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Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements (2006)

Chapter: I Estimates of Within-Subject Variation in Intake

« Previous: H Standard Deviation of Requirements for Nutrients with an EAR
Suggested Citation:"I Estimates of Within-Subject Variation in Intake." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 487
Suggested Citation:"I Estimates of Within-Subject Variation in Intake." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 488
Suggested Citation:"I Estimates of Within-Subject Variation in Intake." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 489
Suggested Citation:"I Estimates of Within-Subject Variation in Intake." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 490
Suggested Citation:"I Estimates of Within-Subject Variation in Intake." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 491
Suggested Citation:"I Estimates of Within-Subject Variation in Intake." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 492

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PART IV: APPENDIX I 487 I ESTIMATES OF WITHIN-SUBJECT VARIATION IN INTAKE

DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS 488 TABLE I-1 Estimates of Within-Subject Variation in Intake, Expressed as Standard Deviation (SD) a and Coefficient of Variation (CV) for Vitamins and Minerals in Adults Aged 19 and Over Adults Ages 19–50 y Adults, Ages 51 y and Over Females Males Females Males ( n = 2,480)c ( n = 2,538) ( n = 2,162) ( n = 2,280) CV CV CV CV Nutrient b SD (%) SD (%) SD (%) SD (%) Vitamin A ( mg) 1,300 152 1,160 115 1,255 129 1,619 133 Carotene (RE) 799 175 875 177 796 147 919 153 Vitamin E (mg) 5 76 7 176 6 65 9 60 Vitamin C (mg) 73 87 93 92 61 69 72 71 Thiamin (mg) 0.6 47 0.9 46 0.5 41 0.7 40 Riboflavin (mg) 0.6 50 1.0 44 0.6 42 0.8 40 Niacin (mg) 9 47 12 44 7 42 9 39 Vitamin B 6 (mg) 0.8 53 1.0 48 0.6 44 0.8 42 Folate (mg) d 131 62 180 61 12 52 150 53 Vitamin B 12 (mg) 12 294 13 212 10 237 14 226 Calcium (mg) 325 51 492 54 256 44 339 44 Phosphorus (mg) 395 39 573 38 313 33 408 32 Magnesium (mg) 86 38 122 38 74 33 94 32 Iron (mg) 7 53 9 51 5 44 7 44 Zinc (mg) 6 61 9 63 5 58 8 66 Copper (mg) 0.6 53 0.7 48 0.5 53 0.7 56 Sodium (mg) 1,839 44 1,819 43 1,016 41 1,323 38 Potassium (mg) 851 38 1,147 36 723 31 922 31 NOTE: When the CV is larger than 60 to 70 percent the distribution of daily intakes is nonnormal and the methods presented here are unreliable. a Square root of the residual variance after accounting for subject, and sequence of observation (gender and age controlled by classifications). b Nutrient intakes are for food only, data do not include intake from supplements. c Sample size was inadequate to provide separate estimates for pregnant or lactating women. d Folate reported in mg rather than as the new dietary folate equivalents (DFE). SOURCE: Data from Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994–1996.

PART IV: APPENDIX I 489 TABLE I-2 Estimates of Within-Subject Variation in Intake, Expressed as Standard Deviation (SD) a and Coefficient of Variation (CV) for Vitamins and Minerals in Adolescents and Children Adolescents, Ages 9–18 y Children, Ages 4–8 y Females Males Females Males (n = 1,002) (n = 998) (n = 817) (n = 883) CV CV CV CV Nutrient b SD (%) SD (%) SD (%) SD (%) Vitamin A ( mg) 852 109 898 91 808 103 723 86 Carotene (RE) 549 180 681 197 452 167 454 166 Vitamin E (mg) 4 67 5 62 3 54 3 57 Vitamin C (mg) 81 90 93 89 61 69 74 76 Thiamin (mg) 0.6 43 0.8 42 0.5 35 0.5 37 Riboflavin (mg) 0.7 42 1.0 41 0.6 35 0.7 35 Niacin (mg) 8 46 11 43 6 36 7 38 Vitamin B 6 (mg) 0.7 49 1.0 49 0.6 42 0.7 43 Folate (mg) c 128 58 176 60 99 48 117 50 Vitamin B 12 (mg) 5.5 142 5.0 93 9.6 254 4.7 118 Calcium (mg) 374 48 505 48 313 40 353 41 Phosphorus (mg) 410 38 542 37 321 32 352 32 Magnesium (mg) 86 41 109 39 61 31 71 33 Iron (mg) 6 47 9 50 5 45 6 43 Zinc (mg) 5 50 8 58 3 41 4 42 Copper (mg) 0.5 52 0.6 48 0.4 47 0.4 41 Sodium (mg) 1,313 45 1,630 42 930 38 957 35 Potassium (mg) 866 41 1,130 41 631 32 750 35 NOTE: When the CV is larger than 60 to 70 percent the distribution of daily intakes is nonnormal and the methods presented here are unreliable. a Square root of the residual variance after accounting for subject, and sequence of observation (gender and age controlled by classifications). b Nutrient intakes are for food only, data do not include intake from supplements. c Folate reported in mg rather than as the new dietary folate equivalents (DFE). SOURCE: Data from Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994–1996.

DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS 490 TABLE I-3 Estimates of Within-Subject Variation in Intake, Expressed as Standard Deviation (SD)a and Coefficient of Variation (CV) for Macronutrients in Adults Aged 19 and Over Adults, Ages 19–50 y Adults, Ages 51 y and Over Females Males Females Males (n = 2,480)c (n = 2,583) (n = 2,162) (n = 2,280) CV CV CV CV Nutrientb SD (%) SD (%) SD (%) SD (%) Energy (kcal) 576 34 854 34 448 31 590 29 Fat (total, g) 29.9 48 42.7 44 24.0 45 31.8 42 Fat (saturated, g) 10.9 52 15.9 49 8.6 50 11.4 45 Fat (mono- unsaturated, g) 12.0 50 17.4 46 9.7 48 13.0 44 Fat (poly- unsaturated, g) 8.4 64 11.3 59 7.0 61 8.8 57 Carbohydrate (g) 75.2 35 109 35 59.9 32 79.5 32 Protein (g) 26.6 42 40.4 41 22.1 37 28.6 35 Fiber (g) 6.5 49 9.2 51 5.9 43 7.7 43 Cholesterol (mg) 168 77 227 66 144 70 201 66 NOTE: When the CV is larger than 60 to 70 percent the distribution of daily intakes is nonnormal and the methods presented here are unreliable. a Square root of the residual variance after accounting for subject, and sequence of observation (gender and age controlled by classifications). b Nutrient intakes are for food only, data do not include intake from supplements. c Sample size was inadequate to provide separate estimates for pregnant or lactating women. SOURCE: Data from Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994–1996.

PART IV: APPENDIX I 491 TABLE I-4 Estimates of Within-Subject Variation in Intake, Expressed as Standard Deviation (SD)a and Coefficient of Variation (CV) for Macronutrients in Adolescents and Children Adolescents Ages 9–18 y Children Ages 4–8 y Females Males Females Males (n = 1,002) (n = 998) (n = 817) (n = 833) CV CV CV CV Nutrientb SD (%) SD (%) SD (%) SD (%) Energy (kcal) 628 34 800 33 427 27 478 27 Fat (total, g) 29.8 45 38.2 42 21.3 37 23.9 37 Fat (saturated, g) 11.3 48 15.3 48 8.5 40 9.6 40 Fat (mono- unsaturated, g) 12.4 48 15.5 44 8.6 39 9.9 41 Fat (poly- unsaturated, g) 7.3 60 8.7 55 5.1 52 5.5 52 Carbohydrate (g) 88.1 35 113 35 61.7 29 70.8 30 Protein (g) 26.2 42 33.9 39 19.2 34 20.4 33 Fiber (g) 6.2 51 8.7 56 4.6 43 5.3 45 Cholesterol (mg) 145 72 199 71 129 70 137 66 NOTE: When the CV is larger than 60 to 70 percent the distribution of daily intakes is nonnormal and the methods presented here are unreliable. a Square root of the residual variance after accounting for subject, and sequence of observation (gender and age controlled by classifications). b Nutrient intakes are for food only, data do not include intake from supplements. SOURCE: Data from Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994–1996.

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Widely regarded as the classic reference work for the nutrition, dietetic, and allied health professions since its introduction in 1943, Recommended Dietary Allowances has been the accepted source in nutrient allowances for healthy people. Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, in partnership with Health Canada, has updated what used to be known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and renamed their new approach to these guidelines Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Since 1998, the Institute of Medicine has issued eight exhaustive volumes of DRIs that offer quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets applicable to healthy individuals in the United States and Canada. Now, for the first time, all eight volumes are summarized in one easy-to-use reference volume, Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment. Organized by nutrient for ready use, this popular reference volume reviews the function of each nutrient in the human body, food sources, usual dietary intakes, and effects of deficiencies and excessive intakes. For each nutrient of food component, information includes:

  • Estimated average requirement and its standard deviation by age and gender.
  • Recommended dietary allowance, based on the estimated average requirement and deviation.
  • Adequate intake level, where a recommended dietary allowance cannot be based on an estimated average requirement.
  • Tolerable upper intake levels above which risk of toxicity would increase. Along with dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, this book presents recommendations for health maintenance and the reduction of chronic disease risk. Also included is a “Summary Table of Dietary Reference Intakes,” an updated practical summary of the recommendations. In addition, Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment provides information about:
  • Guiding principles for nutrition labeling and fortification
  • Applications in dietary planning
  • Proposed definition of dietary fiber
  • A risk assessment model for establishing upper intake levels for nutrients
  • Proposed definition and plan for review of dietary antioxidants and related compounds

Dietitians, community nutritionists, nutrition educators, nutritionists working in government agencies, and nutrition students at the postsecondary level, as well as other health professionals, will find Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment an invaluable resource.

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