Biographies of Committee Members and Staff
MICHAEL H. FREILICH, Chair, is a professor in the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University. Dr. Freilich’s research interests include microwave ocean remote sensing, especially surface-wind measurement and analysis techniques, surface-wave modeling, and nearshore processes. His current research focuses on the development of empirical models relating radar backscatter to near-surface winds, characterization of centimetric ocean-surface roughness and atmospheric mesoscale phenomena using satellite measurements, and the development and application of advanced statistical validation techniques. Dr. Freilich heads the Ocean Vector Wind Science Team on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) mission. (QuikSCAT is a “quick recovery” mission—accomplished in 11 months—that is filling the gap created by the loss of data from the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT)). Dr. Freilich served on the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Oceans Studies Board from 1992 to 1995. He was also a member of the Panel on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coastal Ocean Program from 1993 to 1994.
ANTONIO J. BUSALACCHI, JR., is director of the Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center (ESSIC) and professor of meteorology at the University of Maryland, College Park. ESSIC is operated jointly by the Departments of Meteorology, Geology, and Geography at the University of Maryland in collaboration with the Earth Sciences Directorate at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Dr. Busalacchi is a research scientist with past government laboratory experience. He has expertise in applying research instruments and data to operational oceanography, with particular emphasis on study of the response of tropical oceans to surface fluxes of momentum and heat and tropical ocean circulation and its role in the coupled climate system. Dr. Busalacchi began his professional career as an oceanographer at the NASA GSFC. In 1991, he was appointed chief of the NASA GSFC Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes. In that capacity he furnished scientific direction to a broad, many-faceted program in Earth system science. Currently, Dr. Busalacchi serves as co-chair of the Scientific Steering Group for the World Climate Research Programme. He has extensive NRC experience, having served as a member of the Panel on the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Program, the Panel on Ocean Atmosphere Observations Supporting Short-Term Climate Predictions, and the Climate Research Committee.
CAROL ANNE CLAYSON is an associate professor in the Department of Meteorology at Florida State University. From 1995 to 2001, she was an assistant and associate professor in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Purdue University. Dr. Clayson’s research interests are in air-sea interaction, ocean and atmosphere boundary layers, numerical ocean and coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling, and remote sensing of air-sea surface fluxes. She was the recipient in 1996 of a National Science Foundation (NSF) career award and the recipient in 2000 of a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, as well as an Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Award. Her professional service activities include serving as program chair for the 12th American Meteorological Society (AMS) Conference on Air-Sea Interactions, held in 2003; and membership on a number of committees and working groups, including the AMS Committee on Interaction of the Sea and Atmosphere; the AMS Board of Meteorological and Oceanographic Education in Universities; the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Science Team, Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere/Coupled Ocean
Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) Air-Sea Flux Working Group, the TOGA COARE Radiation Working Group, and the AMS, the American Geophysical Union, and the Oceanography Society.
WILLIAM B. GAIL is vice president of Mapping and Photogrammetric Solutions at Vexcel Corporation, where he leads a global organization responsible for a wide range of systems and services associated with Earth information. Prior to joining Vexcel, he was director of Earth Science Advanced Programs at Ball Aerospace, where he led the development of spaceborne instrument and mission concepts for Earth science and meteorology. Dr. Gail received his undergraduate degree in physics and his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University, focusing his research on the physics of Earth’s magnetosphere. During this period, he spent a year as a field scientist at South Pole Station, managing experiments on cosmic rays and upper atmospheric physics. Dr. Gail is currently on the board of directors of Peak Weather Resources, Inc., a small company formed to transition weather research to the commercial market. He is also a member of the Administrative Committee of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society and founder of its Industry Liaison Group. In addition, he is a member of the NASA Earth Science and Applications from Space Strategic Roadmap Committee. He is currently a member of the NRC Committee on Earth Studies and previously served on the Task Group on Principal Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions (2001-2003), the Committee on NASA-NOAA Transition from Research to Operations (2002-2003), and the Committee to Review the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (2003).
WILLIAM C. GIBSON is vice president of the Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute. He has extensive experience in the management of projects involving the development of scientific instruments and support systems for use on the space shuttle, free-flying satellites, sounding rockets, and high-altitude research balloons. He is the project manager for SMART (Solving Magnetospheric Acceleration, Reconnection, and Turbulence), the science investigation payload for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission. Mr. Gibson has managed such projects as the Space Experiment with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) Interface Unit for Spacelab Mission I, the High Altitude Plasma Instrument for the Dynamics Explorer Satellite, the Fast Ion Mass Spectrometer for the Centaur Rocket Project, and the Balloon-Borne Ultraviolet Stellar Spectrometer. In addition to these projects, he has served as the project manager for the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) Medium-Sized Explorer (MIDEX) mission and is the project manager designee for the Waves Explorer MIDEX mission. His areas of technical specialization include the design of spacecraft data systems, spacecraft telemetry and control systems, and spacecraft heat-transfer systems. Mr. Gibson was the architect of the multiprocessor SEPAC On-Line Data Analysis real-time telemetry ground station used during Shuttle Transportation System-9 (STS-9) and the lead design engineer on the Johnson Space Center Stratospheric Ozone Experiment. Mr. Gibson has served as a member of NASA source selection boards and as chairman of the NASA Confirmation Review Board for the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Small Explorer mission. He also served as a member of the standing review board for the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer mission. He was a member of the NRC Task Group on Principal Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions (2001-2003).
SARAH T. GILLE is an associate professor at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego. Prior to her current position, she was assistant professor, Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine. Her research interests are in climate and ocean dynamics. She interprets satellite observations from altimetry and scatterometry, with the goal of understanding physical processes controlling ocean climate. She is a member of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Ocean Vector Wind Science Team and the NASA JPL Jason Science Working Team. Dr. Gille served on the NRC Committee on Earth Studies (2000-2004) and the Committee to Review the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (2003).
ROSS N. HOFFMAN is vice president of prediction and radiation studies and manager of the Numerical Weather Prediction Group at Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER), Inc. Dr. Hoffman is an industry scientist with experience emphasizing data assimilation and uses rather than satellite mission development or operations. His principal areas of interest cover objective analysis and assimilation methods, atmospheric dynamics, climate theory, and atmospheric radiation. He has been the principal investigator of several projects at AER and has made significant contributions in the field of data assimilation, including the development of some variational techniques. Dr. Hoffman is a member of the NASA NSCAT Science Team and the Earth Observing System SeaWinds Science Team. He is also a member of the NRC Committee on Status and Future Directions in U.S. Weather Modification Research and Operations.
BRUCE D. MARCUS is a retired senior industry engineer with vast experience in space mission and instrument development and operations for the Department of Defense, NOAA, and NASA. Dr. Marcus’s research interests included heat and mass transfer, heat pipes, thermosiphons, spacecraft thermal control, and the thermomechanical design of telescopes. Dr. Marcus also has extensive experience in the management of Earth observation programs. He served on the NRC Committee on Earth Studies from 1995 to 1999, on which he was a key committee member on several reports. In addition, Dr. Marcus served on the NRC Committee on the Continuing Assessment of Technology Development in NASA’s Office of Space Science (1999-2000), the Space Studies Board (2000-2004), and the NRC Task Group on Principal Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions.
STEVEN W. RUNNING is a professor of forest ecology and director of the Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group in the School of Forestry at the University of Montana. His research interests include the modeling of forest ecosystem processes, terrestrial ecosystem modeling theory, and the regional hydrologic and carbon balance of forests in response to global climate change. Dr. Running has served on several panels of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program and the World Climate Research Program. He is a member of the science team for NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and is chair of NASA’s Land Panel for the Earth Observing System. Dr. Running has served on numerous committees, including the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrologic Cycle (vice chair, 1991-1996); NASA Earth Observing System, Land Science Panel (chair, 1994-1998); the Terrestrial Observation Panel for Climate of the World Climate Research Program, and the World Meteorological Organization (1995-1998). He also served on the Climate Research Committee of the NRC Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (1996-1999), the Panel on Climate Observing Systems Status (1998-1999), and the Committee to Review NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Science Plan (2000). Dr. Running has extensive experience with how and why space data users use measurements for research and applications to forest ecology and hydrology.
CARL F. SCHUELER is chief scientist at Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. His experience and expertise are in satellite remote sensing. Dr. Schueler has led numerous advanced-sensor development studies and proposals for polar and geosynchronous Earth observation, as well as planetary exploration. He also managed the mid-1990s Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Block 6 studies and the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite studies in 2000 that led to Raytheon’s participation in the NPOESS program, and led Raytheon’s successful efforts for the Aerosol Polari-Meter Sensor to be flown on NASA’s Glory Mission and NPOESS. In the mid-1980s, Dr. Schueler served 2 years as start-up director of the Institute for Technology Development’s Center for Commercial Development of Space at Stennis Space Center, focused on remote sensing. More recently, he served on a number of working groups for Congressional Studies in Remote Sensing led by the former Office of Technology Assessment. He currently serves on the advisory committee of the University of California at Santa Barbara’s Institute for Computational Earth System Science and as an executive adviser to the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan’s International Conference Series on Remote Sensing of Marine and Coastal Environments. Dr. Schueler served on the NRC Task Group on Principal Investigator-Led Earth Science
Missions (2000-2003), the Committee to Review the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (2003), and he was a member of the Committee on Earth Studies (1999-2002).
ROBERT A. SHUCHMAN is senior vice president and chief technical officer of Altarum, Inc. Prior to his appointment at Altarum, Dr. Shuchman was vice president for government products and services as well as director of the Earth Sciences Group at ERIM International. At Altarum, he is responsible for providing collaboration and overall technical direction and for facilitating technical exchanges between business lines in order to create new business opportunities and the collaboration of teams across those business lines. Dr. Shuchman manages corporate R&D, utilizing inputs from the Science Advisory Council (SAC) and business line presidents. Altarum’s Emerging Technologies Group also reports to Dr. Shuchman. He has no direct involvement in individual space missions. Dr. Shuchman is an expert in the uses of remote sensing for Geographic Information Systems applications, including forestry, coastal, and marine management, among other commercial applications. His NRC service includes membership on the Panel on the Implications of Future Space Systems for the U.S. Navy (1985-1993) and the Advanced Radar Technology Panel and the Task Group 5—Space Inputs (1994-1996).
ROY W. SPENCER serves as principal investigator on the Global Precipitation Studies with Nimbus-7 and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Microwave/Imager at the Earth System Science Center of the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Dr. Spencer has been a member of several science teams: the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission’s (TRMM’s) Space Station Accommodations Analysis Study Team, the Science Steering Group for TRMM, the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder Pathfinder Working Group, and the NASA Headquarters Earth Science and Applications Advisory Subcommittee. Since 1992, Dr. Spencer has been the U.S. team leader for the Multichannel Imaging Microwave Radiometer (MIMR) team and the follow-on Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (EOS) (AMSR-E) team. In 1994 he became the AMSR-E science team leader. Dr. Spencer received the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal in 1991, the Marshall Space Flight Center Director’s Commendation in 1989, and the American Meteorological Society’s Special Award in 1996. He served on the NRC Panel on Reconciling Temperature Observations (1999-2000).
WILLIAM STONEY is principal engineer at Mitretek Corporation. Following service with NASA in various capacities, including as director of engineering for the Apollo Program, Mr. Stoney began his career in satellite remote sensing as director of NASA’s Earth Observation Program in 1972, the year that Landsat 1 was launched. His tenure at NASA included the development and launch of Landsats 2 and 3, the Thematic Mapper, NOAA’s TIROS, and Goddard EOS satellites and sensors. Since leaving NASA, Mr. Stoney has worked for Radio Corporation of America and General Electric, supporting the development of the EOS program; and for MITRE, and now Mitretek, supporting the current and future Landsat systems. Recently, he has been closely involved with the Stennis Science Commercial Data Buy Program.
JAN SVEJKOVSKY is the founder and president of Ocean Imaging, Inc., where he is responsible for managing and directing all scientific and corporate developments. His company focuses on the acquisition, processing, and analysis of aerial and satellite-derived environmental data, with much of its work centering on monitoring the ocean environment, as well as coastal areas, wetlands, and lakes. Dr. Svejkovsky is principal investigator on research grants from NOAA, NASA, NSF, the U.S. Navy, the State of California, and corporations. His prime interest is in identifying potential new markets for remote sensing technology and in developing customized products and services for those markets. In recent years, he has directed the advanced development and commercialization of satellite and nonsatellite oceanographic techniques for diverse research and coastal applications, including the monitoring of sewage, storm runoff, and other pollution effluent (using optical, infrared, and SAR sensors); high-resolution surface-current detection (using infrared, SAR, and optical imagery); and
multispectral algorithms for bathymetry surveys and bottom substrate mapping. Since mid-1998, Ocean Imaging has operated its own multispectral aerial sensor for coastal research and environmental monitoring and, since 1999, rapid-response agricultural remote sensing.
KURT THOME is an associate professor in the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona. His current research activities focus on NASA’s EOS. This work includes developing algorithms for the absolute radiometric calibration after launch of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer, Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+), and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). He is also involved in developing atmospheric correction algorithms for the ASTER radiometer and ETM+ and is a member of the ASTER, MODIS, and Landsat-7 science teams.
JOHN R.G. TOWNSHEND holds a joint appointment as a professor in the Institute for Advanced Computing Studies and the Department of Geography at the University of Maryland. He is also a member of the Department of Geography’s Laboratory for Global Remote Sensing Studies. Dr. Townshend’s research centers on the use of remote sensing and advanced computing methods for improvements in the characterization of regional and global land cover. He has been a member of NASA’s MODIS science team (since 1996), and he is a principal investigator on the Landsat Pathfinder Project for monitoring Earth’s tropical moist forests. Dr. Townshend has also been chair of the Joint Scientific and Technical Committee of the Global Climate Observing System. His previous NRC service includes membership on the Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data (1992-1998) and on the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (1999). He also served as a member of the NRC Committee for Review of the Science Implementation Plan of the NASA Office of Earth Science.
ARTHUR CHARO, study director, received his Ph.D. in physics from Duke University in 1981 and was a postdoctoral fellow in chemical physics at Harvard University from 1982 to 1985. Dr. Charo then pursued his interests in national security and arms control at Harvard University’s Center for Science and International Affairs, where he was a fellow from 1985 to 1988. From 1988 to 1995, he worked in the International Security and Space Program in the U.S. Congress’s Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). Dr. Charo has been a senior program officer at the Space Studies Board (SSB) of the NRC since OTA’s closure in 1995. His principal responsibilities at the SSB are to direct the activities of the NRC Committee on Earth Studies and the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics. Dr. Charo is a recipient of a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in International Security (1985-1987) and was the American Institute of Physics’s 1988-1989 American Association for the Advancement of Science Congressional Science Fellow. In addition to directing studies that have resulted in some 28 reports from the NRC, he is the author of research papers in the field of molecular spectroscopy; reports to Congress on arms control and space policy; and the monograph Continental Air Defense: A Neglected Dimension of Strategic Defense (University Press of America, 1990).
THERESA M. FISHER is a senior program assistant with the Space Studies Board. During her 25 years with NRC she has held positions in the executive, editorial, and contract offices of the National Academy of Engineering. She has also held positions with several NRC boards, including the Energy Engineering Board, the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, and the Marine Board.
CATHERINE A. GRUBER is an assistant editor with the Space Studies Board. She joined SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and has also worked as an outreach assistant for the