2

photon spectral distributions, 20-22

physical aspects, 19-29

sources, 3-6, 11

track structure, 21, 26-27, 29, 55, 62

types, xi, 2, 19-20;

see also Gamma rays;

X rays

U.S. population exposure, 3-4

Iron-59, 200

I-SceI endonuclease, 48

Ischemic heart disease, 95, 153

Israel Tinea Capitis Study, 68, 155, 156, 166-167, 181, 182, 183, 273, 292

J

Japanese nuclear workers, 198

Jaslovske power plant, 197

Juvenile osteocondrosis, 95

K

Kerma doses, 144, 375

Kidney carcinoma, 66, 149, 161, 164, 166, 227, 228, 269, 282, 293, 294

Ku-70, 35, 42, 56

Ku-80, 35, 42, 56

L

Laboratory animals. See Animal studies;

specific animals

Late Effects Study Group, 161, 162

Latent health effects

RBE of neutron doses and, 27

Lead, 200

LET. See Linear energy transfer

Leukemia

acute lymphatic, 144, 210, 218, 226

acute myelogenous, 68-69, 144, 153, 164, 227

acute nonlymphocytic, 67, 162

adult T-cell, 144, 244

age factors and, 144, 264, 288

alpha particles and, 71

analysis of human data, 296, 307-308

animal studies, 68-70, 71, 72, 73-74, 87

in ankylosing spondylitis cohort, 164, 165, 183, 289

in atomic bomb survivors, 68, 72, 142, 143, 144, 153, 172, 244, 245, 269, 307-308

BEIR V model, 246, 282, 283, 292

breast cancer survivors, 159-160

caretaker gene, 67

in cervical cancer survivors, 157, 158, 183, 289

chemotherapy-related, 86, 160, 244

Chernobyl accident and, 203-204, 216-222, 225-227

children, 84, 161, 168, 172, 209, 210, 211, 212, 214, 216-222, 226-227, 233, 244

chromosome aberrations and, 65, 68-69, 72, 74

chronic lymphocytic, 157, 159-160, 162, 212, 244, 283, 307

chronic myelogenous, 144, 171

coherence of BEIR VII estimates with other studies, 288, 289, 294

deaths, 144

diagnostic irradiation and, 170, 171, 172

dose fractionation and, 73

dose-response relationship, 71, 72, 73-74, 76, 77, 142, 144, 157, 158, 160, 161, 163-164, 165, 183, 184, 245, 264, 295

environmental exposures and, 209, 210, 211, 212, 214, 216-222, 226-227, 228-229, 233, 244

EPA model, 282

etiology, 243

excess relative risk, 12, 295, 307-309

frequencies, 77

genetic susceptibility, 80, 86, 87

human data, 72

ICRP model, 282

in infants, 218-221, 226

in utero exposures and, 172

incidence, 244, 284

initiation mechanisms, 66-67, 68, 74

internally deposited radionuclides and, 200

latent, 68, 72

lymphocytic (nonacute), 67, 164

medical-exposure-related risks, 12, 289-290

misclassification of cause of death, 153

models, 144, 246, 264, 273-274, 307-308

monocytic, 171

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

mortality, 189, 196, 197

myeloid, 71, 72, 73-74, 76

neutron RBE and, 29, 143

NIH model, 295, 308

in nuclear industry workers, 14, 190, 191, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202-204, 275, 288

nuclear weapons testing and, 214

quantitative studies, 73-74

in radiologists and radiologic technologists, 189, 204, 205

radiosensitivity of bone marrow, 173

in radiotherapy recipients, 84, 157, 158, 160-161, 162, 163-164, 165, 166, 168, 183-185

registry data, 142

risk assessment, 143, 144, 245, 246, 273-274, 285, 295, 296, 307-308

risk estimates, 173, 183-185, 277, 278, 280-282, 284, 289-290, 294, 307-308

risk factors, 244

sex differences, 73, 144, 284

in tinea capitis cohort, 166, 183

temporal distribution, 144

uncertainties in risk, 284, 285

UNSCEAR model, 282, 294

X-rays and, 71

lex gene, 36, 37

Life expectancy, 153-154, 161

Life shortening studies

in atomic bomb survivors, 153-154

and DDREF, 246

dose-response relationship, 76-77, 89, 153, 249, 255, 257, 258

as proxy for mortality, 28-29

wasted radiation concept, 77

Life span, and paternal effect for mutations, 97

Life Span Study, 9, 12-13, 26, 141-154, 246-250, 267-268, 285-308, 375.

See also Atomic bomb survivors

Li-Fraumeni syndrome, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84

Linde facility, 190

Linear energy transfer (LET).

See also High-LET radiation;

Low-LET radiation;

Restricted LET

and carcinogenesis, 24-26, 49

and chromosome aberrations, 45

consistency with other studies, 57

defined, 19, 375

and DNA damage, 20, 26-27, 31, 245

dose average, 19 n.1, 22, 23

and dose-response relationship, 9, 24, 43

in vitro studies, 24

microdosimetric analogue, 22, 23

protons and electrons in water, 20

as quality-of-radiation measure, 22-24

radioepidemiologic studies, 24-26

RBE variation with, 21

track average, 19 n.1

Linear no-threshold (LNT) model, 9-10

basic assumption, 7

DDREF adjustment, 7

defined, 375

description, 6-8

dose-response relationship, 246

lifetime-risk example, 7-8

Linear relative risk model, 137

applications, 138

equation, 138

statistical inferences, 138-139

Linear-quadratic model, 6

DDREF estimates, 246

defined, 375

dose-response relationship, 7, 24, 43-44, 47, 74, 201, 247-248, 250, 255, 257, 274, 280

for leukemia, 14, 246, 292, 295

RBE derivation, 24, 28

Lineoleic acid 13-hydroperoxide, 40

Lipid peroxidation, 30, 34

Liver cancer

age at exposure and, 150

alpha particles and, 68

atomic bomb survivors, 147, 148, 149, 150, 269, 298

baseline lifetime risk estimates, 278

death certificate data, 150

diagnostic irradiation and, 68

dose-response relationship, 150, 201

etiology, 242

excess relative risk, 148, 301, 302

hepatitis antigen status and, 150, 242

human studies, 68

incidence, 298, 303, 305

metastatic, 150

mortality, 298, 304, 306

multiplicative model, 242

risk factors, 241, 242

risk models and estimates, 242, 272, 278, 279, 280, 282, 284, 285, 294, 301, 303-306

Thorotrast exposure and, 150

Liver disease and cirrhosis, 153, 242

Los Alamos National Laboratory, 192, 197

Low doses

breast cancer risk, 86

cumulative effects, 53, 155

defined, 2, 11

DNA damage, 31

dose-response relationships, 10, 43-45, 57-62, 73

hyper-radiation sensitivity at, 55-57

neutron RBE at, 28-29

potential for beneficial effects, 10

probability of cell damage, 9-10

protracted exposure, 31

solid tumors, 74

Low-LET radiation.

See also Gamma rays;

X-rays

annual worldwide exposure from natural sources, 2, 3, 4

bystander effects for, 54-55

carcinogenic effects, 245

cell lethality, 55-57

damage mechanisms, 26-27

defined, 375

dose units, xi

dose-response relationships, 45, 126, 158, 245

epidemiological studies, 199

in vitro studies, 22, 24

mutation rates, 9

physics and dosimetry, 19, 21, 199

RBE variation with dose rate, 21, 24

sources, 1, 4

track structure, 21, 43-44, 55

Lung cancer.

See also Respiratory system cancer

additive risk model, 150, 159, 242, 276

adenocarcinomas, 50, 76

age and, 147

age at exposure and, 150, 160

alpha particle exposure and, 242

animal studies, 28, 50, 74, 76, 87

in ankylosing spondylitis cohort, 164, 174

in atomic bomb survivors, 68, 147, 148, 150, 242, 262, 269, 276

baseline lifetime risk estimates, 278

in benign breast disease cohort, 174

in breast cancer survivors, 160, 174, 175

in cervical cancer survivors, 157

chemotherapy and, 159

childhood exposures and, 168, 175

diagnostic irradiation and, 170, 174, 176

dose fractionation and, 176

dose-response relationship, 74, 76, 158, 160, 163, 201, 255, 262

dosimetry, 159, 160

etiology, 242-243

excess relative risk, 12, 148, 150, 159

fluoroscopy and, 174, 175, 176, 288, 289

genetic susceptibility, 86-87

in Hodgkin’s disease cohort, 158, 159, 174, 176, 242-243

incidence, 174, 175, 242, 262, 278, 279, 284, 298, 303, 305

internally deposited radionuclides and, 200

latent, 159

medical-exposure-related risks, 174-176, 288

mortality, 174, 175, 242, 278, 280, 282, 298, 304, 306

multiplicative effects, 158, 159, 176, 242

in nuclear industry workers, 135, 190, 198

in peptic ulcer cohort, 163, 174, 175, 288

in radiologists and radiologic technologists, 204, 205

in radiotherapy-related risks, 157, 158-159, 160, 162, 163, 164, 166, 168, 174, 242, 288

repair kinetics, 76

risk models and assessment, 147, 148, 173, 174-176, 242, 244-245, 272, 275, 278, 279, 280, 282, 284, 288, 294, 303-306

sex differences, 150, 176, 284

in skin hemangioma cohorts, 174, 175, 176

smoking and, 87, 135, 138, 150, 158, 159, 174, 176, 198, 242, 276

uncertainties in risk assessments, 138

in uranium/underground miners, 138, 242

Lymphocytes, 24, 34

adaptive response in, 51, 53

bystander effect, 53

chromosome aberrations, 45, 46, 51, 53, 57, 58, 59, 61, 86

dose-response relationship at low doses, 57, 58, 60

genomic instability, 49, 59

HPRT mutations, 60

immortalized, 57, 58

PHA-stimulated, 59, 61

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

Lymphohematopoietic tumors, 67, 71

Lymphoma

animal studies, 68, 73, 74, 76, 78

in atomic bomb survivors, 151, 153

cell killing and, 74, 78

in cervical cancer survivors, 157

Chernobyl accident and, 217, 227

children, 209, 210

chromosome aberrations and, 65

diagnostic irradiation and, 171

dose-response relationship, 73, 74, 77, 78, 151

environmental exposures and, 209, 217, 228-229

etiology, 78

frequencies, 77

genetic susceptibility, 80, 87

iodine-131 exposures, 171

misclassification of cause of death, 153

murine, 68-70, 73, 74, 78, 87

initiation mechanisms, 66-67, 68, 69, 70, 73, 74

and intestinal neoplasia, 88

mortality, 151

pathogenesis, 74

in radiologists and radiologic technologists, 204, 205

radiotherapy and, 164

sex differences, 74, 151

target cells, 74

thymic, 12, 68, 73, 74, 76, 78

M

Macrophage oxidative bursts, 29

Mallinckrodt facility, 200

Malondialdehyde, 34

Mammary cancer.

See also Breast cancer, female

adenocarcinomas, 50, 74

bystander effects, 55

chromatid instability and, 71-73

hormones and, 28

in mice, 69, 71-73

neutrons and, 28, 50

in rats, 28

Mammography, 4, 20, 21, 22, 24

Man-made radiation

sources, 3-4

U.S. population exposure, 3-4

MAPK, 39

Marfan syndrome, 92, 98

Massachusetts General Hospital, 165

Mastitis patients, radiotherapy-related cancer, 26, 163, 177, 180, 243, 287, 292, 293

Mathematical models. See Models/modeling

Mayak plutonium production complex, 57, 190, 201-202, 212, 213, 214, 215, 235, 275, 276

Mayo Clinic, 165

Maximum likelihood principle, 138, 139

MCF-7:W58 cell lines, 56

Medical uses of radiation.

See also Diagnostic radiation;

Radiotherapy studies

adaptive response to, 51

age at exposure, 297

atomic bomb survivor data combined with, 146-147

and breast cancer, 12, 26, 84, 86, 157, 160, 163, 176-180, 287

cancer risk estimates, 12, 26, 173-187, 240, 241, 276, 286-290

and circulatory diseases, 12, 185-187

coherence of BEIR VII model with other studies, 286-290

doses from, 30, 156

epidemiological studies of exposure, 155-156

exposure limits, 43

and leukemia, 12, 183-185, 289-290

and lung cancer, 12, 174-176, 242

noncancer disease risk, 8, 12, 159, 160, 163, 185-187

occupational exposures, 204-205

physician population as surrogate for dose, 329

and RBE, 276

risk modeling, 138, 146-147, 276

sources of, 4-5, 30

and stomach cancer, 185

and thyroid cancer, 180-182, 287

Medulloblastoma, 69, 70, 80

Melanoma, 67, 80, 151, 161, 162, 190

Menadione, 40

Mendelian diseases, 92-93, 94-95

Meningiomas, 80, 166-167, 168

Mental retardation, 1

Mercury, 200

Metropathia hemorrhagica, 164

Michael Reese Hospital, 169, 181, 182

Microarray expression studies, 39, 53

Microdeletion syndromes, 112

Microdosimetry, 22, 23

Microencephaly, 80

Micronuclei, 47, 51, 54, 55

Minisatellite loci, 113-114, 128-130

Mitochondrial electron transport, 49

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), 55

MLH1 gene, 67, 80

MLH2 gene, 80

Model fitting

AMFIT program, 143, 269, 296

EPICURE software, 138, 143, 269, 296

to epidemiological data, 138, 269

leukemia data, 144

maximum likelihood estimates, 138, 139, 296

preferred risk models, 296-308

for site-specific cancers, 303-307

for solid cancers, 298-302

summing solid cancers, 279-280, 296

Wald method, 138

Models/modeling.

See also Cancer risk assessment;

Genetic risk assessment;

Uncertainties

absolute risk, 242, 244, 245, 253-254

adaptive response, 250-251

additive risk, 148, 150, 159, 240, 241, 242, 244-245, 254

age-at-exposure effects, 143, 264, 297-298

applications of, 264-265

Armitage-Doll, 262

atomic bomb survivor data, 143-144, 262, 263, 296-308

BEIR III, 138

BEIR V, 246

biologically based, 147, 262-263

biophysical, 45, 139, 246

breast cancer, 148, 273

bystander effects, 251

data quality and completeness, 265

defined, 375

dose measurement and, 139, 266

dose-response relationship, 45, 73-75, 89, 139, 245, 246, 249, 255, 256, 264-266

empirically based, 263-264

evolutionary population genetic, 105, 106

excess absolute risk, 143, 285-286

excess relative risk, 132, 143, 285-286

extrapolation from high dose to low dose, 9, 29

extrapolation from one population to another, 88, 240-245, 253-254, 266

finite-locus threshold, 105-108, 124

general mutagen model, 262

genetic susceptibility to cancer, 81-82, 85, 86, 88, 120-122, 251

genomic instability, 251

heritable effects of radiation, 92, 120-122, 251

Interactive RadioEpidemiological Program, 295

leukemia risk, 144, 246, 273-274

linear no-threshold, 6-10, 375

linear relative risk, 137, 138-139

linear-quadratic, 6, 43, 246

mathematical, 92, 261-262

medical-use-related risks, 138, 146-147

Moolgavkar-Knudson two-stage clonal expansion model, 241, 253-254, 262

multifactorial threshold model of disease liability, 93, 105, 107, 120-121, 252

multiplicative, 148, 163, 240, 241, 242, 243, 254, 297

multivariate, 138, 265

NCRP review of, 293

parameter estimation, 264, 285-286

parametric, 143, 296, 299

polygenic computational, 86

population, 85, 88, 286

postirradiation cancer mechanisms and choice of, 241

preferred (BEIR VII) model, 6-8, 138, 244, 264, 269-278, 310-312

probability, 260, 265

projections of cancer risk over time, 239-240

relative risk, 25, 26, 137, 138-139, 148, 149, 159, 164, 175, 240, 242, 243, 244, 253

solid cancers (all), 143, 269-271

threshold, 12, 74-75, 105-108, 120-121, 124

thyroid cancer, 273

Moolgavkar-Knudson two-stage clonal expansion model, 241, 253-254, 262

Mortality

ankylosing spondylitis cohort, 164, 165

atomic bomb survivors, 130, 131, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 151, 152-153, 298-307

cancer, 2, 4-5, 28-29, 68, 76-77, 142, 144, 145, 151, 165, 170, 172, 174, 175, 176, 177, 181, 189, 191, 194-198, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 209-212, 242, 243, 298-307

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

dose-response relationships, 145

healthy worker effect, 136

life shortening as proxy for, 28-29

lymphoma, 151

nonneoplastic disease in atomic bomb survivors scans, 141, 152-153

premature, 8

solid cancers, 144, 145

Mound Facility, 191, 192, 197

Mouse/murine studies

adaptive response, 51, 52, 53, 55, 78

AKR strain, 78

Apc-deficient genotype, 69, 70, 87

Atm-deficient, 82-83

BALB/c, 71, 74, 76, 127

BRCA-deficient, 82-83

cataracts, 115

C3H 10T1/2 cells, 50, 52, 55, 59, 61-62

C3H/HeN strain, 126

C57BL/6 strain, 71, 127

CBA strains, 71, 73-74, 78, 127

chemotherapy studies, 130

chromatid instability, 71-73

chromosome aberrations, 48, 57, 58, 119

congenital abnormalities, 115, 116, 131

DNA repair, 34, 42

dose-rate reduction factor, 100 n.1

dose-response relationships at low doses, 58, 60, 73-75, 76, 78, 126

doubling dose, 96-97, 98-101, 113

ESTR mutations, 113, 114, 125-127

extrapolation of data to humans, 73, 96-98, 114, 115

gene deletions in melanocytes, 58, 61

genetic effects of radiation, 92, 98-101, 109-111, 112-113, 115-116, 119

genetic models of tumorigenesis, 58, 61, 68-70, 82-83, 87

genome sequencing, 119, 125

genomic instability as gene deletions, 58, 61

Harderian gland tumors, 74

HPRT mutations, 44-45, 58, 60

human counterparts of genes, 98, 99

induced mutation rates, 92, 98-101

intestinal tract cancers, 87

leukemia, 68-70, 72, 73-74

lung cancer, 28, 50, 74, 76, 87

lymphoid neoplasms, 68-70, 73-74, 78

malignant transformation, 59, 61-62

mammary tumors, 50, 71-73, 74, 88

minisatellites, 125-126

ms5S embryonic skin cells, 51, 52

multisystem developmental abnormalities, 112-113

mutation studies, 8, 44-45, 47, 50, 56-57, 58, 60, 92, 98-101, 109-111, 112-113, 126-127, 130

oocyte killing, 24, 75, 98-99, 130

ovarian tumors, 50, 74, 75, 76

quantitative studies, 73-75

radiosensitivity, 42, 56-57

RFM strain, 28, 29, 73-74, 75

skeletal abnormalities, 115

skin cancer, 75, 87

solid tumors, 74-75

spermatogonia mutations, 50, 98

telomere-deficient strains, 48

Trp53-deficient, 78

tumorigenesis, 68-70, 71-75, 82-83

MRE11, 37

Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1, 38

MSH2 gene, 67

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 150

Multifactorial diseases, 8

baseline frequencies, 95-96

BEIR V estimates, 95, 96, 115, 117

BEIR VII estimates, 96

cancer as, 81

chronic, 95, 96, 105-113, 115, 117, 119, 124

congenital, 93, 95, 96, 112, 117

defined, 93

doubling dose, 94, 95-96, 101, 115

estimates of risk, 115, 117

examples, 93

familial aggregation studies, 122

genetic basis, 93, 95-96, 124

models, 93, 95, 105-106, 120-122, 124

multisystem developmental abnormalities, 112-113

mutation component, 81, 94, 101, 105-113, 117, 119, 124

potential recoverability correction factor, 119

prevalence, 95

risk estimates, 117, 119

threshold model, 93, 94, 120-121, 124

Multifactorial threshold model of disease liability, 93, 105, 107, 120-121

Multiple dystrophy, 98

Multiple endocrine neoplasia, 80

Multiple exotoses, 98, 125

Multiple myeloma, 151, 164, 171, 204, 205, 214

Multiplicative effects, 148, 150, 163, 240, 241, 242, 243, 254, 297, 376

Mutagenesis

adaptive response, 51

alpha particles, 53, 54, 68

apoptosis and, 49

bystander effects, 54

cell cycle phase and 49, 50, 81, 113

in cells hemizygous for autosomal APRT, 46

chromosome aberrations and, 47

DDREF, 246

DNA damage and repair processes and, 47, 65, 246

dose fractionation and, 57

dose-rate effects, 50

dose-response relationship, 47, 50, 57, 59-60, 61, 113

at ESTR loci in mice, 113-114

genetic context, 46

germline, 47, 65, 114

at HPRT gene, 47, 51, 53, 58, 59-60, 61

hypersensitivity to radiation and, 56-57

mechanisms, 27, 46-47, 126

at minisatellite loci in humans, 113-114

radiation quality and, 47

RBE variation with LET, 24, 47

in somatic cells, 46-47, 113, 246

in spermatogonia, 60

target genes, 47

in TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells, 59-60, 61

Mutation component of genetic diseases

application, 102

autosomal dominant diseases, 102, 103-105, 111, 115, 116, 119

autosomal recessive diseases, 104, 105, 110-111, 115

BEIR V estimates, 94, 106, 115

chronic multifactorial disease, 105-113, 119

concept, 94

congenital abnormalities, 105-106, 111, 116

defined, 94, 101-102, 111

dose-response relationship, 108, 245

for early postradiation generations, 106, 116

at equilibrium, 94, 106

estimation, 103-113

finite-locus threshold model, 105-107, 108, 111, 124

first-generation increase in mutation rate and, 103, 104, 105, 106-108, 109, 119

gene-gene interactions (epistasis) and, 108

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 102

heritability of liability concept, 105, 106, 107, 111, 121-122, 124

ICRP hybrid model, 105, 109

multisystem developmental abnormalities, 112

murine studies of induced mutations, 109-111, 112-113, 116, 124-125

mutation-selection balance, 94, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 109, 117

nonsporadic cases, 103

numerical estimates, 104-105

permanent increase in mutation rate and, 104, 105, 106-109

“phenotypes” of human diseases, 111-113

population genetic concepts, 102

potential recoverability correction factor, 109-110, 111, 125

rationale for, 101-102

spontaneous mutations in humans, 109-111, 124-125

sporadic, 103-104, 108

strengths and weaknesses of, 119

UNSCEAR, 109

X-linked diseases, 104, 105, 111, 115, 116, 119

Mutation rates

age and, 97

animal studies extrapolated to humans, 96-98

in atomic bomb survivors, 6, 114, 129, 130-131

calculating rates in mice, 99-100, 119

in children of atomic bomb survivors, 114

in children of Chernobyl inhabitants/cleanup workers, 114, 128, 129-130

dominant disorders, 98, 100

dose fractionation and, 99

in early postradiation generations, 106

effects at equilibrium following permanent increase, 106-109

at ESTRs, 126-127

family size and, 97

in first generation, 105, 106, 108, 129

and fitness of a population, 102

and genetic disease risk in humans, 109-111

in human genes, 97-98

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

mice, 92, 96-101, 109-111, 114, 126

at minisatellite loci, 114, 128-130

parental birth year and, 129

in progeny, 70, 97

sex differences, 96-97, 119, 128

spermatogonial stage, 100, 113

spontaneous, 97-101

X-linked diseases, 98

Mutations.

See also Chromosome aberrations;

DNA damage;

Genetic effects of radiation;

Spontaneous mutations

animal tumors, 68-70, 96-98

in atomic bomb survivors, 6

autosomal dominant, 98

basic concepts, 327-328

biochemical (null enzyme), 98, 99, 131

broad-sense and narrow-sense heritability and, 121-122

and cell death, 47

Chernobyl accident and, 128-129

complex, 51

congenital abnormalities, 131

defined, 327

deletions, 36, 40, 47, 54, 65, 109

detection, 127, 129-130

dominant negative, 125

dose-response relationship, 47, 57, 59-60, 73, 113, 114, 246

in Drosophila melanogaster, 8

electrophoretic, 131

first generation, 130-131

frequencies, 46-47, 94, 105

gain-of-function, 66, 81, 125

germline, 6, 8, 81, 103, 109;

see also Genetic susceptibility to cancer

high-penetrance, 81, 85

HPRT, 44-45, 47, 53, 58, 60

human minisatellite loci, 128-129

human tumors, 66-67

indirect, 127

intragenic, 109

lethal, 47

loss-of-function, 66, 67, 81, 125

low-penetrance, 85-88

at minisatellite loci in humans, 113, 114, 128-129

missense or nonsense, 125

mouse studies, 8, 44-45, 47, 50, 56-57, 58, 60, 92, 98-101, 109-111, 112-113, 125-126

multilocus, 46

multisite DNA fingerprinting, 129

point, 46, 66, 125, 131

potentially recoverable, 109-111, 112

radiation-induced tumors, 67-68, 239

recoverability of genes in live births, 109-111, 124, 125

relative risk, 6

reversion, 47

single-gene, 46

somatic, 103, 113

specific-locus, 60, 100

spontaneously arising tumors, 66-67, 239

trinucleotide repeat expansions, 125

Tradescantia, 24

and tumor susceptibility, 66-67, 242

Myelodysplastic syndrome, 153

MYH gene, 67

Myocardial infarction, 153

Myotonic dystrophy, 92

N

Nagasaki Tumor Registry, 268

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 43, 293, 376

National Institutes of Health

cancer risk model, 138, 268, 269, 273, 277-278, 293

radioepidemiological tables, 294-296, 299

National Radiological Protection Board, 82, 85, 293

National Registry of Radiation Workers (UK), 14, 190, 193, 195, 196, 197, 198, 200, 230, 290

National Research Council

Committee on Atomic Casualties, 91

Committee on the Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation, 91

Committee on the Biological Effects of Radiation, 91;

see also BEIR entries

Natural background radiation

annual effective dose per person worldwide, 2, 3, 4, 30, 43

cancer risk, 7-8, 228

chemical aspects, 30-31

defined, 373

DNA damage, 30-31

dosimetry, 228

ecologic studies, 228

in Great Britain, 228

high-dose exposures, 4

in Kerala, India, 228

low-dose exposures, 4, 8, 31, 43

occupational exposures, 204

sources, 2, 3, 30, 43

uncertainty in estimates, 3, 7

U.S. population exposure, 3

in Yangjiang County, Guangdong Province, China, 228

NBS gene, 80

Nbs1, 36

NBS1, 37

Nephroblastoma, 66, 80

Nervous system

benign tumors, 152

cancer of, 148, 149, 151, 152, 171

Neural tube defects, 93

Neurofibromas, 66, 80

Neurofibromatosis, 80, 84, 92, 98

Neutrons

animal studies, 28-29, 68, 126

atomic bomb survivors, 20, 27, 142, 143, 146

carcinogenesis, 50

cell cycle effects, 50

cell killing, 28

chromosome aberrations from, 27-28

damage mechanisms in tissues, 19, 27

dose-effect relationship, 28

DS02 dosimetry, 27

DS86 dosimetry, 27, 142

fission-spectrum, 20, 28, 50

high-energy, 19

leukemia, 71

linear dose coefficient, 28

and lymphoma, 68

mutations in mice, 68, 126, 127

occupational exposures, 199, 204

physics, 19

RBE, 20, 27-29, 126, 142, 143, 146, 297

weighting factor for absorbed dose, 296-297

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, 80, 82, 83, 84

New York State Postpartum Mastitis Study, 26

NF1 gene, 66, 80, 81

NF2 gene, 80

NF-kappaB transcription factor, 51, 53

Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), 79, 80, 81, 83

4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO), 75, 76

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, 151, 157, 158, 162, 164, 171, 209, 227, 229, 231

Nuclear Electric, 190

Nuclear facilities.

See also Nuclear industry workers;

individual facilities

accidents, 208, 209, 211,

see Chernobyl accidents

commercial power plants, 3, 190

dosimetry in population exposures, 209-211, 212, 213, 214, 229-232

fuel processing plants, 190, 199-200, 209, 212, 213, 215, 229, 234

and leukemia, 190, 213

occupational exposures, 190

population exposures in proximity to, 208-215

U.S. population exposure to radiation from, 3, 5

Nuclear Industry Family Study, 233

Nuclear industry workers.

See also Occupational radiation exposure;

individual facilities and sites

age associations, 200

assessment of exposure, 193-194

atomic bomb survivors compared, 201, 203

bone cancer, 201

cancer incidence and mortality estimates, 191, 194-198, 200, 201, 202, 203

cesium-127 exposure, 202

Chernobyl liquidators, 57, 58, 60, 114, 129, 202-204, 226, 227

childhood cancers following parental preconception exposures, 229, 230-232, 233

chromosome aberrations, 57, 58

cohort characteristics, 191-193

commercial nuclear power facilities, 190

confounding factors, 136, 198, 199-200

defined, 190, 191

design of studies, 138-139, 198

dosimetry, 60, 138-139, 190, 191, 192, 193, 198-199, 201, 202, 203, 231, 233, 290

epidemiological studies, 138-139, 189, 190-193, 233

follow-up studies, 190, 192, 193, 202-203

Hanford workers, 135, 190, 191, 192, 195, 196, 198-199

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

healthy worker effect, 194

heavy metal exposures, 200

internally deposited radionuclides, 190, 193, 194, 199-200, 201

leukemia, 14, 190, 191, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202-204

liver cancer, 201

lung cancer, 135, 190, 198, 200, 201

at Mayak plutonium production complex, 13-14, 57, 190, 201-202

modifiers of radiation risk, 200-201

monitoring exposure, 189, 201

multiple myeloma, 197

mutations, 60

plutonium exposure, 190, 194, 199, 200, 201-202

pooled analyses of studies, 14, 191-193, 194-195, 198, 200

prostate cancer, 197-198, 200

protracted exposures, 200-202

reproductive health, 233

risk estimates, 194-198, 203-204, 290

risk modeling, 138, 262, 268, 275, 290

Sellafield Nuclear Facility, 57, 58, 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197, 229, 230, 231

sensitivity of studies, 5-6

skin cancer, 190

smokers/smoking, 194, 198, 199

socioeconomic status, 199

solid cancers, 201

thyroid cancer, 203-204

uncertainties in data, 14, 194, 198

Nuclear medicine, U.S. population exposure from, 3, 5

Nuclear membrane damage, 29, 49

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.), 2 93

Nuclear weapons testing

Bikini test site, 234

British tests, 212, 213, 214, 235

Castle BRAVO, 214

dosimetry, 212, 213, 214

and leukemia, 212, 213

multiple myeloma, 214

mutation rates, 114, 128-129

Nevada Test Site, 234

Operation HARDTACK, 213

Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, 6

participant exposures, 6, 212, 213, 214

population exposures, 3, 5, 6, 114, 212-215, 234, 276

Semipalatinsk test site, 114, 128-129

and thyroid cancer, 212, 215, 234, 276

U.S. tests, 6, 213, 234

Nucleotide pools, alterations in, 48

O

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 198, 200

Oak Ridge X-10 Plant, 191, 192, 195

Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, 190, 191, 192, 195, 200

Observational studies, defined, 133

Occupational radiation exposure.

See also Nuclear industry workers;

Radiation workers;

specific occupations and cohorts

adaptive response, 51, 53

airline and aerospace employers, 204

BEIR V report, 190

and cardiovascular disease, 199

confounding in, 136, 189, 194, 198, 199-200, 205

dose limits, 5, 43

dose-response relationship, 189

epidemiological studies, 189-190

healthy worker effect, 189, 194, 205

medical and dental personnel, 189, 204-205, 266;

see also Radiologists and radiologicl technicians

monitoring, 189

Portsmouth Shipyard Study, 135, 136

and reproductive health, 5, 233

risk estimates, 280

sensitivity of studies, 5-6, 189

skin cancer, 2

types of, 189

uncertainty in, 14

of U.S. population, 3, 5

Ocular albinism, 93

Oncogenes.

See also Proto-oncogenes;

Tumorigenesis, radiation induced

activation, 65

defined, 376

Oncovin, 130

Oocytes

chemotherapy effects, 130

primordial, 92

sensitivity to cell killing, 75, 98-99, 119

Oropharyngeal cancers, 148, 149

Osteogenesis imperfecta, 98, 103, 125

Osteopetrosis, 98

Osteosarcoma, 69, 78, 87.

See also Bone cancer

Otosclerosis, 98

Ovarian carcinoma

in atomic bomb survivors, 147, 148, 149, 269

dose-response relationship, 12, 50

genetic susceptibility, 67, 69, 74, 75, 76

incidence, 298

mortality, 298

radiotherapy-related, 80, 84, 160, 164

risk models and estimates, 272, 278, 279, 280, 282, 285, 294, 303-306

Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancer, 10, 172-173

Oxidative stress

adaptive response to, 50

DNA damage, 19, 30-32, 34, 40-42, 50

DNA repair, 31-32, 40-42, 48

Oxygen, and radiation resistance, 50

oxyR transcription factor, 50

P

p21 protein, 37, 39, 53, 54

p53, 35, 36, 37, 39, 48, 49, 53, 54

Pair-production process, 20-21

Pancreatic cancer, 147, 148, 149, 163, 164, 168, 204

Pantex, 190

Paracrine growth factors, 86

Paracrine proapoptotic or antiapoptotic factors, 54

Parathyroid cancer, 80

Parkinson’s disease, 153

Parotid gland, tumors of, 171

PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) protein, 32, 33, 39, 53

Peptic ulcer, 163, 174, 175, 185, 242, 287, 288

Peroxyl radicals, 31

Phenylketonuria, 93

Phosphatidyl-3-inosityl enzymes, 36

Phosphorylation

of histone protein, 36

of kinases, 37

Photo effect, 22

Photoelectric process, 20

Photons

absorption and scattering, 20-21

annihilation events, 21

defined, 376

energy transfer, 19, 20-21

linear dose coefficient, 28

penetration depth, 21

spectral distributions, 20-22

Photosensitivity, 80

Physical aspects of ionizing radiation

epidemiological studies, 24-26

experimental observations, 28-29

genetic damage mechanisms, 26-27

in vivo studies, 24

LET, 22-24

neutron interaction with tissue elements, 27-29

photon spectral distributions, 20-22

RBE, 22-29

track structure, 10, 21

types of radiation, 19-20

PI-3 kinase, 67

Pituitary tumors, 74, 152

Plutonium-239, 20, 190, 194, 199, 200, 201

PMS1 and PMS2 genes, 60

Poly-ADP-ribose synthetase, 32, 33, 34

Polycystic kidney disease, 98

Polymerase β (POL β), 32, 33, 34, 35

Polymerase δ (POL δ), 32

Polymerase chain reaction, 127, 130

Polynucleotide kinase (PNK), 32, 33

Polyposis of intestine, 98

Porphyria, 98

Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Study, 135, 136, 191, 192, 197, 200

Postradiation generation progeny

first, 116

genetic disease risk, 116

mutations in, 70

second, 116

Potential recoverability correction factor (PRCF), 119

for autosomal dominant diseases, 110, 115, 119

for autosomal recessive diseases, 110-111, 115

BEIR V methods compared, 115

for chronic multifactorial diseases, 111, 115, 119

for congenital abnormalities, 111

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

estimates, 110

multisystem developmental abnormalities, 115

and revision of risk estimates, 109-110

strengths and weaknesses, 111, 119

weighted, 115

for X-linked diseases, 110, 115, 119

pRb, 39

Prednizone, 130

Pregnancy outcomes, adverse, 8, 131

Primary basilar impression, 98

Premature chromosome condensation techniques, 46

Prkdc gene, 71

Procarbazine, 130

Prolactin, 76

Prostate cancer, 147, 148, 149, 164, 200, 204, 269, 272, 278, 279, 280, 282, 298, 303-306

Prostate hyperplasia, 153

Protein kinases, 35-39, 51, 55

Protein-8 (XIP8), 56

Protracted exposure

and bone cancer, 75

and breast cancer, 176, 180, 243

and cancer risk assessment, 241, 243

and DNA damage, 31

dose-rate effects distinguished from, 77

genetic risk assessment, 92

and life span, 76, 77

occupational, 189, 200-202

radiation protection implications, 189

reduction in risk for, 246

thyroid cancer, 182

and tumorigenesis, 75

Protons

dose-effect relationships, 28

energy transfer, 19, 20

recoil, 27, 28

Proto-oncogenes, 66, 68, 80, 81-82

PTC gene, 80

Ptch gene, 66, 68, 69, 82, 83

5′,8-Purine cyclodeoxynucleosides, 34

Pyloric stenosis, 120

Pyrimidopurinone, 34

Q

Quality factor (Q)

basis for, 22

defined, 376

Quantitative studies

in experimental tumorigenesis, 73-79

R

RAD50, 37

Rad51, 38, 53, 82, 83

RAD52, 38

RAD54, 38

Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 91, 140, 141, 142, 152, 267, 269, 270, 271, 285, 286, 296, 297, 298, 301, 302, 307.

See also Atomic bomb survivors;

Life Span Study

Radiation protection

control measures, 193, 276

dose units, xi

genetic susceptibility implications for, 85

photon energy considerations, 24

protracted exposures and, 189

quality factor, 22

RBE and, 276

Radiation quality.

See also Quality factor

LET as a measure of, 22-24

and mutation frequency, 47

weighting factor, xi, 24

Radiation resistance, 30, 32, 40-42

as adaptive response, 37, 51

DNA repair, 49

priming dose and, 51

Radiation weighting factor, xi, 24

Radiation workers. See Nuclear industry workers;

Occupational radiation exposure

Radical scavengers, 29, 30

Radioisotopes.

See also specific radioisotopes

diagnostic exposures, 156

natural in human body, 30, 43

Radiologists and radiologic technicians

breast cancer, 205

colon cancer, 205

leukemia, 189, 204, 205

lung cancer, 204, 205

lymphoma, 204, 205

mortality rate, 2, 189, 204, 205

multiple myeloma, 204, 205

pancreatic cancer, 204

prostate cancer, 204

skin cancer, 2, 204, 205

Radionuclides.

See also Internally deposited radionuclides;

specific radionuclides

in utero exposures, 330

organically bound, 330

in work environment, 199-200

Radiosensitivity

age and, 68

animal studies, 34, 69, 71, 82-83

of bone marrow, 173

of breast tissue, 56, 86, 173

cardiovascular system, 185-186

cell cycle phase and, 45, 49-50, 55, 82, 83, 86, 113

and cell killing/lethality, 55-57

chromosomal, 82, 86

DNA repair defects and, 32, 34, 37, 40, 56, 69, 71, 80, 82, 83, 87, 239

dose fractionation, 55

gene polymorphisms, 87

heritable, 82-85, 87

human data, 82, 83-85

hypersensitivity to low doses, 11, 32, 45, 47, 51, 55-57, 71, 82, 239

mutational, 47, 98-99

of oocytes, 75, 98-99, 119

sex differences, 119

thyroid gland, 173, 234

and tumorigenesis, 82-85, 87

Radiotherapy studies

ankylosing spondylitis cohort, 164-165, 174, 176, 177, 185

benign breast disease cohorts, 163, 174, 177, 180, 185

for benign diseases in adults, 155, 162-166

benign diseases in children, 155, 166-167, 181

benign gynecological diseases, 163-164

bladder cancer in recipients, 157, 158, 162, 163, 164

bone cancer in recipients, 157, 161, 162, 164, 167

brachytherapy recipients, 162

breast cancer patients, 26, 84, 86, 135, 157, 159-160, 164-165, 167, 168, 169, 174, 175, 176-180, 186-187, 205, 243

cardiovascular disease mortality, 159, 160, 185-187

cell killing, 155

cervical cancer survivors, 26, 135, 157-158, 174, 176, 177, 185

children, 9, 84, 156, 161-162, 166-170

chromosomal aberrations, 53

dose-response relationship for secondary cancer, 157-170

dosimetry, 155, 156-157, 159, 161, 176-177, 183, 184, 186, 187

extrapolation to other populations, 155

genetic effects, 9

Hodgkin’s disease patients, 130, 158-159, 174, 176, 177, 242-243

for hormonal infertility, 164

hyperthyroidism studies, 165-166, 169, 181, 185, 234

for malignant diseases, 9, 130, 155, 156, 157-162

and minisatellite mutations, 114, 130

mouse studies, 130

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients, 162

occupational exposures, 205

ovarian cancer patients, 160

in peptic ulcer patients, 163, 174, 175, 185

postpartum mastitis cohorts, 26, 163, 177, 180

and radiosensitivity, 82, 83-87, 155

registries, 155

secondary tumors, 84-85, 86, 88, 135, 155, 157-162, 173-187

site-specific cancer risk estimates, 173-187

and skin cancer, 68

skin hemangioma cohorts, 168-169, 174, 175, 176, 177, 180, 181, 183, 185

testicular cancer patients, 160-161

thymus gland enlargement, 156, 167-168, 176, 177, 180, 181, 182

thyroid cancer patients, 161

thyroid diseases (benign), 165-166, 169

tinea capitis cohort, 68, 155, 156, 166-167, 181, 182, 183

tonsil enlargement cohort, 155, 169, 181

uterine cancer patients, 162

Radium-224, 2, 269

Radium-226, 163, 164, 168, 169, 183, 185, 209

Radon, 30, 262.

See also Uranium miners

and lung cancer, 242

sources, 3, 43, 68

Randomized intervention trials, 133-134

Rare diseases (early onset), 98

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

RAS gene, 68

Rats

Eker strain, 82, 83

mammary cancer, 28, 74, 76

renal carcinoma in Tsc-2-deficient genotype, 69

skin cancer, 75, 76

Sprague-Dawley strain, 28, 74

tumor-suppressor-gene-deficient, 82, 83

RB1 and RB2 genes, 80, 125

Reactive oxygen species, 31-32, 40-42, 48

adaptive response to, 50

bystander effect, 54

Rectal cancer

in atomic bomb survivors, 147, 148, 149, 151

radiotherapy-related risks, 157, 158

Relative biological effectiveness (RBE)

alpha particles, 71

animal studies, 28-29

and cancer risk assessment, 276

cell cycle phase and, 50

and chromosome aberrations, 24, 27-28, 276

defined, 376

dose-rate effects on, 21, 24, 28

experimental observations, 28-29

gamma rays, 21, 22-24, 126, 276

and gene mutations, 47

and genomic instability, 71

LET of radiations and, 21, 24, 31, 47

neutrons, 20, 27-29, 126, 143, 146, 297

protracted exposure and, 75, 176, 180, 243

uncertainty in, 29, 286

X-rays, 22-24, 276, 286

Relative risk, defined, 132, 376

Renal carcinoma, 69, 70, 80, 222

Research recommendations

adaptive response, 53, 314

atomic bomb survivor studies, 18, 317-319

baseline frequencies of Mendelian diseases, 316-317

biological phenomena at low doses, 9, 16-17, 314-315

bystander effects, 314

Chernobyl cleanup workers, 204

doubling dose calculations, 316

environmental radiation studies, 17-18, 321

epidemiological studies, 18, 317-321

genetic effects of radiation, 17, 316-317

genetic susceptibility to cancer, 17, 315

genomic instability, 49, 53, 315

hormesis, 17, 315

hyperradiosensitivity for low doses, 314

integration of biology and epidemiology, 321-322

lifetime risk models, 322-323

medical radiation studies, 5, 17, 319-320

molecular and cellular responses to ionizing

radiation, 15-16, 313-314

multisystem developmental abnormalities, 317

occupational radiation studies, 17, 320-321

potential recoverability correction factor, 317

radiation-sensitive subpopulations, 314

tumorigenic mechanisms, 17, 315-316

whole-body CT scan cohorts, 5

Respiratory system cancer.

See also Lung cancer

atomic bomb survivors, 149, 292

Chernobyl accident and, 218

model, 292

Restricted LET

defined, 19 n.1

dose averages, 22, 23, 24

Retinal tumors, 80

Retinoblastoma, 80, 84, 98, 103, 125, 161

ret/PTC genes, 68, 81-82, 246

Rhesus monkeys, oocyte radiosensitivity, 99

Risk assessment.

See also Cancer risk assessment;

Genetic risk assessment;

Models/modeling

absolute risk, 260-261

BEIR I approach, 138

Committee approach, 6-9

confidence intervals, 133, 136, 137-139, 176

defined, 377

definition of risk, 260

direct estimates, 261, 290

excess risks, 132, 137-138, 260-261

incidence rates and, 259, 260-261

incomplete covariate information and, 265

lifetime risk projections, 137, 240, 264-265

mathematical models, 261-262

measures of risk, 132

methodology, 137-138, 259-261

pooling data from multiple studies, 169, 172

probability models, 260, 265

RBE in, 28

relative risk, 261

risk models, 138-139, 261-266

sample sizes, 297

validity of estimates, 266

Rochester Thymus Study, 26, 180, 181, 292

Rocketdyne/Atomics International, 191, 192, 194, 197, 200

Rocky Flats, 190, 191, 192, 193, 195, 196, 197, 199

Roentgen, Wilhelm Conrad, 1-2, 156

RPA, 38

Russell, William, 100 n.1

Ruthenium-106, 212, 213, 214

S

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA repair in, 30, 36, 40-42

Sahlgrenska University Hospital, 168

Salivary gland tumors, 149-150, 161, 165, 167, 269

Sarcomas, 67, 69.

See also Osteosarcoma;

Soft tissue sarcoma

Sasakawa Foundation, 225

Savannah River Site, 190, 192

Scaffold proteins, 32, 33, 34

Schwannomas, 152

Scoliosis, 155, 172, 176, 177, 187

Searle, Tony, 100 n.1

SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) registry, 242

Segmental aneusomy syndromes, 112

Sellafield Nuclear Facility workers, 57, 58, 190, 191, 192, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 229, 230, 231, 233

Seminoma, 130

Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, human minisatellite loci mutations, 114, 128-129

Signal transduction pathways

adaptive response, 51, 53

bystander effects, 53-54, 251

DNA repair, 32, 34, 36-39, 48, 49, 54, 80

and dose-response relationships, 62

and genomic instability, 78

hypersensitivity to radiation and, 56

Sister-chromatid

exchanges, 36, 53, 54

fusion, 48, 71

replication, 49, 245

Skeletal disorders, 80, 112, 115, 116.

See also Bone cancer

Skin cancer

age dependency, 298

animal studies, 74, 75, 76, 87

in atomic bomb survivors, 148, 149, 150-151, 269, 295

beta particles and, 75

caretaker gene, 67

children, 161, 167

dose-response relationship, 74, 76, 151, 245

excess relative risk, 148

fluoroscopy and, 2

gatekeeper gene, 66

genetic susceptibility to, 80, 84, 87

latent damage, 76, 167

in mice, 69, 76

in radiologists, 2

radiotherapy-related risks, 84, 162, 167

risk estimates, 245, 270-271, 282, 294, 295

in tinea capitis radiotherapy patients, 68, 167

UV-induced, 75, 151

xeroderma pigmentosum and, 79

Skin hemangioma cohort, 26, 168-169, 172, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 180, 181, 183, 185, 287

Smoke detectors, 3

Smokers/smoking

and carcinogenesis, 242

confounding in radiation studies, 57, 138, 150, 198, 199, 242, 245

and liver cancer, 242

and lung cancer, 87, 135, 138, 150, 174, 176, 198, 242, 245

radiation exposure in tobacco, 3, 4

synergistic effects, 242

Socioeconomic status, confounding in radiation studies, 199

Soft tissue sarcoma, 80, 84, 161

Solid cancers, 6

age dependencies, 297-298

in atomic bomb survivors, 142, 143, 144-147, 245, 297-307

baseline risks, 241

Chernobyl accident and, 227-228

defined, 377

dose-response relationship, 74-75, 142, 144, 145-146, 201, 245, 298

incidence, 144, 279, 298-307

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

medical-use-related risks, 161, 172, 287-289

mortality data, 144, 280, 298-307

murine studies, 74-75

risk assessment models, 143, 144-145, 241, 269-271, 279, 284, 287-289, 297-307

sex differences, 145, 298

spontaneously occurring, 65, 66-67

sum-of-sites estimates, 279-280, 296

vasculature, 66

Somatic cells

defined, 377

DNA repair in, 36

mutagenesis in, 46-47, 66, 113, 127

tumorigenesis, 66

soxR gene, 36, 37

soxRS transcription factor, 50

Specific locus tests

dominant mutations in mice, 100-101

Spherocytosis, 98

Spondylosis, 165

Spontaneous mutations, 91

clusters, 97

dominant disorders, 97-98

doubling dose calculations, 8, 96-101, 119

estimation of rates, 97-98

extrapolation from mice to humans, 96-97

frequencies, 47, 94, 102

in genetic risk assessment, 96, 102, 109-111, 124-125

germinal mosaics, 97

in human genes, 96-98, 109-111, 124-125

mechanisms, 124-125

in mice, 96-97, 126

and natural selection, 94, 102

paternal age effects, 97

point, 47

radiation-induced damage compared, 30, 124-125

recoverability in live births, 109-111, 124, 125

sex differences, 96-97

Springfields nuclear workers, 191, 192, 195, 196

Squamous cell carcinoma, 67, 80, 151

Stanford University Medical Center, 159

State Chernobyl Registries, 203

Statistical methods

atomic bomb survivors, 143-144

inference tools, 137-138

Statistical power of studies, 136

Stem cell spermatogonia, 92, 98, 113, 119, 126, 127

Steroid hormone receptor genes, 86

Steroid sulfatase deficiency, 93

Stomach cancer.

See also Digestive system cancer

in atomic bomb survivors, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 215, 240, 242, 269, 288

baseline lifetime risk estimates, 278

in cervical cancer survivors, 158, 185, 288

childhood exposures and, 168, 185

etiology, 241-242

excess relative risk, 12, 287, 288, 289, 301-302

incidence, 173-174, 185, 278, 284, 298, 303, 305, 304, 306

mortality, 278, 282, 298

radiotherapy-related, 12, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 166, 168, 185, 186, 287, 288, 289

risk factors, 241-242, 302

risk models and estimates, 12, 173, 185, 186, 215, 269, 272, 275, 278, 279, 280, 282, 284, 285, 294, 301, 303-306

risk transport model, 241-242

Strontium-90, 212, 213, 214, 269, 276

Superoxide radical, 30, 50

Swedish benign breast disease study, 26

Swedish Cancer Registry, 166

Swedish Family Cancer Database, 88

Swedish infant skin hemangioma patients, 26

Synchrotron radiation, 24

T

Tcr gene, 68

TEC facility, 200

Televisions, 3

Telomere-like repeat sequence arrays, 69

Telomeres, 34, 48, 71-73

Terrestrial radiation, 43

Testicular cancer, 160-161

12-O-Tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), 75

Tetrapeptide repeats (TPRs), 52

Therapeutic irradiation. See Medical uses of radiation;

Radiotherapystudies

Thorium, 3

Thorotrast, 68, 150

Three Mile Island, 208, 209, 211

Three-Country Study, 14

Thymine glycols, 52

Thymus gland enlargement, radiotherapy risks, 26, 167-168, 176, 177, 180, 181, 182, 243, 273, 287, 292

Thyroid cancer

age and, 167-168, 180-181

age at exposure and, 74, 76, 86, 149, 167, 181-182

in atomic bomb survivors, 148, 149, 181, 244, 269, 295

BEIR V model, 291-292, 294

benign thyroid nodules, 168, 244

in cervical cancer survivors, 181

Chernobyl accident and, 68, 72, 203-204, 215-226, 234-235, 246, 276

childhood exposure and, 68, 72, 149, 161, 162, 166, 167, 168, 169, 181, 182, 214, 215-226, 234, 244, 246, 287

chromosomal aberrations and, 67, 246

coherence of BEIR VII model with other studies, 287

diagnostic irradiation and, 171, 234

dose-response relationships, 149, 160, 162, 167, 168, 169, 182, 215, 224, 225, 276

ethnic origin and, 167

etiology, 244

excess relative risk, 12

familial medullary, 80

genetic susceptibility, 80, 81-82, 86, 244, 246

hormones and, 244

in utero exposure and, 224, 225

incidence, 180-181, 244

iodine deficiency and, 225, 244

iodine-131 exposure and, 12, 68, 161, 165, 171, 182, 213, 215-226, 233-235, 276

latent phase, 215

medical-exposure-related risks, 12, 161, 180-182, 234, 287

medullary, 86, 244

model, 273

mortality, 165, 181

multiplicative model, 244

nuclear facility proximity and, 213, 215, 234, 276

nuclear weapons tests and, 212, 234, 276

papillary, 68

pooled analyses or risks, 181, 268, 287, 295

radiosensitivity of thyroid gland, 173

radiotherapy-related risks, 157, 159, 161, 162, 166, 167, 168, 169, 181-182, 234

relative risk, 244

risk assessment, 181, 244, 268, 270-271, 272, 273, 275, 282, 286, 287

risk estimates, 173, 180-182, 282, 294

risk factors, 244

sex differences, 161, 167, 181, 244

Thyroid diseases

benign tumors, 225, 244

dose-response relationship, 153

radiotherapy-related risks, 165-166, 169

Thyroid stimulating hormone, 244

Thyrotoxicosis, 166

Tinea capitis cohorts

pooled data for risk assessment, 273

radiotherapy-related risks, 68, 155, 156, 166-167, 181, 182, 183

skin cancer, 68

thyroid cancer, 181, 182

Tobacco, 3.

See also Smokers/smoking

Tonsil enlargement, 169

Topoisomerase, 34

TP53 gene, 67-68, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83

Tradescantia, 24

Traits, heritability of, 106

Transcription factors, 51, 53, 66, 67

Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), 55

Translocations

cell cycle phase and, 45

dose-response relationships, 57, 58, 60, 61

in mice, 57, 58

nonreciprocal, 48

segmental jumping, 72

telomeric sequences at, 72

Trichothiodystrophy, 80

Triliated thymidine (3HTdR), 53, 55

Tritium, 200

Trp53 gene, 69, 70

TSC1 gene, 80

Tsc-2 gene, 69, 80

Tuberculosis patients. See Fluoroscopy

Tuberous sclerosis, 80, 82, 83, 98

Tumor progression, 49

Tumor promotion, 240, 241

action of, 241

and dose-response relationships, 75, 76

environmental/lifestyle factors, 242, 244, 254

genes, 66, 68, 80, 81-82

hormonal factors, 243, 244

stomach cancer, 241-242

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

Tumor registries, 141, 142, 147-148, 150, 151, 152

Tumor suppressor

disorders, 80, 84

genes, 39, 65, 66, 67-68, 69, 80, 80, 81, 82-83

Tumorigenesis, radiation induced

adaptive responses, 12, 51, 52, 62, 78-79, 250-251

aggressive, 72

alpha particles and, 70

animals studies, 11, 12, 67, 68-70, 73-79, 82-83, 89, 240

cell killing and, 12, 74, 75, 76, 82

chromatid instability and, 70-73

chromosome aberrations and, 24, 46, 66, 68-69, 70, 72-73, 74, 82, 86

confounding stress factors, 71

DDREF, 77-79, 246-250

diet and, 242

DNA damage response and, 6, 11, 65, 68, 69, 70, 73, 82, 83, 239, 227-228, 239, 246

dose-response relationships, 12, 45, 50, 55, 59, 60, 61-62, 68, 70, 73-77, 84, 89, 140, 245-246

epidemiologic studies, 68

etiology at different histologic sites, 241-245

fractionation kinetics, 73, 75-76, 78-79, 182

genetic susceptibility, 12, 65-66, 79-90

genomic instability and, 11-12, 39, 49, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70-73

in hematopoietic cells, 70-71

human data, 68, 71, 83-85

latency, 65, 68, 78

life-span shortening, 76-77

lymphoma and leukemia, 68-70, 71, 73-74

malignant transformation, 51-52, 62, 78-79

mammary epithelial cells, 71-73

mechanisms, 11-12, 27, 65, 66-70, 74, 75, 76, 81-82, 89, 245

monoclonal origins, 11, 245, 253-254

mouse models, 68-69, 70, 71

mutations and, 11, 65, 66-70

persistence of initiated cells postirradiation, 76

phases and process, 11, 66, 240

in progeny, 70

quantitative studies, 73-79, 89

RBE for, 24, 28, 29

solid tumors, 74-75

spontaneous mechanisms compared, 11, 12, 66-67, 70, 239

target for, 54

telomere sequence instability and, 12, 71-73

temporal projections of risk, 239-240

UV radiation and, 67-68

Twin studies

of genetic susceptibility to cancer, 88

of multifactorial diseases, 93

U

Ulcer patients

dose-response relationship, 153

radiotherapy-related cancer risk, 163

Ultraviolet light

DNA damage, 40

skin cancer, 75, 151

tumorigenesis, 67-68, 75

Uncertainties.

See also Bias;

Confounding factors

from age-related effects, 297

in atomic bomb survivor data, 130, 131, 141, 147, 172, 285-286

cancer risk estimates, 25-26, 147, 174, 251, 268, 272-273, 275, 276, 278, 279, 280, 284-286, 297, 308-310

in Chernobyl data, 128, 129, 202-203

chromosomal radiosensitivity, 82

combining sources of, 309-310

in cross-population transport, 279, 284, 285, 286, 296

in DDREF, 279, 284, 285, 286, 295, 296, 310

defined, 377

in diagnostic radiation risk estimates, 286

in dose-response relationships, 246

in dosimetry, 3, 14, 128, 129, 139, 142, 169, 198-200, 233, 241, 266, 285

in doubling dose estimates, 98-99, 130, 131

EPA assessment of, 284

in epidemiological studies, 133, 284

in error correction, 296

in exposure estimates, 114, 174

in genetic risk estimates, 98-99, 114

joint analysis, 295

LAR analysis, 278, 279, 284, 308-310

in lifetime cancer risk, 278, 279, 284-286

Monte Carlo analysis, 293, 295

NCRP assessment of, 284

NIH assessment of, 284, 295

occupational exposures, 14, 194, 198

in population effects, 286

procedures for addressing, 308-310

quantitative evaluation, 278, 284-285

in radiation exposure data, 3, 169

in RBE, 29, 286

in risk estimates, 29, 284, 286

from sampling variability, 278, 279, 280, 284, 285, 296, 308-309

sources, 133, 285, 295-296

statistical, 29

time since exposure, 275

Underground miners. See Uranium miners

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 91, 93

cancer risk model, 138, 240, 268, 272, 274, 275, 277-278, 282-283, 293-294, 297-298, 307

congenital abnormality frequencies, 112

DDREF, 131, 246, 249

defined, 377

genetic risk calculations, 92, 94, 95, 96, 109, 111, 112, 118, 131

lifetime cancer risk estimates, 294

mutation rate estimation, 109, 111

occupational exposure studies, 190

United Nuclear Corporation, 190

Units of dose, xi, 2

Uracil, 30

Uranium, 2, 3, 20, 269

Uranium miners, 190

lung cancer, 68, 138, 242

risk modeling, 262

Urinary tract cancer.

See also Bladder cancer

ankylosing spondylitis cohort, 164

atomic bomb survivors, 148, 149

cervical cancer survivors, 157, 158

Chernobyl accident and, 223, 227-228

U.S. Department of Energy, nuclear facilities, 190, 198

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 274, 275, 282, 283, 293, 294

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 5

U.S. Scoliosis Cohort Study, 172

Uterine bleeding disorders (benign), 163-164, 183, 287, 288

Uterine cancer

in atomic bomb survivors, 147, 148, 149, 269, 298, 303-306

radiotherapy-related, 157, 158, 159, 162, 163, 287

risk models and estimates, 272, 278, 279, 280, 282, 303-306

Uterine fibroma, 86

Uterine myoma, 151-152, 153

V

Vaginal cancer, 157

Varicose veins, 95

VHL gene, 66, 80, 81

Vinblastine, 130

Vincristine, 130

Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, 80, 125

W

Warthin’s tumor, 150

Water, electron ionization, 21, 29-32

World Health Organization, 128

WT-1 gene, 66, 80

X

Xenon, 209

Xeroderma pigmentosum, 79, 80, 81

X-linked disorders, 79

XP-A to XP-G gene, 67, 68, 80

XPV gene, 80

X-rays.

See also Radiotherapy studies

animal studies, 68, 69, 100-101

atomic bomb explosion, 22

bystander effects, 54

cancer risk estimates, 171, 276

childhood exposures, 211

chromosome aberrations, 48, 86

correction to gamma rays, 24

defined, 378

diagnostic, 3, 4, 5, 6, 21, 22, 156, 171;

see also Mammography

discovery and early studies, 2

DNA damage, 30, 32, 33, 36

dose-response relationships, 49, 56, 61, 62

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×

electron tracks, 62

luggage inspection scanners, 3

mutations, 68, 91, 99, 100-101

from photoelectric process, 20, 22

photon energies, 20-22, 23

physical aspects, 19-29

priming dose, 55, 78

RBE, 22-26, 276, 286

resistance to, 30, 32, 40, 42

soft, 20, 22, 55, 286

spikes, 20

tumorigenesis, 24-26, 49, 68, 69, 75

ultrasoft, 22

U.S. population exposure, 3, 5

XRCC1 protein, 32, 33, 34

XRCC2 protein, 35, 36

XRCC3 protein, 35, 36

XRCC4 protein, 35

Z

Zinc-65, 200

Zirconium-95, 212, 213, 214

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 385
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 386
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 387
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 388
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 389
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 390
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 391
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 392
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 393
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 394
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 395
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 396
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 397
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 398
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 399
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 400
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 401
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 402
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 403
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 404
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 405
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11340.
×
Page 406
Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2 Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $66.95
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

This book is the seventh in a series of titles from the National Research Council that addresses the effects of exposure to low dose LET (Linear Energy Transfer) ionizing radiation and human health. Updating information previously presented in the 1990 publication, Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR V, this book draws upon new data in both epidemiologic and experimental research. Ionizing radiation arises from both natural and man-made sources and at very high doses can produce damaging effects in human tissue that can be evident within days after exposure. However, it is the low-dose exposures that are the focus of this book. So-called “late” effects, such as cancer, are produced many years after the initial exposure. This book is among the first of its kind to include detailed risk estimates for cancer incidence in addition to cancer mortality. BEIR VII offers a full review of the available biological, biophysical, and epidemiological literature since the last BEIR report on the subject and develops the most up-to-date and comprehensive risk estimates for cancer and other health effects from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!