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Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements (2006)

Chapter: G Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996,

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Suggested Citation:"G Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, ." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"G Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, ." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"G Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, ." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"G Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, ." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"G Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, ." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 478
Suggested Citation:"G Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, ." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 479
Suggested Citation:"G Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, ." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 480
Suggested Citation:"G Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, ." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 481
Suggested Citation:"G Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, ." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 482
Suggested Citation:"G Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, ." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 483
Suggested Citation:"G Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996, ." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS 474 G IRON INTAKES AND ESTIMATED PERCENTILES OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF IRON REQUIREMENTS FROM THE CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (CSFII), 1994–1996

PART IV: APPENDIX G 475 TABLE G-1 Iron Content of Foods Consumed by Infants 7 to 12 Months of Age, CSFII, 1994–1996 Estimate Weighted of Iron Mean Iron Content Absorption Amount Absorbed Absorption of Irona (%)b Foods (mg/100 kcal) (%) (mg) Human breast milkc 0.04 50 0.18 0.09 0.65 Meat and poultry 1.2 20 0.36 0.07 0.52 Fruits 0.4 5 0.27 0.13 0.10 Vegetables 1.2 5 0.56 0.03 0.20 Cerealsd 8.75 6 12.1 0.73 5.24 Noodles 0.6 5 0.38 0.02 0.14 Total 13.85 1.07 6.85 a Based on a total daily energy intake of 845 kcal. b Calculation based on the proportion of iron in each of the six food groups. c Assumes an intake of 670 mL/day. d Refers to iron-fortified infant cereals containing 35 mg iron/100 g of dry cereal.

DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS 476 TABLE G-2 Contribution of Iron from the 14 Food Groups for Children Aged 1 to 3 and 4 to 8 Years, CSFII, 1994–1996 Iron Content Amount of Iron Amount of Iron (mg/100 kcal)a (mg) 1–3 yb (mg) 4–8 yc Food Group Meat 1.19 1.57 2.17 Fruits 0.36 0.23 0.25 Vegetables 1.22 1.14 1.87 Cereals 2.65 8.64 11.98 Vegetables plus meat 0.7 0.17 0.18 Grain plus meat 0.78 1.12 1.53 Cheese 0.15 0.04 0.05 Eggs 0.9 0.22 0.19 Ice cream, yogurt, etc. 0.13 0.06 0.01 Fats, candy 0.05 0.03 0.05 Milk 0.08 0.18 0.15 Formula 1.8 0.18 0.00 Juices 0.44 0.34 0.22 Other beverages 0.11 0.07 0.12 Total 14.27 18.77 a Source: Whitney EN, Rolfes SR. 1996. Understanding Nutrition, 7th ed. St. Paul: West Publishing; Pennington JAT. 1998. Bowes and Church’s Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 17th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott b The CSFII database provides total food energy (average of 2 days) and the proportion of energy from each of 14 food groups. The iron content of each food was determined from appropriate references (expressed as iron content per 100 kcal), thus the iron content of each food was calculated. The results are based on a total daily energy intake of 1,345 kcal (n = 1,868) as reported in CSFII. c Calculated as shown above. Based on a total daily energy intake of 1,665 kcal (n = 1,711) as reported in CSFII. According to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the median intake of iron by infants is 15.5 mg/day; the iron mainly comes from fortified formulas and cereals, with smaller amounts from vegetables, pureed meats, and poultry. It is estimated that the absorption of iron from fortified cereals is in the range of 6 percent, from breast milk 50 percent, and from meat 20 percent.

PART IV: APPENDIX G 477 TABLE G-3 Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements (mg/d) in Young Children and Adolescent and Adult Males, CSFII, 1994–1996 Young Children, Both Sexesa Estimated Male Adolescents and Adults Percentile of 0.5–1 yb 1–3 yc 4–8 yc 9–13 yc 14–18 yc Adultc Requirements 2.5 3.01 1.01 1.33 3.91 5.06 3.98 5 3.63 1.24 1.64 4.23 5.42 4.29 10 4.35 1.54 2.05 4.59 5.85 4.64 20 5.23 1.96 2.63 5.03 6.43 5.09 30 5.87 2.32 3.13 5.36 6.89 5.44 40 6.39 2.66 3.62 5.64 7.29 5.74 50d 6.90 3.01 4.11 5.89 7.69 6.03 60 7.41 3.39 4.65 6.15 8.08 6.32 70 7.93 3.82 5.27 6.43 8.51 6.65 80 8.57 4.39 6.08 6.76 9.03 7.04 90 9.44 5.26 7.31 7.21 9.74 7.69 95 10.15 6.06 8.45 7.58 10.32 8.06 97.5e 10.78 6.81 9.52 7.91 10.83 8.49 a Based on pooled estimates of requirement components; presented Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) based on the higher estimates obtained for males. b Based on 10 percent bioavailability. c Based on 18 percent bioavailability. d Fiftieth percentile = EAR. e Ninety-seven and one-half percentile = RDA.

DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS 478 TABLE G-4 Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements (mg/d) for Female Adolescents and Adults, CSFII, 1994–1996 Oral Estimated Percentile Contraceptive User,a Adolescent of Requirement 9–13 y 14–18 y 2.5 3.24 4.63 4.11 5 3.60 5.06 4.49 10 4.04 5.61 4.97 20 4.59 6.31 5.57 30 4.98 6.87 6.05 40 5.33 7.39 6.48 50c 5.66 7.91 6.89 60 6.00 8.43 7.34 70 6.36 9.15 7.84 80 6.78 10.03 8.47 90 7.38 11.54 9.47 95 7.88 13.08 10.42 97.5d 8.34 14.80 11.44 a Based on 60 percent reduction in menstrual blood loss. b Mixed population assumes 17 percent oral contraceptive users, 83 percent nonusers, all menstruating. c Fiftieth percentile = Estimated Average Requirement. d Ninety-seven and one-half percentile = Recommended Dietary Allowance.

PART IV: APPENDIX G 479 Mixed Oral Mixed Adolescent Menstruating Contraceptive Adult Post Populationb User,a Adult Populationb Adult Menopause 4.49 4.42 3.63 4.18 2.73 4.92 4.88 4.00 4.63 3.04 5.45 5.45 4.45 5.19 3.43 6.14 6.22 5.06 5.94 3.93 6.69 6.87 5.52 6.55 4.30 7.21 7.46 5.94 7.13 4.64 7.71 8.07 6.35 7.73 4.97 8.25 8.76 6.79 8.39 5.30 8.92 9.63 7.27 9.21 5.68 9.77 10.82 7.91 10.36 6.14 11.21 13.05 8.91 12.49 6.80 12.74 15.49 9.90 14.85 7.36 14.39 18.23 10.94 17.51 7.88

DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS 480 TABLE G-5 Probabilities of Inadequate Iron Intakesa and Associated Ranges of Usual Intake for Infants and Children 1 through 8 Years, CSFII, 1994–1996 Associated Range of Usual Intakes (mg/d) Probability of Inadequacy Infants 8–12 mo Children 1–3 y Children 4–8 y 1.0b < 3.01 < 1.0 < 1.33 0.96 3.02–3.63 1.1–1.24 1.34–1.64 0.93 3.64–4.35 1.25–1.54 1.65–2.05 0.85 4.36–5.23 1.55–1.96 2.07–2.63 0.75 5.24–5.87 1.97–2.32 2.64–3.13 0.65 5.88–6.39 2.33–2.66 3.14–3.62 0.55 6.40–6.90 2.67–3.01 3.63–4.11 0.45 6.91–7.41 3.02–3.39 4.12–4.64 0.35 7.42–7.93 3.40–3.82 4.65–5.27 0.25 7.94–8.57 3.83–4.38 5.28–6.08 0.15 8.58–9.44 4.39–5.25 6.09–7.31 0.08 9.45–10.17 5.26–6.06 7.32–8.45 0.04 10.18–10.78 6.07–6.81 8.46–9.52 0b > 10.78 > 6.81 > 9.52 a Probability of inadequate intake = probability that requirement is greater than the usual intake. Derived from Table G-3. b For population assessment purposes, a probability of 1 has been assigned to all usual intakes falling below the two and one-half percentile of requirement and a probability of 0 has been assigned to all usual intakes falling above the ninety-seven and one-half percentile of requirement. This enables the assessment of population risk where precise estimates are impractical and effectively without impact.

PART IV: APPENDIX G 481 TABLE G-6 FOLLOWS

DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS 482 TABLE G-6 Probabilities of Inadequate Iron Intakesa (mg/d) and Associated Ranges of Usual Intake in Adolescent Males and in Girls Using or Not Using Oral Contraceptives (OC), CSFII, 1994–1996 9–13 y Probability of Inadequacy Male Female 1.0d < 3.91 < 3.24 0.96 3.91–4.23 3.24–3.60 0.93 4.24–4.59 3.61–4.04 0.85 4.60–5.03 4.05–4.59 0.75 5.04–5.36 4.60–4.98 0.65 5.37–5.64 4.99–5.33 0.55 5.65–5.89 5.34–5.66 0.45 5.90–6.15 5.67–6.00 0.35 6.16–6.43 6.01–6.36 0.25 6.44–6.76 6.37–6.78 0.15 6.77–7.21 6.79–7.38 0.08 7.22–7.58 7.39–7.88 0.04 7.59–7.91 7.89–8.34 0d > 7.91 > 8.34 a Probability of inadequate intake = probability that requirement is greater than the usual intake. May be used in simple computer programs to evaluate adjusted distributions of usual intakes. See Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, for method of adjusting observed intake distributions. Not to be applied in the assessment of individuals. Derived from Tables G-3 and G-4. b Assumes 60 percent reduction in menstrual iron loss. c Mixed population represents 17 percent oral contraceptive users and 83 percent nonoral contraceptive users. d For population assessment purposes, a probability of 1 has been assigned to all usual intakes falling below the two and one-half percentile of requirement and a probability of 0 has been assigned to all usual intakes falling above the ninety-seven and one-half percentile of requirement. This enables the assessment of population risk where precise estimates are impractical and effectively without impact.

PART IV: APPENDIX G 483 14–18 y Female OC Usersb Mixed Populationc Male Non-OC Users < 5.06 < 4.63 < 4.11 < 4.49 5.06–5.42 4.64–5.06 4.11–4.49 4.49–4.92 5.43–5.85 5.07–5.61 4.50–4.97 4.93–5.45 5.86–6.43 5.62–6.31 4.98–5.57 5.46–6.14 6.44–6.89 6.32–6.87 5.58–6.05 6.15–6.69 6.90–7.29 6.88–7.39 6.06–6.48 6.70–7.21 7.30–7.69 7.40–7.91 6.49–6.89 7.22–7.71 7.70–8.08 7.92–8.48 6.90–7.34 7.72–8.25 8.09–8.51 8.49–9.15 7.35–7.84 8.26–8.92 8.52–9.03 9.16–10.03 7.85–8.47 8.93–9.77 9.04–9.74 10.04–11.54 8.48–9.47 9.78–11.21 9.75–10.32 11.55–13.08 9.48–10.42 11.22–12.74 10.33–10.83 13.09–14.80 10.43–11.44 12.75–14.39 > 10.83 > 14.80 > 11.44 > 14.39

DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS 484 TABLE G-7 Probabilities of Inadequate Iron Intakesa (mg/d) and Associated Ranges of Usual Intake in Adult Men and Women Using and Not Using Oral Contraceptives (OC) , CSFII, 1994–1996 Menstruating Women Probability of Adult Non-OC Mixed Postmenopausal OC Usersb Populationc Inadequacy Men Users Women 1.0d < 3.98 < 4.42 < 3.63 < 4.18 < 2.73 0.96 3.98–4.29 4.42–4.88 3.63–4.00 4.18–4.63 2.73–3.04 0.93 4.30–4.64 4.89–5.45 4.01–4.45 4.64–5.19 3.05–3.43 0.85 4.65–5.09 5.46–6.22 4.46–5.06 5.20–5.94 3.44–3.93 0.75 5.10–5.44 6.23–6.87 5.07–5.52 5.95–6.55 3.94–4.30 0.65 5.45–5.74 6.88–7.46 5.53–5.94 6.56–7.13 4.31–4.64 0.55 5.75–6.03 7.47–8.07 5.95–6.35 7.14–7.73 4.65–4.97 0.45 6.04–6.32 8.08–8.76 6.36–6.79 7.74–8.39 4.98–5.30 0.35 6.33–6.65 8.77–9.63 6.80–7.27 8.40–9.21 5.31–5.68 0.25 6.66–7.04 9.64–10.82 7.28–7.91 9.22–10.36 5.69–6.14 0.15 7.05–7.69 10.83–13.05 7.92–8.91 10.37–12.49 6.15–6.80 0.08 7.70–8.06 13.06–15.49 8.92–9.90 12.50–14.85 6.81–7.36 0.04 8.07–8.49 15.50–18.23 9.91–10.94 14.86–17.51 7.37–7.88 0d > 8.49 > 18.23 > 10.94 > 17.51 > 7.88 a Probability of inadequate intake = probability that requirement is greater than the usual intake. May be used in simple computer programs to evaluate adjusted distributions of usual intakes. See Institute of Medicine. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, for method of adjusting observed intake distributions. Not to be applied in the assessment of individuals. Derived from Tables G-3 and G-4. b Assumes 60 percent reduction in menstrual iron loss. c Mixed population represents 17 percent oral contraceptive users and 83 percent nonoral contraceptive users. d For population assessment purposes, a probability of 1 has been assigned to all usual intakes falling below the two and one-half percentile of requirement and a probability of 0 has been assigned to all usual intakes falling above the ninety-seven and one-half percentile of requirement. This enables the assessment of population risk where precise estimates are impractical and effectively without impact.

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Widely regarded as the classic reference work for the nutrition, dietetic, and allied health professions since its introduction in 1943, Recommended Dietary Allowances has been the accepted source in nutrient allowances for healthy people. Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, in partnership with Health Canada, has updated what used to be known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and renamed their new approach to these guidelines Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Since 1998, the Institute of Medicine has issued eight exhaustive volumes of DRIs that offer quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets applicable to healthy individuals in the United States and Canada. Now, for the first time, all eight volumes are summarized in one easy-to-use reference volume, Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment. Organized by nutrient for ready use, this popular reference volume reviews the function of each nutrient in the human body, food sources, usual dietary intakes, and effects of deficiencies and excessive intakes. For each nutrient of food component, information includes:

  • Estimated average requirement and its standard deviation by age and gender.
  • Recommended dietary allowance, based on the estimated average requirement and deviation.
  • Adequate intake level, where a recommended dietary allowance cannot be based on an estimated average requirement.
  • Tolerable upper intake levels above which risk of toxicity would increase. Along with dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, this book presents recommendations for health maintenance and the reduction of chronic disease risk. Also included is a “Summary Table of Dietary Reference Intakes,” an updated practical summary of the recommendations. In addition, Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment provides information about:
  • Guiding principles for nutrition labeling and fortification
  • Applications in dietary planning
  • Proposed definition of dietary fiber
  • A risk assessment model for establishing upper intake levels for nutrients
  • Proposed definition and plan for review of dietary antioxidants and related compounds

Dietitians, community nutritionists, nutrition educators, nutritionists working in government agencies, and nutrition students at the postsecondary level, as well as other health professionals, will find Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment an invaluable resource.

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