National Academies Press: OpenBook

Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security (2006)

Chapter: Appendix K Scientific and Methodological Research Results Highlighted by the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Development

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix K Scientific and Methodological Research Results Highlighted by the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Development." National Research Council. 2006. Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11382.
×

Appendix K
Scientific and Methodological Research Results Highlighted by the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Development1

Examples of Research Results Highlighted (Excerpts)

Basic and applied research has produced data on the following:

  • The epidemiological significance of nontoxic strains of Corynebacteria diphtheriae that carry diphtheria toxin genes (G. N. Gabrichevsky Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, and the Pasteur Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, St. Petersburg).

  • The role of a deficit of isotypes of human complement component C4, attesting to a predisposition to develop such diseases as gastric ulcer, glaucoma, or chlamydiosis (G. N. Gabrichevsky Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow).

  • The variability and genetic drift of the measles virus (G. N. Gabrichevsky Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow).

  • Immunopathological mechanisms of the development of helicobacterial infection and its connection with destructive gastrointestinal pathology (Pasteur Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, St. Petersburg).

  • The formation of the dominant mycobacterial group—the Beijing family—detected by the genetic marking method (Pasteur Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, St. Petersburg).

1  

Translated from the Russian by Kelly Robbins.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix K Scientific and Methodological Research Results Highlighted by the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Development." National Research Council. 2006. Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11382.
×

Methods have been developed for assessing the intensity of local and systemic immunity to Corynebacteria diphtheriae. Based on diphtheria infection models, a set of immunity status analysis methods has been developed for the first time, making it possible to evaluate the intensity of antibacterial and anti-toxic immunity (I. N. Blokhina Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Nizhny Novgorod).

Researchers have discovered certain features of the genetic characteristics of HIV-1 strains circulating among risk groups. It was shown that one strain of HIV-1 caused more than 80 percent of all cases of HIV infection in Russia. Three recombinant varieties of HIV-1 were found in Russia—A/E, D/G, and A/G—which attests to the substantial contribution of such viruses to the epidemiological process of HIV infection in our country. Based on these research results, nucleotide sequences obtained from 250 new varieties of HIV-1 have been deposited in the International Gene Bank (GenBank). Another result of this work was the application in specific epidemiological research studies of molecular-epidemiological methods based on the genetic characterization of HIV-1 varieties (Russian Academy of Medical Sciences D. I. Ivanovsky Scientific Research Institute of Virology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences O. G. Andzhaparidze Scientific-Research Institute of Viral Preparations, and various applied research institutes focusing on problems of diagnosing and preventing HIV infections and AIDS).

The effectiveness of using the phytopreparation Erakond to provide pregnant women with non-specific protection against herpetic and respiratory viruses has been demonstrated (Scientific-Research Institute of Viral Infections, Yekaterinburg).

Various types of test systems based on hybrids producing type 1 and 2 antibodies have been designed to detect antigens to the herpes simplex virus. Genetic methods have been developed for serogrouping, typing, and clonal analysis of meningococci (Russian Academy of Medical Sciences O. G. Andzhaparidze Scientific-Research Institute of Viral Preparations, Moscow).

In conjunction with efforts to improve the epidemiological monitoring system, the following accomplishments have been made:

  • A system for unified epidemiological monitoring of measles and rubella has been developed, and further research has been done to document its scientific foundations (G. N. Gabrichevsky Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow).

  • Two types of recombinant protein-based immunoenzyme systems have been designed to determine specific IgG and IgM antibodies to the rubella virus. A seroepidemiological study has been conducted regarding postinfection and postvaccination immunity to the rubella virus among various groups in the population (Russian Academy of Medical Sciences O. G. Andzhaparidze Scientific-Research Institute of Viral Preparations, Moscow).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix K Scientific and Methodological Research Results Highlighted by the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Development." National Research Council. 2006. Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11382.
×
  • Improvements have been made in the system for epizootic monitoring in Siberian plague foci, as well as in the tactics and methods for studying natural Siberian plague foci (Scientific-Research Anti-Plague Institute, Irkutsk).

Following is a list of achievements in the development of new preparations and methods for diagnosis, immunoprophylaxis, and immunotherapy:

  • The growth medium for the culture of the diphtheria pathogen has been improved, and a new means of preserving and transporting diphtheria strains has been developed, along with an accelerated method for detecting the presence of the diphtheria toxin gene (G. N. Gabrichevsky Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow).

  • Work has continued with the aim of creating five new Russian vaccines and evaluating their effectiveness (G. N. Gabrichevsky Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, and Russian Ministry of Health Central Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow).

  • A concentrated leptospirosis vaccine has been introduced in practice (Scientific-Research Institute of Medical Preparations, Rostov).

  • Two original new substances (synthetic hexapeptides) and the preparation Phosphazide have been synthesized (Russian Ministry of Health Central Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow).

  • An immunoenzyme test system has been developed for the quantitative and qualitative determination of human complement component C4 (Russian Ministry of Health Central Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow, and G. N. Gabrichevsky Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow).

  • Based on a test system for determining the functional activity of C4 component, a method has been developed for assessing the targeted inhibition of binding of one complement subcomponent (G. N. Gabrichevsky Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow).

  • Immunoenzyme methods have been developed for the quantitative determination of serum IgG, IgA, and IgM, and monospecific polyclonal antisera for IgG 1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 have been obtained (G. N. Gabrichevsky Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow).

  • Immunoenzume test systems have been developed for serodiagnosis of viral hepatitis C, detection of Coxiella burnetii antigens, and diagnosis of H. pylori infection (Pasteur Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, St. Petersburg).

  • Test systems have been created for the diagnosis of meningitis caused by enteroviruses, herpes group viruses, and flavovirus (Russian Ministry of Health Central Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow).

  • A test system has been developed to detect antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV-Screen), herpes simplex virus, measles, and mumps (Russian Academy of

Suggested Citation:"Appendix K Scientific and Methodological Research Results Highlighted by the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Development." National Research Council. 2006. Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11382.
×

Medical Sciences O. G. Andzhaparidze Scientific-Research Institute of Viral Preparations, Moscow).

  • A set of documentation has been produced on a non-invasive immunoenzyme analytical test system for detecting toxocara antibodies in saliva (Ye. I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Moscow) and for detecting opisthorchiasis antibodies and antigens in patients’ bile (Scientific-Research Institute of Regional Infectious Pathology, Tyumen).

Test systems have been approved for the detection of DNA from toxic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and from the hepatitis B virus. A pharmacopeia number has been obtained for test systems for detecting RNA from the hepatitis C and hepatitis D viruses, DNA from Chlamydia trachomatis, and human immunodeficiency virus. A pharmacopeia number has also been issued for a DNA-polymerase preparation from Thermus aquaticus (Russian Ministry of Health Central Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow).

Laboratory diagnostics for hepatitis C have been improved (Russian Academy of Medical Sciences D. I. Ivanovsky Scientific-Research Institute of Virology, Moscow, and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences O. G. Andzhaparidze Scientific-Research Institute of Viral Preparations, Moscow).

State quality control testing has been completed on test systems for detecting DNA from cytomegalovirus, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Mycoplasma hominis, and all these systems have been recommended for practical clinical use (Russian Ministry of Health Central Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow).

A test system for the detection of mycobacteria tuberculosis DNA and another for the quantitative determination of immunodeficiency virus RNA are currently in the state testing stage (Russian Ministry of Health Central Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow).

Following are objectives accomplished as part of efforts to improve the system of prophylactic and antiepidemic measures in accordance with regional specifics of infectious pathology:

  • Data have been obtained on the evolution of the epidemic process for hepatitis A, B, and C in major cities (I. N. Blokhina Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Nizhny Novgorod).

  • Materials from the Register of Opisthorchiasis Foci in Russia have been analyzed to identify resistant invasive foci (Scientific-Research Institute of Regional Infectious Pathology, Tyumen).

  • An epidemiological forecast has been prepared with regard to meningococcal infection rates based on the identification of the most virulent and epidemically significant strains with the help of typing and clonal analysis of the infectious pathogen (Russian Ministry of Health Central Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow) as well as seromonitoring (G. N. Gabrichevsky Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix K Scientific and Methodological Research Results Highlighted by the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Development." National Research Council. 2006. Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11382.
×
  • A set of prophylactic and antiepidemic measures has been put into practice with the aim of preventing the spread of rotaviral infections among newborns and infants in the first months of life, who comprise a high-risk group for such infections (G. N. Gabrichevsky Scientific-Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow).

  • Epidemiological and clinical aspects of yersinosis in natural foci in Eastern Siberia have been studied, along with bactericidal phagocytosis mechanisms of the pseudotuberculosis microbe with a varied assortment of plasmids (Scientific-Research Institute of Regional Infectious Pathology, Tyumen).

  • Ten disinfectant preparations have been developed—bior-H, intercide, dezolon, dezoflan, okadez, deziskrab, Laina-bio, Neofos-Similar, and others—all of which are promising for the prophylaxis of various nosocomial infections (Scientific-Research Institute of Disinfection, Moscow).

  • Six insecticide and repellent preparations have been developed, including fitar, neodikhlofos, biozashchita, and akromed, for protection against flying and non-flying insects (Scientific-Research Institute of Disinfection, Moscow).

  • A study has been made regarding the imported preparation Baytex 40% and a selection of inexpensive Russian preparations, and an assessment has been made regarding their effectiveness in natural foci of tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, and Crimean hemorrhagic fever (Scientific-Research Institute of Disinfection, Moscow).

SOURCE: Onishchenko, G. G. 2002. Scientific-Methodological Support for the Activities in the Prevention of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases. Epidemiological Situation in the Russian Federation and Basic Areas of Activity for Its Stabilization. All-Russian Congress of Epidemiologists, Microbiologists, and Parasitologists, Moscow, March 26-28, 2002. 53-55 (in Russian). Reprinted with the permission of G. G. Onishchenko.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix K Scientific and Methodological Research Results Highlighted by the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Development." National Research Council. 2006. Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11382.
×
Page 120
Suggested Citation:"Appendix K Scientific and Methodological Research Results Highlighted by the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Development." National Research Council. 2006. Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11382.
×
Page 121
Suggested Citation:"Appendix K Scientific and Methodological Research Results Highlighted by the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Development." National Research Council. 2006. Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11382.
×
Page 122
Suggested Citation:"Appendix K Scientific and Methodological Research Results Highlighted by the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Development." National Research Council. 2006. Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11382.
×
Page 123
Suggested Citation:"Appendix K Scientific and Methodological Research Results Highlighted by the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Development." National Research Council. 2006. Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11382.
×
Page 124
Next: Appendix L List of Research Projects Proposed in Open Competitions Organized in 2003 »
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In July 2005, the National Academies released the report Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security. The report offered a number of recommendations that could help restore Russia’s ability to join with the United States and the broader international community in leading an expanded global effort to control infectious diseases. A proposed bilateral intergovernmental commission could play a pivotal role toward that end as cooperation moves from assistance to partnership. The report proposed the establishment of two model State Sanitary Epidemiological Surveillance Centers in Russia, more focused support of competitively selected Russian research groups as centers of excellence, the promotion of investments in biotechnology niches that are well suited for Russian companies, and expanded opportunities for young scientists to achieve scientific leadership positions in Russia. Also, the report highlighted the importance of U.S. programs that support the integration of former Soviet defense scientists with civilian researchers who had not been involved in military-related activities.

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