National Academies Press: OpenBook

Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements (2006)

Chapter: PART I--DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION

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Suggested Citation:"PART I--DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"PART I--DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 4

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INTRODUCTION 3 PART I DEVELOPMENT APPLICATION AND T he Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) represent a radical new approach toward nutrition assessment and dietary planning, and therefore neces- sitate a thorough understanding of their origin, purpose, and intended applications. Part I of this book first addresses these areas, then follows with practical guidance on the correct application of the DRI values to the task of assessing and planning the diets of individuals and groups. “Introduction to the Dietary Reference Intakes” provides a history of the creation of the DRIs, along with an introduction to the four categories they comprise: the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the Recommended Di- etary Allowance (RDA), the Adequate Intake (AI), the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), as well as the new Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs). The values are defined and their appropriate uses are discussed in detail, as are the parameters that were used to develop them, such as life stage groups and applicable populations. Also discussed are how the values differ from each other, as well as from the previous Recommended Dietary Allow- ances (RDAs) and Canada’s Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs). “Applying the Dietary Reference Intakes” provides guidance on how to use and interpret the DRI values when assessing and planning the nutrient intakes of both individuals and groups. It summarizes pertinent information taken from two DRI reports published by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academies’ Institute of Medicine. They are Dietary Reference Intakes: Applica- tions in Dietary Assessment (2000) and Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Planning (2003). The chapter is divided into two main sections, “Work- ing with Individuals” and “Working with Groups,” which are each subdivided into assessment and planning sections. The sections on assessment also include explanations of the methods and equations that are used to determine whether individuals and groups are consuming adequate levels of nutrients. In addition, the chapter summary includes a quick-reference table on the appropriate uses of DRI values for specific aspects of nutrition assessment and planning.

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Widely regarded as the classic reference work for the nutrition, dietetic, and allied health professions since its introduction in 1943, Recommended Dietary Allowances has been the accepted source in nutrient allowances for healthy people. Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, in partnership with Health Canada, has updated what used to be known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and renamed their new approach to these guidelines Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Since 1998, the Institute of Medicine has issued eight exhaustive volumes of DRIs that offer quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets applicable to healthy individuals in the United States and Canada. Now, for the first time, all eight volumes are summarized in one easy-to-use reference volume, Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment. Organized by nutrient for ready use, this popular reference volume reviews the function of each nutrient in the human body, food sources, usual dietary intakes, and effects of deficiencies and excessive intakes. For each nutrient of food component, information includes:

  • Estimated average requirement and its standard deviation by age and gender.
  • Recommended dietary allowance, based on the estimated average requirement and deviation.
  • Adequate intake level, where a recommended dietary allowance cannot be based on an estimated average requirement.
  • Tolerable upper intake levels above which risk of toxicity would increase. Along with dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, this book presents recommendations for health maintenance and the reduction of chronic disease risk. Also included is a “Summary Table of Dietary Reference Intakes,” an updated practical summary of the recommendations. In addition, Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment provides information about:
  • Guiding principles for nutrition labeling and fortification
  • Applications in dietary planning
  • Proposed definition of dietary fiber
  • A risk assessment model for establishing upper intake levels for nutrients
  • Proposed definition and plan for review of dietary antioxidants and related compounds

Dietitians, community nutritionists, nutrition educators, nutritionists working in government agencies, and nutrition students at the postsecondary level, as well as other health professionals, will find Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment an invaluable resource.

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