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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
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Managing Construction AND Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation

Committee on Organizing to Manage Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation

Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract Number 04CS811007 between the U.S. Department of the Interior and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 0-309-10035-6

Additional copies of this report are available from the
National Academies Press,
500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu.

Cover photographs from top to bottom: Parker Dam (from U.S. Bureau of Reclamation); deflector at Tracy fish screen (from San Luis and Delta Mendota Canal Authority); Flat Iron Power Plant and Pumping Station (from U.S. Bureau of Reclamation); Provo River restoration (from Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission); and Boise River Diversion Dam (from U.S. Bureau of Reclamation).

Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
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COMMITTEE ON ORGANIZING TO MANAGE CONSTRUCTION AND INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE 21ST CENTURY BUREAU OF RECLAMATION

JAMES K. MITCHELL, Chair,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and University, Blacksburg, Virginia

PATRICK R. ATKINS,

Alcoa, New York, New York

ALLAN V. BURMAN,

Jefferson Solutions, Washington, D.C.

TIMOTHY J. CONNOLLY,

HDR Engineering, Inc., Omaha, Nebraska

LLOYD A. DUSCHA,

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired), Reston, Virginia

G. BRIAN ESTES, Consulting Engineer,

Williamsburg, Virginia

MARTHA S. FELDMAN,

University of California, Irvine

DARRELL G. FONTANE,

Colorado State University, Fort Collins

SAMMIE D. GUY, Consulting Engineer,

Falls Church, Virginia

L. MICHAEL KAAS, Consulting Engineer,

Arlington, Virginia

CHARLES I. McGINNIS,

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired), Charlottesville, Virginia

ROGER K. PATTERSON,

Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (retired), Lincoln

Staff

LYNDA L. STANLEY, Director,

Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment

MICHAEL D. COHN, Program Officer

DANA CAINES, Financial Associate

PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
×

BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT

HENRY HATCH, Chair,

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia

MASSOUD AMIN,

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

REGINALD DesROCHES,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

DENNIS DUNNE, Consultant,

Scottsdale, Arizona

PAUL FISETTE,

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

LUCIA GARSYS,

Hillsborough County, Florida

WILLIAM HANSMIRE,

Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Detroit, Michigan

THEODORE C. KENNEDY,

BE&K, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama

SUE McNEIL,

University of Delaware, Wilmington

DEREK PARKER,

Anshen+Allen, San Francisco, California

HENRY SCHWARTZ, JR.,

Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri

WILLIAM WALLACE,

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York

CRAIG ZIMRING,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

Staff

LYNDA STANLEY, Director

MICHAEL D. COHN, Program Officer

KEVIN M. LEWIS, Program Officer

DANA CAINES, Financial Associate

PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
×

Preface

The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) has a long history of accomplishments, and through this study and other efforts is preparing to continue its successful record of providing water and hydroelectric power in the western United States. Successful accomplishment of Reclamation’s current mission in the twenty-first century—to manage, develop, and protect water and related resources in an environmentally and economically sound manner in the interest of the American public—is impacted, and in some cases dominated, by several new realities that are discussed in this report, including environmental factors, American Indian water rights, rural water needs, urbanization, increasing budget constraints, a broader set of stakeholders, an aging workforce, and an aging infrastructure.

The committee was not asked to assess the robustness of Reclamation in the face of extraordinary events, but the recent disasters caused by the hurricanes in the Gulf Coast region have brought that question to the attention of the committee. In the short term, the dispersed geography, decentralized line organization, and centralized service center of Reclamation should allow it to respond to localized events effectively. Over the long term, the bureau has exhibited its ability to deal with disasters, as shown in its response to the failure of Teton Dam in 1976. That event led to the creation of a robust safety of dams program, risk analysis and design review procedures, and an active effort to learn from past experience. The committee also observed active efforts to plan responses to developing problems caused by persistent drought conditions in the West. If faced with unexpected catastrophic events, Reclamation can be expected, in the committee’s opinion, to rise to the challenge.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
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All the committee members, whose abbreviated biographies are given in Appendix A, contributed enormously to the successful completion of the study. They provided diverse expertise and a wealth of knowledge and experience in relevant disciplines and topics: organizational, construction, and operational history of the bureau, water resources engineering and planning, government policies and procedures, large organization management, human resources issues, and political considerations, among others. Each member brought a creative and fresh perspective to the study and participated in the drafting of the report and in the crafting of the several findings and recommendations. It has been a pleasure and excellent learning experience working with all of them.

An important element in the committee’s ability to complete its assigned tasks was the support and participation of the bureau. The committee appreciates the cooperation and support of John Keys III, commis-sioner, the assistance provided throughout the study by Fred Ore, deputy director of operations, and N. John Harb, manager, and the scores of managers and personnel in the Denver, regional, and area offices who took time from their busy schedules to brief the committee and candidly discuss Reclamation’s challenges and opportunities. The committee also appreciates the contributions of Reclamation’s water and power customers and their representative organizations, which provided a perspective on the bureau that was critical to the committee’s understanding of the factors that influence its facility and infrastructure tasks.

The committee was supported and guided in its work by study director Michael Cohn, program officer, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment (BICE). Mike’s dedication to the tasks and support for the committee is a key factor in the success of this study. We are also greatly indebted to Lynda Stanley, director, BICE, for her insights and suggestions.

The committee appreciates the opportunity to address an issue of importance to the future success of the Bureau of Reclamation’s mission in meeting water and hydroelectric power needs in the western United States in an environmentally sensitive and economical manner.

James K. Mitchell

Chair, Committee on Organizing to Manage Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

John T. Christian, Consulting Engineer,

David W. Fowler, University of Texas at Austin,

Gerald E. Galloway, University of Maryland,

Lawrence J. MacDonnell, Porzak, Browning & Bushong,

Peter Marshall, Burns & Roe Services,

Robert S. O’Neil, Parsons Transportation Group (retired), and

Karlene H. Roberts, University of California, Berkeley.

Although the reviewers listed have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Richard N. Wright, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
×

and Technology (retired). Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
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 Project Conception, Development, and Execution Practices,

 

60

   

 Customer and Stakeholder Relations,

 

66

   

 Application of Metrics, Audits, and Reviews,

 

68

   

 Planning and Budgeting,

 

68

   

 References,

 

69

4

 

WORKFORCE AND HUMAN RESOURCES

 

71

   

 Introduction,

 

71

   

 Workforce Planning,

 

72

   

 Strategic Direction,

 

73

   

 Supply Analysis,

 

77

   

 Demand Analysis,

 

79

   

 Gap Analysis,

 

80

   

 Solutions and Implementation,

 

82

   

 Evaluation,

 

86

   

 References,

 

86

5

 

ALTERNATIVE SCENARIOS FOR FUTURE INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT

 

88

   

 Introduction,

 

88

   

Scenario 1:  Centrally Located Project Management Organization,

 

89

   

Scenario 2:  Outsourced Operations and Maintenance,

 

91

   

Scenario 3:  Federal Funding and Local Execution,

 

91

   

 Conclusion,

 

92

   

 Reference,

 

93

6

 

CONCLUSIONS, FINDINGS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

94

   

 Introduction,

 

94

   

 Factors Impacting the Management of Construction and Infrastructure,

 

95

   

 Capabilities for the Management of Construction and Infrastructure,

 

104

   

 Alternative Scenarios for Future Infrastructure Management,

 

107

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

   

A  BIOGRAPHIES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS

 

111

   

B  BRIEFINGS TO THE COMMITTEE AND DISCUSSIONS

 

119

   

C  GOOD PRACTICE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES ROUNDTABLE

 

128

 

 

BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT

 

138

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations


ALP

Animas–La Plata Project


BRC

Budget Review Committee


CALFED CALFED

Bay–Delta Program

CBT

Colorado–Big Thompson project

CCE

construction cost estimate

CFR

comprehensive facility review

CII

Construction Industry Institute

COTR

contracting officer’s technical representative

CPORT

Commissioner’s Program and Organization Review Team

CVP

Central Valley Project


DEC

Design, Estimating, and Construction Office

DOE

Department of Energy

DOI

Department of the Interior

DSIS

Dam Safety Information System

DSO

Dam Safety Office

DWR

California Department of Water Resources


EIA

environmental impact assessment

ESA

Endangered Species Act

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
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FAR

federal acquisition regulations

FFC

Federal Facilities Council


GSA

General Services Administration


IDIQ

indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity

IDP

individual development plan


KSAs

knowledge, skills, and abilities


M&I

municipal and industrial

MSCP

Multi-Species Conservation Program


NCWCD

Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NWRA

National Water Resources Association


O&M

operations and maintenance

OMB

Office of Management and Budget

OPP

Office of Procurement Policy

OPPS

Office of Program and Policy Services


PBSA

performance-based services acquisition

PCE

project cost estimate

PFR

periodic facility review

PMP

project management plan

PMT

project management team

PMTS

Policy Management and Technical Services


QA/QC

quality assurance and quality control


R&D

research and development

RAX

replacement, addition, and exceptional maintenance

RDCCT

Reclamation Design and Construction Coordination Team

Reclamation

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation


SABER

simplified acquisition of basic engineering requirements

SEED

safety evaluation of existing dams

SES

Senior Executive Service

SOD

Safety of Dams (program)

SSLE

Security, Safety, and Law Enforcement

SWP

state water project

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11519.
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TSC

Technical Service Center

TVA

Tennessee Valley Authority


USACE

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

USBR

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

USGS

U.S. Geological Survey


WAPA

Western Area Power Administration (DOE)

WARSMP

Watershed and River System Management Program

WQIC

Water Quality Improvement Center

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In the more than 100 years since its formation, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of Interior (DOI), through its construction program, has brought water, electric power, and recreation facilities to millions of people in the Western United States. With major water and power systems in place, the Bureau’s attention has now turned to operation, maintenance, repair, and modernization of those facilities in an environmentally and economically sound manner. To help with this effort, DOI asked the NRC to advise the Bureau on “appropriate organizational, management, and resource configurations to meet its construction, maintenance, and infrastructure requirements for its missions of the 21st century.” This report presents an assessment of the requirements facing the Bureau in the 21st century, an analysis of good practices and techniques for addressing those challenges, and a review of workforce and human resource needs. The report also provides alternative scenarios that describe possible future organizations for infrastructure management.

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