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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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INDEX 493 INDEX A biotin, 196, 198 BMI, 17, 92 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution boron, 414 Ranges (AMDRs). See also individual calcium, 286, 289 nutrients and life stage groups carbohydrate, 102, 106 defined, 11, 69, 71, 72 choline, 218, 220 evidence considered for, 72–74 chromium, 296, 298 in group applications, 42, 46, 52 copper, 304, 307 in individual applications, 28, 32, 36 EARs, 14–15, 144, 170, 188, 191, rationale for, 11, 71 202, 205, 234, 237, 244, 248, uses, 46 262, 274, 276, 280, 282, 304, Aceruloplasminemia, 333 307, 320, 322–323, 328, 340, Acetaminophen, 251 356, 362, 380, 402, 461–463 Achlorhydria, 331 EERs, 82, 89 Acrodermatitis enteropathica, 410 fat (total dietary), 122 Actin, 148 fiber, 110, 118 Adequate Intakes (AIs). See also individual fluoride, 312 macronutrients and life stage groups folate, 244, 248 criteria used to derive, 9 growth and development, 14–15, 89, defined, 8, 11, 169 331, 364 derivation, 13, 14 iodine, 320, 322–323 extrapolation from human milk iron, 328, 330, 331, 332, 477–479, values, 197, 198 482–483 in group applications, 42, 44–45, 52– Kashin-Beck disease, 384 54, 68 magnesium, 340 inappropriate use, 45 manganese, 350 indicators used to set, 9 molybdenum, 356 in individual applications, 25, 27, niacin, 262 29–31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 68 nickel, 414 methods used to set, 53 pantothenic acid, 270 uses, 10–11, 13, 53 phosphorus, 362, 364 Adipogenesis, 127 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 122, 131 Adolescents, ages 9 through 18 years. See potassium, 370 also Lactation; Pregnancy; Puberty pregnancy, 106 age of menarche, 331 protein, 144, 150 AIs, 15, 110, 156, 196, 198, 218, RDAs, 14–15, 144, 170, 188, 191, 220, 224, 254, 270, 286, 289, 202, 205, 234, 237, 244, 248, 296, 298, 312, 350, 370, 386 262, 274, 276, 280, 282, 304, AMDRs, 70, 150 307, 320, 322–323, 328, 340, amino acids, 461–463 356, 362, 380, 402, 462–463

INDEX 494 chromium, 296, 298 riboflavin, 274, 276 copper, 304, 307 selenium, 380, 384 EARs, 144, 170, 202, 205, 244, 248, skeletal health, 79 262, 274, 276, 277, 280, 282, sodium and chloride, 386 304, 307, 320, 322–323, 328, special considerations, 331 340, 356, 362, 402, 463–464 ULs, 170, 202, 205, 218, 220, 234, EERs, 54, 82, 88 237, 244, 262, 274, 286, 312, energy balance, 15, 85 320, 328, 340, 350, 356, 362, extrapolation of data to children, 441 380, 386, 402, 414 fat, 122, 123, 132 thiamin, 280, 282 fiber, 110, 118 vanadium, 414 fluoride, 312, 314 vitamin A, 170, 175 folate, 244, 248 vitamin B6, 182, 184 group assessments, 55–58 vitamin B12, 188, 191 iodine, 320, 321, 322–323 vitamin C, 202, 205 iron, 328, 333, 334, 337, 478–479, vitamin D, 224 484 vitamin E, 234, 237 magnesium, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, vitamin K, 254 346–347 water, 156, 161, 162 manganese, 350 weight and height, reference, 17 molybdenum, 356 within-subject variation in intake, monounsaturated fatty acids, 128 489, 491 niacin, 262 zinc, 48, 402 nickel, 414 Adults, ages 19+ years. See also Age/aging pantothenic acid, 270 ages 19 through 30 years, 17, 35, 54, phosphorus, 362, 363, 364, 366 55–58, 188, 191 physical activity, 94, 95, 99, 160 ages 31 through 50 years, 202, 205 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 122, 131, ages 51 through 70 years, 38, 44, 70, 132 90, 99, 185, 188, 189, 190–191, potassium, 370 192, 227, 240, 314, 333 protein, 73–74, 144, 150 ages 70+ years, 38, 62–65, 90, 99, RDAs, 144, 170, 173, 202, 205, 244, 148, 161, 188, 189, 190–191, 248, 262, 274, 276, 280, 282, 192, 204, 207, 227, 344, 346– 304, 307, 320, 322–323, 328, 347, 373, 386, 394, 420 340, 356, 362, 402, 463–464 AIs, 110, 156, 196, 198, 218, 220, riboflavin, 274, 277 224, 254, 270, 286, 289, 312, skeletal and muscle health, 15, 79, 350, 370 99, 225, 227, 229, 366 AMDRs, 70, 72–74, 123, 132, 150 sodium and chloride, 386, 394 amino acids, 463–464 special considerations, 34, 35 atrophic gastritis, 189, 190–191, 192, supplement use, 177, 192, 206 296, 298 thiamin, 280, 281, 282, 283 biotin, 196, 198, 199 total parenteral nutrition, 199 BMI, 17, 84, 86, 91 ULs, 170, 202, 205, 218, 220, 224, boron, 414 234, 237–238, 244, 262, 274, calcium, 286, 289, 290 304, 312, 320, 328, 340, 350, carbohydrate, 102, 107 356, 362, 386, 402, 414 choline, 218, 220

INDEX 495 undernutrition, 91 and niacin, 263, 265, 266–267 vanadium, 414, 420 and pellagra, 263, 266–267 vitamin A, 170, 173, 175 and phosphorus, 366 vitamin B6, 182, 184, 185 special considerations, 136, 176, 186, vitamin B12, 188, 190–191, 192, 193 205, 215, 247, 265, 284, 346, 405 vitamin C, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, and thiamin, 281, 284 207 and vitamin A, 176, 178 vitamin D, 224, 225, 227, 229 and vitamin B6, 186 vitamin E, 234, 237–238 and vitamin C, 205, 207 vitamin K, 254 and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, water, 156, 160, 162 281, 284 weight and height, reference, 17 and zinc, 405 within-subject variation in intake, Aldehyde oxidase, 357 488, 490 Aldosterone, 140 zinc, 402, 404 Alkaline phosphatase, 229 African Americans Alopecia, 199, 410 a-Carotene, 171, 172, 174, 211, 213 energy expenditure, 90 a-Linoleic acid. See also Polyunsaturated potassium, 373 pubertal development, 15 fatty acids, n-3 salt sensitivity, 373, 391, 394 absorption, metabolism, storage and Age/aging. See also Adolescents, ages 9 excretion, 129 through 18 years; Adults, ages 19+ AIs, 74, 75, 122, 124, 130 years; Children, ages 1 through AMDRs, 74, 132 8 years; Infants; Life stage groups criteria for determining requirements, and atrophic gastritis, 189, 190–191, 131 192 deficiency, 125, 135 and calcium, 288 function, 124, 129 and fluoride, 314 interaction with linoleic acid, 138 and hyperkalemia, 373 by life stage and gender group, 122, and magnesium, 346–347 131 and physical activity, 90, 99–100 protective effects, 135–136 and protein, 148 sources, 124 and vitamin B12, 38, 189, 190–191 Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer and vitamin C, 204, 207 Prevention Trial, 215 and vitamin D, 227, 230 Altitude, 90 AIs. See Adequate Intakes Aluminum, 364, 367 Alanine, 147 AMDRs. See Acceptable Macronutrient Alanine aminotransferase, 219, 220, 222 Distribution Ranges Albumin, 128, 146, 152, 172, 306 Amenorrhea, 291 Alcohol (ethanol) consumption American Academy of Pediatrics, 179, carotenoid deficiency, 215 314 and dehydration, 164 American Dental Association, 314 energy value, 85 Amino acids. See also Protein and fatty acid oxidation, 136 absorption, metabolism, storage, and and folate, 247, 251 excretion, 87, 147–149, 183, 189, and iron, 333 245, 246, 263, 264, 281, 351 and magnesium, 346 composition of proteins, 146–147

INDEX 496 determining DRIs, 145, 149 Anxiety, 95, 98 digestibility, 149 Appetite, 98, 194 DRI values by life stage and gender Application of DRIs. See also Dietary group, 459–465 assessment; Dietary planning; EARs, 145 Group-level assessment; Group- excess intake, 152–153 level planning; Individual-level free, 147 assessment; Individual-level function, 145, 146 planning glucose production from, 105 changes in, 19–20 imbalances in, 148, 151–152 definitions associated with, 20 interactions with other nutrients, 220, intake distribution and, 23–24 222, 245, 263, 264, 281 limitations of data, 19 key points for, 154–155 overlap of requirement and intake limiting, 147 distributions, 24, 25 maple syrup urine disease, 152 requirement distribution and, 23 metabolic disorders, 152 statistical foundation, 21–24 nutritional and metabolic Arachidonic acid, 124, 129, 135, 138 classification, 146, 147 Arginase, 351 phenylketonuria, 153 Arginine, 147 quality of protein source, 149 Ariboflavinosis, 278 scoring, 147, 149 Arsenic, 415, 416, 417, 419, 421, 422 special considerations, 150, 152–153 Asbestos workers, 211, 215 Amiodarone, 324 Ascorbic acid. See Vitamin C Amylase, 104, 105 Asparagine, 147 Amylopectin, 104, 105 Aspartate, 147 Amylose, 104 Aspartic acid, 147 Analgesics, 162 Aspirin, 136, 205, 251 Anemia Assessment. See Dietary assessment; hemolytic, 242 Group-level assessment; hypochromic, 305, 309 Individual-level assessment infantile scurvy and, 208 Asthma, 186 iron deficiency, 329, 331, 336 Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype, 73 macrocytic, 245, 250, 252 Atherosclerosis, 135, 256 microcytic, 186 Athletes, 38, 136, 150, 161, 276, 282, normocytic, 278 389, 422 pernicious, 189, 191, 193, 194, 249 Atrial natriuretic peptide, 389 Angiotensin converting enzyme Atrophic gastritis, 189, 190–191, 192, inhibitors, 373 249 Angiotensin receptor blockers, 373 Autoimmune thyroid disease, 322, 323 Animal muscle tissue, 335 Anorexia nervosa, 291 B Antacids, 300, 331, 364, 367, 392, 422 Antibiotics, 162, 259 Basal energy expenditure (BEE), 87 Anticoagulants, 136, 238, 242, 258, Basal metabolic rate (BMR), 87 259–260 BEE. See Basal energy expenditure Anticonvulsant medications, 230, 247, Beriberi, 284 251 b-Carotene, 171–175, 176, 179, 211–217

INDEX 497 b-Cryptoxanthin, 171, 172, 174, 211, Body composition and size. See also Body 213 fat content; Obesity b-Glucans, 115 fat-free mass, 86, 89 Betaine, 220 undernutrition and, 91 Bifidbacteria, 115 Body fat content. See also Body Mass Bioavailability of nutrients. See also Index individual nutrients physical activity and, 98 drug interference, 214 protein intake and, 78 fat intake and, 123, 126, 132, 177, Body Mass Index (BMI) 214, 230, 239, 241 abnormally low, 84 fiber consumption and, 113, 114, adolescents, 17 214 adults, 17, 84, 86 food matrix and, 177, 214 children, 17 gastrointestinal disorders and, 177 and chronic disease risk, 92 nutrient–nutrient interactions and, cutoffs, 86 214 defined, 86 processing of foods and, 177, 192, gender differences, 17 206, 214, 299 healthy, 86, 92 from supplements, 214, 258 as indicator of energy requirement, in vegetarian diets, 38 32, 36, 42, 46 Biotin individual assessments and, 28, 32 absorption, metabolism, storage, and infants, 17 excretion, 197 obesity, 86, 92 AIs, 53, 196, 197 PAL and, 95, 96 criteria for determining requirements, reference heights and weights and, 17 198 Bone. See Skeletal health determining requirements, 198 Boron, 414, 416, 417, 419, 420, 421, 422 excess intake, 200 Boston Nutritional Status Survey, 185, food sources, 198–199 192, 206, 240, 265–266, 277, 283 function, 197 Brain group intake planning, 53 damage, 153, 325 inadequate intake and deficiency, glucose utilization, 103, 106 197, 199, 200 Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase, key points for, 201 152 by life stage and gender group, 196, Breast cancer, 76, 77, 142, 229 198 Breastfeeding. See also Lactation special considerations, 197, 198 multiple infants, 16, 264, 276, 282, supplements, 199 294, 346 UL, 198 Bladder cancer, 421 C Bladder damage and disorders, 165, 194 Blood donation, 332 Caffeine, 164, 292 Blood pressure, 77, 372–373, 374, 389, Calcium 390, 394 absorption, metabolism, storage, and Blood transfusion, 337 excretion, 225, 226, 227, 287– BMI. See Body Mass Index 288, 367 BMR. See Basal metabolic rate AIs, 53, 286, 287, 288, 289

INDEX 498 bioavailability, 287, 290–291 protective effect of nutrients, 76, 77, criteria for determining requirements, 111, 118, 245, 246, 382 289 protein intake and, 76 determining DRIs, 288–290 and riboflavin deficiency, 277 determining requirements, 288 selenium and, 382 excess intake, 287, 294 sugars and, 77 food sources, 287, 290 vitamin D and, 229 function, 78, 287 Carbohydrate, dietary. See also Glucose; group intake planning, 53 Glycemic index; Starches; Sugars; inadequate intake and deficiency, individual life-stage group 287, 291, 294 absorption, metabolism, and storage, interaction with other nutrients, 119, 105, 127, 281, 351, 354 120, 225, 226, 227, 230, 287, adaptation to starvation, 107 291, 292–293, 313–314, 316, adverse effects of overconsumption, 317, 335, 345, 354, 368, 405, 108 407, 408 AIs, 102 key points for, 295 AMDRs, 11, 70, 72–73, 107 by life stage and gender group, 286, brain utilization, 103, 106 289 and chronic disease risk, 72–73, 77, prevalence of usual intakes, 289 79, 108 and skeletal health, 78, 287, 288, 291 classification, 103, 104 special considerations, 291, 294 conversion factors, 466, 467–469 supplements, 289, 290, 291 criteria for determining requirements, ULs, 287, 289–290 103, 106 vegetarian diets, 294 and dental caries, 79, 108 Canada. See also Recommended Nutrient determining DRIs, 106–107 Intakes digestion, 104 Food Guide, 33 EARs, 102, 106 fortification of foods, 247, 249, 324, energy from, 85, 103, 105 333 fat intake and, 127 physical activity recommendations, 95 food sources, 77, 107, 177 vitamin B12, 192 function, 103 Canadian Council on Nutrition, 5 glycemic index, 105–106 Canadian Paediatric Society, 314 high-carbohydrate diets, 71, 72–73, Cancer. See also individual histological sites 77, 133, 135, 136 arsenic and, 421 inadequate intake and deficiency, carbohydrate intake and, 77, 108 107–108 carotenoids and, 212 key points for, 109 cholesterol and, 142 by life stage and gender group, 70, energy intake and, 76, 84, 92 102, 106 fat intake and, 76, 136 and lipid profile, 73, 77, 108, 135 fiber and, 77, 118, 119, 120 low carbohydrate diets, 107–108, folate and, 245, 246 164, 376 hormone-related, 77 RDAs, 102, 106 iron intake and, 337 TEF 87 , physical activity and, 77, 95, 98 ULs, 103, 107 polyunsaturated fatty acids and, 74, 76 and water intake, 164

INDEX 499 Carcinoid syndrome, 264 Centers for Disease Control and Cardiac arrhythmias, 77, 99, 135, 265, Prevention, 250 343, 373, 374, 378 Central nervous system function, 107. Cardiovascular health See also Brain carotenoids and, 212 Cereal foods, 77, 112, 183 folate and, 245, 246 Ceruloplasmin, 305, 306 glycemic index of foods and, 106 Cervical cancer, 212\ physical activity and, 77, 95, 98 CHD. See Coronary heart disease and riboflavin, 277 Children, ages 1 through 8 years sodium and, 388, 390, 394 active, 161 thiamin and, 284 AIs, 14, 110, 156, 196, 198, 218, vitamin C and, 204 220, 224, 254, 270, 286, 289, vitamin K and, 256 296, 298, 312, 350, 370, 386 Carnitine, 203 AMDRs, 70, 73, 123, 132, 150 Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, 215 amino acids, 460–461 Carotenodermia, 211, 215 biotin, 196, 198 Carotenoids boron, 414 absorption, metabolism, storage, and brain development, 152 excretion, 172, 174, 212 calcium, 286, 289 bioavailability, 126, 213–214, 215–216 carbohydrate, 73, 102, 106, 107 defined, 211 carotenodermia, 215 determining DRIs, 212–213 choline, 218, 220 determining requirements, 212–213 chromium, 296, 298 excess intake, 211, 215–216 chronic disease risk in adulthood, 73 food sources, 211, 213 cognitive development, 321, 325 function, 211, 212 copper, 304, 305, 307, 309, 310 inadequate intake and deficiency, EARs, 14, 16, 144, 170, 182, 184, 214–215 188, 191, 202, 205, 234, 237, interactions with other nutrients, 214 244, 248, 262, 274, 276, 304, key points for, 217 307, 320, 322–323, 328, 340, protective effects of, 173, 211, 212 356, 362, 380, 402, 460–461 provitamin A, 171–175, 177, 211, EERs, 82, 83, 88, 89 212, 216 extrapolation of data from adults to, recommendations, 211, 212–213 14, 441 smokers/smoking and, 211, 212–213, fat (dietary), 73, 122, 123, 132, 133 214–216 fiber, 110, 118 special considerations, 214–216 fluoride, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316 supplements, 211, 213, 215 folate, 244, 248 ULs, 213 growth, 14, 84, 89, 91, 125, 133, Carpal tunnel syndrome, 186 153, 325 Catabolic stress, 146 high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets, 73 Cataracts, 204, 212 iodine, 320, 321, 322–323 Caucasians iron, 328, 330, 476–477, 480 energy expenditure, 90 Keshan disease, 384 pubertal development, 15 liver disease, 310 Celiac sprue, 230, 410 magnesium, 340, 341, 343, 344 Cellulose, 112, 113, 114 malnutrition, 152

INDEX 500 manganese, 350 water, 156, 161, 162 measles, 179 weight and height, reference, 17 micronutrient intakes with within-subject variation in intake, macronutrients, 73 489, 491 molybdenum, 356 zinc, 46, 402, 404–405 niacin, 262 Chitin and chitosan, 112, 114 nickel, 414 Chloride. See Sodium and chloride obesity, 73 Cholesterol, dietary pantothenic acid, 270 absorption, metabolism, storage, and phosphorus, 362, 363, 365, 366 excretion, 140–141, 219, 225, 351 physical activity, 94, 95, 99, 161 adverse effects of consumption, 140, polyunsaturated fatty acids, 74, 122, 142 131, 132 basis for recommendations, 75 potassium, 370 and chronic disease risk, 75, 76, 140, protein, 73–74, 144, 150, 152 142 RDAs, 14, 144, 170, 182, 184, 188, determining DRIs, 141–142 191, 202, 205, 234, 237, 244, food sources, 75, 140, 142 248, 262, 274, 276, 304, 307, function, 140 320, 322–323, 328, 340, 356, and lipid profile, 75, 76, 140, 141, 142 362, 380, 402, 460–461 low cholesterol diets, 75 riboflavin, 274, 276 recommendation, 70, 140, 141 rickets, 225, 226, 227, 229 UL, 141–142 saturated fatty acids, 73 Cholesterol, plasma/serum total, 572. See selenium, 380, 384 also HDL cholesterol; LDL skeletal and muscle health, 79, 99, cholesterol 225, 226, 227, 229, 305, 309, and CHD, 75 313, 314, 315, 366 fat intake and, 75, 76, 128, 142 sodium and chloride, 386 fiber intake and, 77, 111, 112, 117 special considerations, 180, 314, genetic factors, 140, 141, 142 404–405 niacin and, 265 stunting, 91, 125 saturated fatty acid intake and, 76, supplement use, 238, 314, 316, 344, 123, 132, 137 365 trans fatty acids and, 76, 132 toddlers, ages 1–3, 330, 404–405, 460 Choline ULs, 46, 170, 202, 205, 218, 220, absorption, metabolism, storage, and 234, 237, 244, 262, 274, 286, excretion, 220 312, 320, 328, 340, 350, 356, AIs, 53, 218, 219, 220 362, 380, 386, 402, 414 criteria for determining requirements, undernutrition, 91 220–221 vanadium, 414 determining DRIs, 220–221 vitamin A, 46, 170, 175, 179, 180 determining requirements, 220 vitamin B6, 182, 184 excess intake, 219, 222 vitamin B12, 188, 191 food sources, 219, 221 vitamin C, 202, 205 forms of, 219, 220 vitamin D, 224, 225, 226, 228, 229 function, 125, 147, 219–220 vitamin E, 234, 237, 238 group intake planning, 53 vitamin K, 254 inadequate intake and deficiency, 222

INDEX 501 interactions with other nutrients, 125, Constipation, 118, 194 220, 222 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by key points for, 223 Individuals, 74, 177, 185, 192, by life stage and gender group, 218 249, 277, 283, 365, 418, 474–484 and lipid metabolism, 125, 219 Convulsions, 186 protective effects, 220 Copper special considerations, 221 absorption, metabolism, storage, and supplements, 221 excretion, 207, 306, 360 ULs, 219, 218, 221 AIs, 304, 306 Chlorpropramide, 394 bioavailability, 308 Chondroitin sulfate, 399 criteria for determining requirements, Chromium 305, 306–307 absorption, metabolism, storage, and determining DRIs, 306–307 excretion, 298 determining requirements, 306 AIs, 53, 296, 296, 297 EARs, 304, 306–307 bioavailability, 300 excess intake, 305, 309 criteria for determining requirements, food sources, 305, 307–308 298 function, 305–306 determining DRIs, 298–299 inadequate intake and deficiency, determining requirements, 298 305, 308–309, 360 excess intake, 301 interactions with other nutrients, 207, food sources, 299 308, 360, 368, 407, 409, 410 function, 297 key points for, 311 group intake planning, 53 by life stage and gender group, 304, inadequate intake and deficiency, 306–307 297, 301 RDAs, 304, 306–307 interactions with other nutrients, 300 special considerations, 310 key points for, 303 supplements, 308, 309 by life stage and gender group, 296, 298 ULs, 304, 307 special considerations, 301 Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, 306, supplements, 297, 299 403 ULs, 299 Coronary artery disease, 343 Chylomicrons, 128, 172, 212, 220, 226, Coronary heart disease (CHD) 236, 256 BMI and, 92 Citrate, 376 carbohydrate intake and, 72–73, 133 Coenzyme A, 271 cholesterol intake and, 75, 76, 140 Cognitive development and functioning, energy intake and, 84, 92 95, 98, 194, 321 fat intake and, 71, 72–73, 132, 133, Colds, 204 136 Collagen, 146, 148, 203 fiber intake and, 77, 112, 118 Colon cancer, 77, 111, 118, 142, 229 food sources, 125 Colorectal cancer, 76, 77 iron intake and, 337 Congenital atransferrinemia, 333 low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets and, Congestive heart failure, 376 133 Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) physical activity and, 77, 135 determining requirements, 130 polyunsaturated fatty acids and, 74, Conjunctivitis, 199 76, 135–136, 137

INDEX 502 protective effect of nutrients, 77, 118, sodium and chloride and, 391, 393– 135–136 394 protein and, 76 Dialysis, 198, 264, 276, 282 recommendation, 125 Diamine oxidase, 305 saturated fatty acids and, 73, 75, 76, Diarrhea, 177, 179, 191, 203, 204, 206, 123, 132, 137 308, 341, 343, 346, 347 trans fatty acids and, 75, 76, 125, 132 Dietary assessment. See also Group-level Creatinine, 148 planning; Individual level- Cretinism, 325 assessment Crohn’s disease, 191, 230, 410 24-hour recalls, 23 Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, 373 accuracy with DRIs, 20 a-tocopherol content of foods, 240 Cysteine, 147, 149, 396, 399 Cystic fibrosis, 162, 393 determining degree of adequacy, 24 goal, 19 Dietary folate equivalents (DFEs), 245, D 246, 247, 466, 471–473 Dietary intake data Dehydration, 95, 99, 158, 161–162, 163 adjustment, 442 Dementia, 194 error sources, 442 Dental caries, 78–79, 108, 317 food sources and, 443 Dental products, 315 for individual assessments, 26 Depression, 95, 98, 186, 199, 221 individual variation, 26 Dermatitis and dermatological lesions, quality of data, 442 125, 135, 183, 186, 199, 353 self-reports, 26, 37 DFEs. See Dietary folate equivalents supplements, 443 DHA. See Docosahexaenoic acid from surveys, 443 Diabetes mellitus, type I, 373, 419, 422 underreporting, 26, 37, 78, 248 Diabetes mellitus, type II within-subject variation, by nutrient, carbohydrate intake and, 79 487–491 chromium and, 301 Dietary planning. See also Group-level and dehydration, 162 planning; Individual level-planning energy intake and, 78, 84, 92 goal, 19 fat intake and, 73, 78, 133 overlap of requirement and intake fiber intake and, 79, 118 distributions, 24, 25 glycemic index and, 79, 106 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) insulin resistance, 78 applicable populations, 12–13, 19, 34 ketoacidosis, 366 approach to nutrient reference values, low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets and, 6–9 133 assessment applications, 10 magnesium and, 346 categories, 3, 6, 9–12; see also niacin and, 265 Acceptable Macronutrient obesity and, 78, 79 Distribution Ranges; Adequate phosphorus and, 366 Intakes; Estimated Average physical activity and, 79, 95, 98 Requirements; Recommended polyunsaturated fatty acids and, 135 Dietary Allowance; Tolerable protective effects of nutrients, 79, Upper Intake Levels 106, 118, 135 criteria for, 9 and riboflavin deficiency, 277

INDEX 503 defined, 6 Enamel fluorosis, 314, 315, 317 extrapolation from other age groups, Endometrial cancer, 77 13, 14, 16 Energy. See also Acceptable group applications, 10, 41–42, 52– Macronutrient Distribution 54, 67–68 Ranges; Estimated Energy individual applications, 25–26, 68 Requirements; individual parameters for, 12–16, 17; see also macronutrients and life stage groups Life stage groups; Reference adaptation and accommodation, 84, weights and heights 90–92 planning applications, 10 adverse effects of overconsumption, publication series, 6, 7, 69 91–92 rationale for, 1, 5–6 age/aging and, 90 relationships between, 12 balance, 83, 85, 96, 98, 133, 136 statistical foundation, 21–24, 25 basal energy expenditure, 86, 87 uncertainty in, 25–26 basal metabolic rate, 86, 87, 89, 90 uses, 9, 10, 19, 33–37 and BMI, 83, 84, 86 Digitalis intoxication, 343 body composition and size and, 83, Dilantin, 230 85, 86, 88–89, 90 Disaccharides, 104 and chronic disease risk, 76, 78, 84, Distribution of requirements 92 defined, 20, 23 environment and, 89, 90 EAR/RDA and, 23 ethnicity and, 90 group assessments and, 43, 44, 55, expenditure components, 86–87 56, 59, 61, 62 factors affecting, 83, 86, 87, 88–91 Diuresis and diuretics, 161, 162, 164, from fat, 85, 130, 132, 133 294, 373, 376, 393 from fatty acids, 128 Diverticular disease, 118 fiber and, 72, 73, 112, 113 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 74, 129, functions, 83, 84, 85 136, 138 gender and, 89, 90 Dopamine, 186, 305 genetics and, 90 Dopamine b-monoxygenase, 305 group assessment and planning, 42, DRIs. See Dietary Reference Intakes 46, 52, 54 for growth, 84, 89, 91 hydration status and, 89 E indicators of adequacy or inadequacy, 32, 36, 85 Early childhood. See Children, ages 1 individual assessment and planning, through 8 years; Life stage groups; 28, 32, 36–37 Toddlers, ages 1 through 3 years key points, 92–93 EARs. See Estimated Average macronutrient values, 85 Requirements metabolism, 85 Eating disorders, 99, 291 nutrients compared to, 85–86 EERs. See Estimated Energy and obesity, 76, 78, 85, 89 Requirements physical activity and, 84, 86, 87, 89, Eicosanoids, 124, 129 90, 98, 99 Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 74, 129, physical activity level and, 85, 87, 90, 136, 138 96, 97 Eicosatrienoic acid, 135

INDEX 504 and RDAs, 83, 85, 88 Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs). for reference person, 54 See also Energy; individual life stage reserves, 84, 85 groups resting metabolic rate, 86, 89, 90 criteria for, 88 sleeping metabolic rate, 86 defined, 32, 36, 83, 88 thermic effect of food, 86–87, 90 derivation of, 36, 82, 83, 84, 88 thermoregulation, 87 group applications, 54 total energy expenditure, 87–88, 90 indicator of adequacy or inadequacy, 83 and ULs, 83, 91 individual applications and, 36 undernutrition, 91 by life stage and gender group, 82, 88 underreporting of intakes, 26, 37, 78, physical activity coefficients, 83, 84 79 uses, 10, 32 and weight, 32, 36, 73, 83, 84, 89, Estrogen, 140, 416 91–92, 136 Ethanolamine, 125 Environment and osteofluorosis, 318 F and physical activity, 99, 158, 161, 318, 376 Fat, dietary. See also Fatty acids; Lipids and potassium, 376 and lipid metabolism; tobacco smoke exposure, 205 Phospholipids; Triacylglycerol or tropical climates, 318 triacylglyceride and vitamin D, 228, 229 absorption, metabolism, storage, and EPA. See Eicosapentaenoic acid excretion, 73, 113, 114, 127–128, Epilepsy and epileptiform seizures, 186 136, 230 Erythrocyte adaptation to, 107 superoxide dismutase activity, 305 adverse effects of overconsumption, transketolase activity, 281, 282 136–138 Erythropoietic protoporphyria, 216 AIs, 122, 123, 130 Estimated Average Requirements (EARs). AMDRs, 72–73, 123, 132, 136 See also individual nutrients and life and bioavailability of micronutrients, stage groups 123, 126, 132, 177, 178, 214, coefficient of variation, 29 230, 239, 241 cut-point method, 43–44, 46, 54, 60– and carbohydrate metabolism, 127 62 and chronic disease risk, 2, 71, 72– defined, 8, 10, 33, 69, 169 73, 78, 133, 135, 136 and distribution of requirements, 23 composition of, 123, 125–126 extrapolation on body-weight basis, 16 criteria for determining requirements, group applications and, 42, 43–44, 131 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 58, 60–62, 63, determining requirements, 129–130 64, 68 energy from, 85, 130, 132, 133 indicators of adequacy, 9 fiber and, 113, 114 individual applications and, 26–27, food sources, 123, 132–133, 134 28–29, 30, 33, 35, 68 functions, 112–113, 123, 126–127 and RDA, 9, 10, 23 and growth, 130, 133 reported energy intakes and, 37 high-fat diets, 71, 73, 76, 135, 136 standard deviation, 10, 29, 485–486 inadequate intake and deficiency, uses, 10, 33, 35 133, 135

INDEX 505 and insulin response, 78, 127, 133, criteria for determining requirements, 135, 136 118 key points for, 138–139 definitions, 110, 111–112 by life stage and gender group, 122, determining DRIs, 113, 118 131 dietary, 110, 111–112 and lipid profile, 73, 127, 135 and energy intake, 72, 73, 112, 113 low-fat diets, 71, 72–73, 133, 136, 239 and fat absorption, 113, 114 malabsorption syndromes, 230, 241, fermentation, 113 259 functional, 110, 111, 112 and metabolic syndrome, 133 and gastric emptying, 113 oxidation, 73, 136 and gastrointestinal distress, 119, 120 and protein intake, 132 glucose response, 111, 112, 113, saturated fat intake and, 73 114–117, 118 special considerations, 136–138 group intake planning, 53 TEF 87 , high-fiber diets, 77 ULs, 132 inadequate intake and deficiency, 119 underreporting of intakes, 78 and insulin sensitivity, 79, 113 and weight, 73 interactions with other nutrients, 114, Fatty acids. See also Fat, dietary; 119, 120, 214, 344, 405, 408 Monounsaturated fatty acids; isolated and synthetic, 113, 114–117 Polyunsaturated fatty acids; key points for, 121 Saturated fatty acids; Trans fatty and laxation, 111, 112, 113, 114– acids 117, 118 alcohol consumption and, 136 by life stage and gender group, 110, categories and dietary compounds, 118 123, 125, 126 and lipid metabolism, 77, 111, 113, composition, 125 114–117, 118 energy contribution, 128 phytate and, 119, 120 essential, 124, 125 planning intakes, 38 from fiber, 117 protective effects, 77, 79, 111, 112, function, 127 118 key points for, 138–139 and satiety, 112, 113, 118 metabolism, 189, 271 sources, 111, 112, 119 oxidation, 128, 136, 235 supplements, 214 Fatty liver, 222 total, 111, 112 Female athlete triad, 95, 99 UL, 119 Ferroxidases, 305 and water loss, 164 Fiber. See also specific types of fiber and weight loss, 79, 114 absorption, metabolism, and Fibrinolysis, 77 excretion, 113, 114–117, 118, Fishy body odor syndrome, 219, 221, 222 119 Fluoride adverse effects of consumption, 120 absorption, metabolism, storage, and AIs, 53, 73, 110, 111, 118 excretion, 313–314 and Bifidbacteria, 115 AIs, 53, 312, 313, 315 bioavailability, 119 bioavailability, 316 and chronic disease risk, 77, 79, 111, criteria for determining requirements, 112–113, 118 315

INDEX 506 and dental caries, 79 by life stage and gender group, 244, 248 in dental products, 316 protective effects, 245, 246 determining DRIs, 314–315 RDAs, 244, 248 determining requirements, 314 special considerations, 245, 247, 249, distribution of usual intakes, 46 252 excess intake, 313, 317–318 supplements, 38, 247, 248, 250 food and water sources, 313, 315– ULs, 244, 248–249 316 vegetarian diets, 249 function, 313 Folic acid, 245, 247, 250 group intake planning, 53 Food and Drug Administration, 248, inadequate intake and deficiency, 257, 323, 343, 351, 352, 418 313, 317 Food coloring, 324 interactions with other nutrients, Food Guide Pyramid, 33, 248 313–314, 316–317 Food guides, 33, 37 key points for, 319 Formulas, infant, 14, 138, 213, 227, by life stage and gender group, 312, 258, 308, 316, 324, 331, 366 315 Fortified and enriched foods, 1, 46, 171, protective effect, 313 175, 176, 183, 185, 189, 192, special considerations, 314, 318 213, 227, 235, 242, 245, 246, supplements, 316 247, 248, 249, 252, 266, 283, ULs, 312, 315 290, 381 Flushing, 263, 265, 267 Fructans, 112 Folate Fructooligosaccharides, 115 absorption, metabolism, storage, and Fructose, 77, 104, 105 excretion, 245, 246 AIs, 244 G bioavailability, 245, 246, 250 conversion factors, 466, 471–473 Galactose, 104, 105 criteria for determining requirements, Gallbladder disease, 84, 92 248 Gastric emptying, 113, 141 determining DRIs, 246–249 Gastrointestinal disorders, 119, 120, determining requirements, 245, 246– 173, 194, 203, 204, 206, 329, 247 333, 337 dietary folate equivalents (DFEs), Gastrointestinal surgery, 191 245, 246, 247, 466, 471–473 Gender differences. See also Men; Women EARs, 244, 248 BMI, 17 excess intake, 252 BMR, 89 food sources, 245, 249–250 choline, 220 forms of, 246 EER, 82 function, 245, 246 growth velocity, 15, 331 inadequate intake and deficiency, magnesium intakes, 344 189, 193, 245, 250, 251, 252 manganese, 352 intakes, 46, 247–248 puberty onset, 15 interactions with other dietary supplement use, 192, 238, 334, 344 substances, 189, 193, 220, 222, sweat losses, 161 245, 248, 249, 250, 251, 409 vitamin C, 204, 207 key points for, 252–253 weight and heights, reference, 17

INDEX 507 Glucocorticoids, 228, 230 EARs used in, 42, 43–44, 58, 60–62, Gluconeogenesis, 105 68 Glucosamine sulfate, 399 energy intake, 42, 46 Glucose, 104, 105 inappropriate approaches, 44–45 Glucose metabolism. See also individual-to-individual variation of Gluconeogenesis; Insulin response intakes and, 40, 41 amino acids and, 105 iron intakes of menstruating women, for brain utilization, 103, 106 58–60 chromium and, 297, 301 key points, 65–66 fat intake and, 128, 133 prevalence of excessive intakes, 46 fiber and, 111, 112, 113, 114–117, prevalence of inadequate intakes, 43– 118 44, 55, 56–57, 58, 59–60, 62 glycemic index of foods and, 106 probability approach, 42, 43, 46, 55– high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets and, 60, 62 135 RDAs and, 42, 44, 68 and ketosis, 106, 107 requirement distribution and, 43, 44, manganese and, 354 55, 56, 59, 61, 62 niacin and, 267 requirement–intake correlation, 43, physical activity and, 77 60–62 potassium and, 374 skewed intake distribution and, 43 pregnancy and, 96 ULs used in, 45–46, 68 Glutamic acid, 147 within-person variation in intakes Glutamine, 147 and, 40, 41 Glutamine synthetase, 351 Group-level planning Glutathione, 396, 399 AIs in, 52–54, 68 Glutathione peroxidase, 382 AMDR in, 52 Glutathione reductase, 276 assessment of plan results, 65 Glycemic index, 105–106, 116 assisted-living facility case study, 62– Glycemic load, 105–106 65 Glycerol, 105 cut-point approach, 54 Glycine, 147 distribution of usual intakes, 47 Glycogen, 104, 105, 183 EARs in, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 62, 63, Glycogenesis, 105 64, 68 Glycogenolysis, 105 EER in, 54 Goiter, 321, 323, 324, 325, 326 energy intakes, 52, 54 Gout, 265 energy requirements, 54 Granulomatous diseases, 228 food offerings, 47, 65 Group-level assessment goals and goal setting, 46–47, 52, 54 adjusting intake distributions, 41 implementation steps, 63–65 AIs used in, 42, 44–45, 68 key points, 66 AMDR and, 42, 46 menu planning, 62–65 case studies, 55–62 new approach, 19 cut-point method, 43–44, 46, 60–62 normal intake distribution and, 49–51 day-to-day variability in intake and, prevalence of inadequate intakes and, 24 47, 48, 63, 64 distribution of usual intakes, 24, 40– quantities of foods, 47, 65 41, 46, 57, 58, 59, 60–62 RDAs and, 47, 52, 68

INDEX 508 skewed intake distribution, 51–52 Homocysteinemia, 400 target usual intake distribution, 47, Hormone replacement therapy, 331–332 48–52, 63–65 Human milk. See also Breastfeeding; ULs and, 52, 54, 68 Formulas, infant; Infants; usual nutrient intake distribution Lactation and, 52, 63 bioavailability of nutrients, 366 z-scores, 50, 51 biotin, 197 Growth extrapolation from nutrient amounts calcium and, 288 in, 197, 198 fat intake and, 130, 133 fat content, 130 genetic disorders, 153 nutritional adequacy, 13, 208, 226 iron requirements, 329, 331 phosphorus, 366 polyunsaturated fatty acids and, 138 vitamin C, 208 protein and, 153 vitamin D, 13, 14, 226, 227 Guar gum, 114 volume of intake Gums, 112 zinc, 404–405 Hypercalcemia, 225, 227, 228, 230, 287, 289, 294 H Hypercalciuria, 228, 230 Hypercholesterolemia, 107 Hartnup’s disease, 264 Hyperkalemia, 376–377 HDL cholesterol. See also Lipids and lipid Hyperlipidemia, 108, 176, 343 metabolism Hypermagnesuria, 346 carbohydrate intake and, 71, 73, 77, Hypernatremia, 161 106 Hyperparathyroidism, 288 and CHD, 71, 73 Hyperphosphatemia, 363, 367–368 fat intake and, 71, 73, 133 Hypertension, 77, 84, 92, 162, 376, 391, fiber intake and, 116 394 glycemic index and, 106 Hyperthermia, 95, 99 low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets and, Hyperthyroidism, 321, 326, 343 71, 73, 133 Hyperuricemia, 343 physical exercise and, 77 Hypervitaminosis A, 171, 176, 179 polyunsaturated fatty acids and, 136 Hypervitaminosis D, 230 saturated fatty acids and, 128 Hypobaric hypoxia, 90, 160 trans fatty acids and, 137 Hypocalcemia, 229, 292, 345 zinc and, 410 Hypochloremia, 393 Health Canada, 5 Hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, 392 Healthy People 2010, 95 Hypocholesterolemia, 353 Heart disease. See Cardiovascular health; Hypoglycemic medications, 136 Coronary heart disease Hypokalemia, 341, 347, 374 Hemicellulose, 113 Hyponatremia, 158, 165, 393 Hemochromatosis, 205, 333 Hypophosphatemia, 366, 367 Hemoglobin, 148, 329 Hypoprothrombinemia, 259 Hemoglobin A1c, 106 Hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism, 394 Histidine, 147, 149 Hypotension, 162, 219, 221, 222 Histoplasmosis, 228 Hypothermia, 95 HIV-positive individuals, 191 Hypothyroidism, 321, 323, 324, 325, 326 Homocysteine, 189, 222, 246, 250

INDEX 509 I EER and, 36 for energy intakes, 36–37 Ibuprofen, 251 food guides and, 33, 37 Idiopathic copper toxicosis, 310 goals and goal setting, 33–34 Immune function, 77, 91, 152, 179, 212, key points, 39–40 411 probability of inadequacy, 35 Immunoglobulins, 276 RDAs and, 33, 34–35, 68 Impotency, 194 special considerations, 33, 35, 37, 38 Indian childhood cirrhosis, 310 supplements, 35 Individual-level assessment ULs and, 34, 35–36, 68 AI used in, 25, 27, 29–31, 32, 68 uncertainties in, 35 AMDR used in, 28, 32 uses of DRIs for, 33–37 confidence of adequacy, 29, 33 Infants. See also Formulas, infant; Human day-to-day variability in intake and, milk; Life stage groups 24, 31 AIs, 13, 14, 102, 110, 122, 123, 131, dietary intake data for, 26 144, 156, 170, 182, 184, 188, distribution of daily intakes and, 28, 191, 196, 198, 202, 205, 218, 29 220, 224, 234, 237, 244, 254, EAR used in, 26–27, 28–29, 30, 33, 262, 270, 274, 280, 282, 286, 68 289, 296, 298, 304, 312, 320, energy intake, 28, 32 328, 340, 350, 356, 362, 370, estimating usual intake and 380, 386, 402, 439–440, 459 requirement, 26–27 amino acids, 459 implementation of approach, 28–32 anemia, 331 key points, 39 beriberi, 284 limitations of methods, 24–26, 27– biotin, 196, 198, 199 28, 33 birth weight, 336 mean observed intakes and, 26, 27, brain development, 152 28, 29, 30, 31 calcium, 286, 289 observed intakes and, 26 carbohydrate, 102, 106 precision of, 27–28 carotenodermia, 215 in pregnancy planning context, 38 choline, 218, 220 probability of inadequacy, 33 chromium, 296, 298 qualitative approach, 27–28, 33 copper, 304, 305, 306, 308–309 quantitative approach, 28–32, 33 diarrhea, 308 RDAs and, 27, 33, 68 dietary intakes, 13, 14 supplement use and, 31 EARs, 459–460 ULs used in, 28, 31–32, 68 EERs, 82 uncertainty in, 25–26 energy expenditure and deposition, 89 usual intakes and, 26, 28, 30, 31 extrapolation of data from younger to z-score, 28–29, 30, 31 older infants, 441 Individual-level planning failure to thrive, 152 AIs and, 33, 34, 35, 68 fat (dietary), 122, 123, 130, 131, 133 AMDR and, 36 fiber, 110, 118 decision tree, 34 fluoride, 312, 314, 316 development of plans, 37 folate, 244 EAR and, 33, 35, 68 growth, 13, 89, 130, 133, 138, 153

INDEX 510 hemorrhagic disease, 256–257 Insulin response hyponatremia, 165 carbohydrate intake and, 105, 135 iodine, 320, 322–323, 324 chromium and, 297, 301 iron, 14, 328, 330, 331, 332, 334, fat intake and, 78, 127, 133, 135, 136 336, 475 fiber intake and, 79, 113 liver disease, 352, 354 glycemic index of foods and, 106 malnutrition, 152, 308 physical activity and, 77, 79 magnesium, 340, 343 potassium and, 372 manganese, 350, 352, 354 sensitivity of, 77, 78, 79, 113 milk consumption, 14 water intake and, 162 molybdenum, 356, 360 International Units on labels, 237, 238, monounsaturated fatty acids, 128 239, 240–241 newborn, 256–257, 343, 352 Intrinsic factor, 189, 190, 193 niacin, 262 Inulin, 112, 115 pantothenic acid, 270 Iodine phosphorus, 362, 363, 364, 366 absorption, metabolism, storage, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, 122, 131, excretion, 321–322, 334 138 AIs, 320, 322 potassium, 370 bioavailability, 324 premature, 146, 242, 308, 336 criteria for determining requirements, protein, 144, 146, 148, 150, 152 321, 322–323 riboflavin, 274, 276 determining DRIs, 322–323 scurvy, 208 determining requirements, 321, 322 selenium, 380 EARs, 320, 322–323 skeletal health, 180, 305, 309 excess intake, 321, 325–326 sodium and chloride, 165, 386 food sources, 321, 323–324 special considerations, 227, 242, function, 321 256–257, 331 inadequate intake and deficiency, thiamin, 280, 282, 284 321, 325 total parenteral nutrition, 199, 308– key points for, 326–327 309, 354 by life stage and gender group, 320, ULs, 170, 224, 312, 402 322–323 of vegan mothers, 191 RDAs, 320, 322–323 vitamin A, 170, 175, 180 sodium and, 388 vitamin B6, 182, 184 special considerations, 322, 323 vitamin B12, 188, 191 supplements, 324 vitamin C, 202, 205, 208 ULs, 320, 323 vitamin D, 224, 226, 227 Iowa State University, 41 vitamin E, 234, 237 Iron vitamin K, 254, 256–257 absorption, metabolism, storage, and water, 156, 162 excretion, 205, 207, 293, 330– weight and height, reference, 17 331, 334, 409, 475 zinc, 14, 402 AIs, 328 Inflammation, 127 bioavailability, 38, 119, 120, 329, Inflammatory bowel disease, 265 330, 334, 409, 475 Inositol, 125 criteria for determining requirements, Insulin resistance, 78, 136, 388 331

INDEX 511 L determining DRIs, 331–333 determining requirements, 331 L-DOPA, 186 distribution of requirements, 331, Lactation. See also Breastfeeding; Human 477–479 milk EARs, 14, 328 AIs, 15, 157, 196, 198, 218, 221, evaluation of iron status, 336 224, 254, 270, 286, 289, 296, excess intake, 329, 337 298, 312, 350, 370, 386 food sources, 75, 329, 333, 475–476 amino acids, 465 function, 329–330 biotin, 196, 198 group assessments, 43, 58–60 boron, 414 hemochromatosis, 205, 333 calcium, 16, 286, 288, 289 inadequate intake and deficiency, carbohydrate and, 102, 106 178, 252, 324, 329, 331, 336 choline, 218, 220, 221 individual assessments, 28 chromium, 296, 298 interactions with other nutrients, 119, copper, 304, 306, 307 120, 178, 205, 207, 266, 267, derivation of DRIs for, 15–16, 88 293, 308, 309, 324, 334–335, EARs, 144, 170, 188, 191, 202, 205, 354, 368, 407, 408, 409 234, 237–238, 244, 248, 262, key points for, 338–339 274, 277, 280, 282, 304, 307, by life stage and gender group, 328, 328, 340, 356, 362, 380, 402, 465 332 EERs, 82, 83, 88 menstrual losses, 10, 28, 35, 38, 43, fat (dietary), 122 58–60, 329, 330, 331 fiber, 110, 118 oral contraceptives, 331–332, 478– fluoride, 312 479, 482–483 folate, 244, 248 probabilities of inadequate intakes, iodine, 320, 323 480–484 iron, 328, 332, 333 RDAs, 10, 14, 328 magnesium, 340 special considerations, 38, 331–332, manganese, 350 333, 337 molybdenum, 356 supplements, 334, 337 niacin, 262 ULs, 328, 333 nickel, 414 vegetarian diets, 38, 332 pantothenic acid, 270 Isoleucine, 147, 149, 152 phosphorus, 362 Isoniazid, 186, 264 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 122 Isoprostane, 203 potassium, 370 protein, 144, 150 K RDAs, 144, 170, 188, 191, 202, 205, 234, 237–238, 244, 248, 262, Kashin-Beck disease, 384 274, 277, 280, 282, 304, 307, Keratin, 146 328, 340, 356, 362, 380, 402, 465 Keshan disease, 384 riboflavin, 274, 276, 277 Keto acids and ketosis, 107, 164 selenium, 380 Kidney stones, 145, 152, 205, 287, 294, sodium and chloride, 386 372, 373, 374, 376 thiamin, 280, 282

INDEX 512 ULs, 170, 218, 220, 224, 234, 244, AIs, 74, 75, 122, 130 262, 274, 286, 304, 312, 328, AMDRs, 70, 74, 132 340, 350, 356, 362, 380, 386, 402 and chronic disease risk, 74 vanadium, 418 criteria for determining requirements, vitamin A, 170, 176 131 vitamin B6, 182, 184 deficiency, 125, 135 vitamin B12, 188, 191 function, 124, 129 vitamin C, 202, 205 in infant formula, 138 interaction with a-linoleic acid, 138 vitamin D, 224 vitamin E, 234, 237–238 by life stage and gender group, 70, vitamin K, 254 122, 131 water, 157, 162 total parenteral nutrition and, 135 zinc, 402 Lipid-lowering drugs, 214 Lactose, 104 Lipids and lipid metabolism Lactose intolerance, 291 carbohydrate intake and, 73, 77, 108, Laxation, 111, 112, 113, 114–117, 118 135 LDL cholesterol cholesterol intake and, 75, 76, 140, and CHD risk, 73, 125, 140, 142 141, 142 cholesterol intake and, 140, 141, 142 choline and, 125, 219 fiber intake and, 77, 115 fat intake and, 73, 127, 135 low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets and, fiber intake and, 77, 111, 113, 114– 73 117, 118 monounsaturated fatty acids and, 76 high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets and, polyunsaturated fatty acids and, 76, 135 131 manganese and, 354 saturated fatty acids and, 76, 123, monounsaturated fatty acid intake 128, 132, 137 and, 76 trans fatty acids and, 125, 132, 137 physical activity and, 77, 98 Lecithin, 219, 221, 222 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and, Leucine, 147, 149, 152 76, 137 Leukotrienes, 124 protein intake and, 76 Life stage groups. See also Adolescents, saturated fatty acid intake and, 75, ages 9 through 18 years; Adults, 76, 123–124, 128, 132, 137 ages 19+ years; Children, ages 1 sodium and, 388 through 8 years; Infants; vitamin E and, 235 Lactation; Pregnancy; Toddlers, Lipoprotein lipase, 128 ages 1 through 3 years; individual Lithium, 162, 343 nutrients Liver disease/damage, 176, 180, 220, categories, 13–16 221, 222, 230, 264, 265, 301, EERs by, 82, 88 305, 306, 310, 333, 343, 352, 354 weights and heights, reference, 17 Lung cancer, 142, 212, 214–216, 421 Lignin, 112 Lung disease, 204 Linoleic acid. See also a-Linoleic acid; Lutein, 211, 213, 214 Conjugated linoleic acid; Lycopene, 211, 213 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6 Lycopenodermia, 211, 215 absorption, metabolism, storage and Lysine, 147, 149, 150 excretion, 129

INDEX 513 M bioavailability, 353, 354 criteria for determining requirements, Macronutrients. See also Carbohydrate, 352 dietary; Fat, dietary; Protein determining DRIs, 352–353 and chronic diseases, 76–80 determining requirements, 352 defined, 85 excess intake, 351, 354 densities of foods, 104 food sources, 351, 353 energy values, 85 function, 351 key points, 81 group intake planning, 53 Macular degeneration, 212 inadequate intake and deficiency, Magnesium 351, 353–354 absorption, metabolism, storage, and interactions with other nutrients, 353, excretion, 293, 341–342, 345 354 age/aging and, 346–347 key points for, 355 AIs, 340 by life stage and gender group, 350, bioavailability, 119, 120, 341, 344 352 clinical use, 343 special considerations, 352, 354 criteria for determining requirements, supplements, 353, 354 342 ULs, 350, 351, 352–353 determining DRIs, 342–343 Manganese superoxide dismutase, 351 determining requirements, 342 Maple syrup urine disease, 152 distribution of usual intakes, 46 Mean, defined, 21 EARs, 340 Mean observed intakes, 24 excess intake, 341, 347 Measles, 179 food sources, 343–344 Median, defined, 21 function, 341 Men inadequate intake and deficiency, EER, 54 229, 292, 341, 345, 346 hypertension, 77 individual assessment, 30, 33 vitamin A, 173 interactions with other nutrients, 119, weight maintenance, 90 120, 229, 292, 293, 341, 344–345 Menkes’ disease, 306, 411 key points for, 349 Menstruation, age of, 38 by life stage and gender group, 340, Mental disorders, 152, 245, 246, 321, 342 325 RDAs, 340 Metabolic alkalosis, 341, 347 special considerations, 343, 346–347 Metabolic syndrome, 133 supplements, 343, 344 Methionine, 147, 149, 189, 220, 222, ULs, 340, 342–343 396, 399, 415 Malabsorption syndromes, 190, 191, Methodological issues 235, 255, 264, 276, 346, 410 AI derivation for infants, 439–440 Malnutrition, 13, 133, 179, 259, 288, animal models, 435 318, 367 in balance studies, 342 Maltose, 104 data sources and types, 435–439 Manganese in dietary intake estimates, 443 absorption, metabolism, storage, and extrapolation from other age groups, excretion, 351–352 441 AIs, 53, 350, 351 human feeding studies, 435–436

INDEX 514 in nutrient intake estimates, 442 AMDR, 72 observational studies, 436–437 determining requirements, 130 pregnant and lactating women, 441– dietary compounds, 126 442 energy contribution, 72 randomized clinical trials, 437–438 food sources, 124, 134 in risk assessment, 443–445 function, 127 in UL modeling, 443–446 and lipid profile, 76 weighing the evidence, 438–439 ULs, 132 Methotrexate, 247, 251 Mood, 95, 98 Methylsufonylmethane, 399 Myocardial infarction, 95, 99, 162 Mexican Americans, 290 Myosin, 148 Middle age. See Adults, ages 31 through 50 years N Migraine headaches, 265 Military recruits, 165 National Caries Program, 317 Milk-alkali syndrome, 287, 289 National Health and Nutrition Molybdenum Examination Survey III, 44, 48, absorption, metabolism, storage, and 162, 163, 176, 177, 185, 192, excretion, 357–358 206, 248, 256, 258, 298, 299, AIs, 357 306, 324, 333, 334, 353, 359, bioavailability, 357, 358, 359 390–391, 406, 418 criteria for determining requirements, National Health Interview Survey, 177, 358 185, 199, 227–228, 238, 265, determining DRIs, 358–359 272, 277, 283, 290, 299, 308, determining requirements, 358 316, 324, 334, 343, 344, 365, 384 EARs, 357 National Health Survey, 365 excess intake, 360 National Institute of Dental Research, food sources, 359 317 function, 357 National Institutes of Health, 86 inadequate intake and deficiency, 360 National Research Council, 41 interactions with other nutrients, 308, Neonatal tetany, 343 360 Neural tube defects, 245, 247 key points for, 361 Neurological complications and by life stage and gender group, 357, 358 disorders, 185, 186, 194, 199, RDAs, 357 245, 248, 325, 351. See also special considerations, 360 specific disorders supplements, 359 Neurotransmitters, 203, 271 ULs, 357, 358–359 Niacin Molybdenum cofactor deficiency, 357, absorption, metabolism, storage, and 360 excretion, 264, 277 Monamine oxidase, 305 AIs, 262 Monosaccharides, 77, 104, 105 bioavailability, 266 Monounsaturated fatty acids (cis isomer) conversion factors, 466, 473 absorption, metabolism, storage, and criteria for determining requirements, excretion, 128 264–265 adverse effects of overconsumption, determining DRIs, 264–265 137 determining requirements, 264

INDEX 515 distribution of usual intakes, 46 and CHD risk, 71, 73, 76 EARs, 262 and diabetes type II, 78 excess intake, 263, 267 and energy expenditure, 87 food sources, 265 energy intakes and, 71, 76, 78 function, 263 fat intake and, 71, 78, 136 inadequate intake and deficiency, fiber intake and, 79, 112 263, 266–267, 277 genetic factors, 136 interactions with other nutrients, 263, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets and, 264, 266, 277 135 key points for, 268–269 physical activity and, 73, 79, 95, 98 by life stage and gender group, 262, prevalence, 135 264–265 protein intake and, 78 niacin equivalents, 263, 264, 466, saturated fatty acids and, 71 473 sugar intake, 79 RDAs, 262, 264 and underreporting of energy intakes, special considerations, 264, 265 78, 79 supplements, 265–266 weight loss, 78, 79 ULs, 262, 263, 265 Older adults. See also Adults, ages 51 Nickel, 414, 416, 418, 419–420, 421, 422 through 70 years; Adults, 70+ Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs years (NSAIDs), 251, 373 atrophic gastritis, 189, 190–191, 192 Norepinephrine, 305 Oleic acid, 135 Normal distribution, 21–22, 29 Olestra, 214 NSAIDs. See Nonsteroidal anti- Oligofructose, 115 inflammatory drugs Oligosaccharides, 104, 112 Nutrient intakes. See also Dietary intake Omeprazole, 191 data Oral cancer, 212 adjusting for day-to-day variation, 9– Oral contraceptives, 186, 331–332 10, 41, 442 Osteoarthritis, 84, 92, 399 assessment of, 23 Osteocalcin, 255 day-to-day variability, 23, 24, 31 Osteomalacia, 225, 226, 229, 366 distribution, 23–24, 28, 29, 40–41, Osteopenia, 95, 99, 230, 287, 291 46, 47, 52, 57, 58, 59, 60–62, 63 Osteoporosis, 78, 95, 99, 145, 152, 225, individual-to-individual variation, 40, 229, 256, 287, 291, 305, 309, 346 41 Ovarian cancer, 77 low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets and, Oxalic acid, 287, 290, 292, 294 73 skewed distribution, 43, 51–52 P within-person variation, 40, 41 PAL. See Physical activity level Pancreatic insufficiency, 191 O Pancreatitis, 343 Oat products, 115 Pantothenic acid Obesity absorption, metabolism, storage, and abdominal, 78, 79 excretion, 271 BMI, 85 AIs, 53, 270, 271, 272 carbohydrate intake and, 73, 79, 108 bioavailability, 272

INDEX 516 criteria for determining requirements, key points for, 369 272 by life stage and gender group, 362, determining requirements, 271–272 364 excess intake, 273 RDAs, 362 food sources, 271, 272 special considerations, 367 function, 271 supplements, 365–366 group intake planning, 53 ULs, 362, 365 inadequate intake and deficiency, 273 Physical activity. See also individual life interaction with other nutrients, 271 stage groups key points for, 273 accumulated, 96 by life stage and gender group, 270, 272 adverse effects of excessive activity, supplements, 272 99–100 ULs, 272 age and, 99–100 Parasitic infections, 173, 332 and appetite, 98 Parkinson’s disease, 221, 354 and body fat, 98 Pectin, 112, 113, 116, 214 and cardiovascular fitness, 77, 95, 99 Pellagra, 263, 266–267 and chromium, 298 Pepsin, 148 and chronic disease prevention, 77, Peptic ulcer disease, 265 79, 95, 98 Pharyngeal cancer, 212 determining recommendations, 95, Phenobarbital, 230 96–98 Phenylalanine, 147, 149 duration and intensity, 87, 89 Phenylalanine hydroxylase, 153 elderly individuals, 99 Phlebitis, 343 endurance (aerobic) exercise, 95, 98, Phosphatidylcholine, 219, 220, 221 150 Phosphoenolpyruvate decarboxylase, 351 energy balance and, 84, 86, 87, 89, Phospholipids, 125, 127, 128, 235 90, 98, 99 Phosphorus environmental conditions and, 99, absorption, metabolism, storage, and 158, 161, 388, 389, 391, 392 excretion, 225, 226, 293, 363– examples, 96, 97 364 excess post-exercise oxygen AIs, 362 consumption, 87, 89 bioavailability, 366, 367 excessive, 95–96, 99–100 criteria for determining requirements, fidgeting, 89 364 and glucose metabolism, 77 determining DRIs, 364–365 healthful effects, 77, 96, 98–99 determining requirements, 364 hydration status and, 89, 99, 158, distribution of usual intakes, 46 159–161 EARs, 362 and iron, 332 excess intake, 367–368 key points, 101 food sources, 362, 365 and lipid balance, 77, 98 function, 363 and mental health, 95, 98 inadequate intake and deficiency, overuse injuries, 99 366–367 and potassium, 376 interactions with other nutrients, 225, pregnancy and, 96 226, 292, 293, 344, 364, 366, prevention of adverse effects, 95–96, 367, 408 99–100

INDEX 517 protective effects of, 95, 98, 99 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3. See also a-Linoleic acid; other individual and protein intake, 150 recommended, 94 fatty acids residual effects of, 87, 89, 98 absorption, metabolism, storage, and resistance exercise and general excretion, 129, 138 physical fitness, 98–99, 150 adverse effects of overconsumption, and riboflavin, 276 137 and skeletal health, 79, 98, 99 AIs, 53, 74 and sodium and chloride, 388, 389, AMDRs, 70, 74, 137 391, 392 and chronic disease risk, 74, 76 special considerations, 96, 276, 391, determining requirements, 130 392 dietary compounds, 126 spontaneous non-exercise activity, 89 food sources, 134 and thiamin, 282 function, 127 Physical activity level (PAL) group intake planning, 53 active, 160, 161 and growth, 138 age/aging and, 90 high-intake diets, 76 BEE and, 87 inadequate intake and deficiency, and BMI, 95, 96 135–136 and BMR, 87 interactions with other nutrients, 138, categories, 87, 96 241 changes, by type of activity, 97 by life stage and gender group, 70 defined, 87, 96 and lipid profile, 76 and energy balance, 85, 87, 90, 96, n-6:n-3 ratio, 138 98, 136 protective effects of, 74, 76, 135–136 and fat intake, 135, 136 special considerations, 136 sedentary lifestyle, 87, 90, 96, 99, supplements, 137 135, 136 ULs, 132 TEE and, 87, 90 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6. See also very active lifestyle, 87, 136, 150, Linoleic acid; other specific fatty 276, 282 acids Physicians’ Health Study, 215 absorption, metabolism, storage, and Phytate/phytic acid, 119, 120, 287, 290, excretion, 129 292, 294, 300, 335, 344, 354, adverse effects of underconsumption, 366, 405, 407, 408 137 Picolinic acid, 409 AIs, 53, 74 Planning. See Dietary planning; Group- AMDRs, 74 level planning; Individual-level and chronic disease risk, 74, 76, 137 planning dietary compounds, 126 Plasma pyridoxal phosphate, 63 food sources, 134 Platelet adherence/aggregation, 77, 135, function, 127 236 group intake planning, 53 Polydextrose, 112, 116 high-intake diets, 76 Polyphenols, 335 inadequate intake and deficiency, 135 Polysaccharides, 104, 111, 112 interaction of n-3 and, 138

INDEX 518 interaction with other nutrients, 241 fat (dietary), 122, 133 by life stage and gender group, 70 fiber, 110, 118 and lipid profile, 76, 137 fluoride, 312 special considerations, 135 folate, 244, 245, 247, 248 ULs, 132 glucose metabolism, 96 Potassium iodine, 320, 323, 325 absorption, metabolism, storage, and iron, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334 excretion, 372 magnesium, 340 age/aging and, 373 manganese, 350 AIs, 53, 370 mental health, 96 criteria for determining requirements, molybdenum, 356 373–374 multiparous, 149–150, 247, 264, determining DRIs, 372–373 276, 282 determining requirements, 372–373 niacin, 262, 264 excess intake, 376–377 nickel, 414, 418 food sources, 374 pantothenic acid, 270 function, 371–372 phosphorus, 362 group intake planning, 53 physical activity, 96 inadequate intake and deficiency, polyunsaturated fatty acids, 122, 131 375–376 potassium, 370, 377 interactions with other nutrients, 375, preeclampsia, 186, 377 393, 394 protein, 144, 149–150, 390 key points for, 378–379 RDAs, 15, 144, 170, 234, 237–238, by life stage and gender group, 370, 244, 248, 262, 274, 277, 280, 373–374 282, 320, 323, 328, 340, 356, special considerations, 373, 376, 377 362, 401, 464 supplements, 374, 376 riboflavin, 274, 276, 277 ULs, 374 selenium, 380 Pregnancy. See also Lactation and smoking, 205 AIs, 15, 110, 196, 198, 218, 221, sodium and chloride, 386, 390 224, 254, 270, 286, 289, 296, special considerations, 150–151, 186, 298, 312, 370, 386 205, 247, 276, 282, 377 and alcohol and drug abuse, 205 supplements, 23, 185, 334 amino acids, 464 thiamin, 280, 282 biotin, 196, 198 ULs, 170, 218, 220, 224, 234, 244, boron, 414 262, 274, 286, 312, 320, 328, calcium, 286, 288, 289 340, 350, 356, 362, 380, 386, 401 carbohydrate, 102, 106 vanadium, 418 choline, 218, 220, 221 vitamin A, 170, 176 chromium, 296, 298 vitamin B6, 184, 185, 186 copper, 304, 307 vitamin C, 202, 205, 205 dietary planning, 38 vitamin D, 224 EARs, 15, 144, 170, 234, 237–238, vitamin E, 234, 237–238 244, 248, 262, 274, 277, 280, vitamin K, 254 282, 320, 323, 328, 340, 356, water, 157, 162 362, 380, 401, 464 weight, 96 EERs, 82, 83, 88 zinc, 401

INDEX 519 Premenstrual syndrome, 186 RDAs, 38, 73, 144 Prevalence of inadequacy, defined, 20 and skeletal health, 78, 148 Probability of adequacy special considerations, 149–150 defined, 20 supplements, 151 group assessments, 42, 43, 46, 55– TEF 87 , 60, 62 turnover, 148–149 z-score and, 22, 23 ULs, 73, 151 Probability of inadequacy vegetable, 76, 183, 335 defined, 20 vegetarians, 150 z-score and, 22 and weight, 78 Proline, 147 Protein-energy malnutrition, 145, 151– Prostacyclin, 236 152, 176, 178, 241 Prostaglandins, 124 Protein kinase C, 236, 403 Prostate cancer, 77, 142 Psychogenic polydipsia, 165 Protein. See also Amino acids Psychotropic drugs, 165 absorption, metabolism, storage, and Psyllium, 116 excretion, 147–149, 164 Puberty, 15, 331 adaptations to metabolism of, 107 Puerto Ricans, 290 age/aging and, 148 Pyridoxine, 267 AIs, 144 Pyrimethamine, 251 AMDRs, 70, 73–74, 145, 150 amino acid composition, 146–147 R chronic disease risk, 76, 78, 145 complete, 145, 151 Race/ethnicity. See also African criteria for determining requirements, Americans; Caucasians 150 and pubertal development, 15 determining DRIs, 16, 38, 145, 149 Radiocontrast media, 324 digestibility, 146–147, 149 RAEs. See Retinol Activity Equivalents EARs, 144 Raffinose, 104 energy value, 85 RDA. See Recommended Dietary Allowance excess intake, 152 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) fat intake and, 132 defined, 8, 10, 169 food sources, 76, 145, 151 derivation, 9, 10, 16 function, 146, 152 and distribution of requirements, 23 and growth, 153 EAR and, 9, 10, 23 high-protein diets, 145, 152, 376 group applications, 42, 44, 47, 52, 68 inadequate intake and deficiency, individual applications, 27, 33, 34– 145, 148, 151–152 35, 68 incomplete, 145 method used to set, 6, 10 interaction with other dietary factors, replacement with DRIs, 1, 6–9, 20 164, 292, 308, 335, 407, 408 uses, 5, 9, 10, 13, 44–45 key points for, 154–155 Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI), 1, by life stage and gender group, 70, 5, 20, 44 144, 150 Reference weights and heights and lipid profile, 76 and BMI, 17 physical activity and, 150 new, 17 quality, 146–147 use of, 13, 16

INDEX 520 S Renal disease, 221, 367, 373, 390, 391, 394, 400 Salt sensitivity, 394, See also Sodium and Renal function, 152, 162, 289, 294, 301, Chloride 306, 347 Salt substitutes, 373 Renal wasting syndrome, 346 Sarcoidosis, 228 Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, 389 Satiety, 112, 113, 118 Resistant dextrins, 117 Saturated fatty acids. See also individual Resistant starch, 112, 117 fatty acids Retinitis pigmentosa, 176 absorption, metabolism, storage, and Retinoic acid, 172 excretion, 128 Retinoids, 171, 172 adverse effects of overconsumption, Retinol, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 137 179–180 basis for recommendations, 75 Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAEs), 171, and chronic disease risk, 73, 75, 76, 174–175, 466, 467–469 123, 132, 137 Retinol binding protein, 173 determining requirements, 130 Retinol Equivalents (REs). See Retinol dietary compounds, 126 Activity Equivalents food sources, 75, 133, 134 Rheumatoid arthritis, 251 function, 123, 127 Riboflavin high-intake diets, 73 absorption, metabolism, storage, and and lipid profile, 75, 76, 123–124, excretion, 275–276 128, 132, 137 AIs, 274, 276 and micronutrient intakes, 75, 132 bioavailability, 278 recommendations, 70 criteria for determining requirements, ULs, 123–124, 132 275, 276–277 Scurvy, 9, 204, 207–208 determining DRIs, 276–277 Selenium determining requirements, 276 absorption, metabolism, storage, and EARs, 274, 276–277 excretion, 381–382 excess intake, 276, 278 AIs, 380 food sources, 275, 277 bioavailability, 384 function, 275 criteria for determining requirements, inadequate intake and deficiency, 278 382 interactions with other nutrients, 266, determining DRIs, 382–383 278 determining requirements, 382 key points for, 279 EARs, 380 by life stage and gender group, 274, excess intake, 384–385 276–277 food sources, 383 RDAs, 274, 276–277 function, 381 special considerations, 276, 278 inadequate intake and deficiency, supplements, 277 324, 384 ULs, 277 interaction with other nutrients, 381 Rickets, 225, 226, 227, 229, 366 key points for, 385 RNI. See Recommended Nutrient Intakes by life stage and gender group, 380, 382 protective effect of, 382

INDEX 521 RDAs, 380 inadequate intake and deficiency, soil content, 383, 385 392–394 special considerations, 385 interaction with other nutrients, 158, supplements, 381, 384 162, 164, 165, 292, 373, 375, ULs, 380, 382–383 392, 393, 394 vegetarian diets, 383 key points for, 395–396 Self-esteem, 95, 98 by life stage and gender group, 386, Sensory neuropathy, 185, 186 390 Serine, 125, 147 special considerations, 389, 391, Short bowel syndrome, 410 392–394 Sickle cell disease, 186 ULs, 386, 390–391 Silicon, 416, 417, 418, 420, 422 Special considerations. See also individual Sjögren’s syndrome, 208 nutrients and life stage groups Skeletal fluorosis, 313, 315, 317–318 adolescents, 331 Skeletal health, 78–79, 91 African Americans, 373, 391, 394 calcium and, 287, 291, 376 alcohol consumption, 136, 176, 186, carbohydrate intake and, 107 205, 215, 247, 265, 284, 346, 405 fluoride and, 313, 315 amenorrhea, 291 physical activity and, 79, 98, 99 athletes, 136, 150, 276, 282 potassium and, 372, 374, 376 autoimmune disorders, 322, 323 protein intake and, 78, 148 blood donation, 332 sulfate and, 399 breastfeeding multiple infants, 276, vitamin A and, 180 282, 294, 346 Skewed distribution, defined, 22 children, 180, 314, 404–405 Skin cancer, 421 chronic diseases, 176, 191, 205, 221, Sleep disorders, 194 249, 264, 265, 277, 301, 311, Smokers/smoking 344, 354, 373, 391, 394–395 and carotenoids, 211, 212–213, 214– deficiencies in nutrients, 205, 216, 216 238, 249, 252, 360, 410 dietary planning, 33 depression, 221 and folate, 251 dialysis, 198, 264, 276, 282 lung cancer, 214–216 drug abuse, 205 and vitamin C, 33, 38, 203, 205 drug/medication interactions, 136, Sodium and chloride 186, 191, 205, 230, 238, 247, absorption, metabolism, storage, and 264, 294, 331–332, 346, 367, excretion, 388 373, 376, 394 AIs, 53, 386 eating disorders, 291 criteria for determining requirements, environment, 205, 318, 376, 391, 390 392 determining DRIs, 388–391 gastrointestinal disorders, 173, 189, determining requirements, 388–390 191, 249, 265, 331, 332 excess intake, 394 gender, 204, 352 food sources, 391–392 genetic disorders, 136, 152–153, 198, function, 388 205, 394, 411 group intake planning, 53 goiter, 323 and hydration status, 158, 162, 164, granulomatous diseases, 228 165 individual planning, 33, 35, 37, 38

INDEX 522 individuals susceptible to adverse Standard deviation effects, 221, 249, 265, 294, 301, defined, 21 310, 322, 331, 333, 354, 360, 411 z-score and, 22 individuals with increased needs, Starches, 103, 104, 107 264, 282, 284 Steroid hormones, 271 infants, 138, 180, 227, 242, 256– Stress reactivity, 95 257, 284, 314, 331, 354 Stroke, 84, 92, 135, 161, 374, 390 lactose intolerance, 291 Sucrose, 104 linoleic acid:a-linoleic acid ratio, 138 Sugar alcohols, 104 low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets, Sugars. See also Carbohydrate, dietary 376 added, 75, 103, 104, 107 malabsorption disorders, 173, 191, adverse effects of, 108 230, 249, 264, 276, 282, 410 basis for recommendations, 75, 103 malnutrition treatment, 367 behavioral effects, 108 men, 337 and chronic disease risk, 77, 79 menopause, 291 defined, 104 metabolic disorders, 152–153, 221, and dental caries, 79 323 dietary intakes, 79 migraine headaches, 265 energy intake from, 75, 107 nonfluoridated water, 314 food sources, 75, 103, 104, 107 older/elderly adults, 189, 204, 227, glycemic index, 79 230, 249, 346–347, 373, 391 interactions with other nutrients, 300 parenteral nutrition, 135, 191, 197, maximal intake levels, 70, 75, 103, 354, 367 107 photosensitivity disorders, 216, 230 and micronutrient intake levels, 75 physical activity level, 96, 136, 150, recommendations, 70, 75 160, 276, 282, 291, 332, 376, total, 75 391, 392 Sulfasalazine, 251 postmenopausal women, 337 Sulfate pregnant women, 96, 149–150, 180, absorption, metabolism, storage, and 186, 205, 247, 249, 264, 276, excretion, 398 282, 377 determining DRIs, 398 premature infants, 242 determining requirements, 398 renal function, 294, 301, 347, 400 EARs, 397 sensitivity to nutrients, 136, 391, 394 excess intake, 400 skeletal abnormalities, 180 food and water sources, 398–399 smokers and smoking, 205, 214–216 function, 397 special considerations, 284 inadequate intake and deficiency, supplements and fortified foods, 337 399–400 teratogenicity, 180 interactions with other nutrients, 308 twin pregnancy, 149–150, 247, 264 key points for, 401 undernutrition, 176 special considerations, 400 vegetarians, 150, 173, 249, 294, 332, supplements, 399 405 ULs, 398 women, 186 Sulfite oxidase, 357 Stachyose, 104 Sulfur amino acids, 150, 357, 372, 376, 398–400

INDEX 523 Supplements, dietary. See also individual Toddlers, ages 1 through 3 years. See nutrients Children, ages 1 through 8 years bioavailability considerations, 214, Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) 258, 291 applicable population, 32 converting International Units on children, 46 labels, 237, 238, 239, 240–241 defined, 8, 11–12, 91, 163, 169, 176, distribution of usual intakes, 46 191 excess consumption, 1 derivation, 12 individual applications and, 31, 35 extrapolation on body-weight basis, recommended consumption, 38 16, 46 fortification of foods and, 12, 31, 35 group applications, 45–46, 52, 54, 68 T indicators of excess, 9 in individual applications, 28, 31–32, Taurine, 399 34, 35–36 TEF See Thermic effect of food . methodological issues, 443–446 Teratogens, 171, 176, 179, 180 protein, 144 Testosterone, 140 risk assessment model, 443–444 Thalassemias, 333 supplement use and, 12, 31, 35 Thermic effect of food (TEF), 87 uncertainty factors, 46, 445–446 Thiamin Total Diet Study, 257, 323, 343, 351, absorption, metabolism, storage, and 352, 353, 418, 420 excretion, 281 Total parenteral nutrition, 135, 191, 197, AIs, 280, 282 199, 222, 301, 308–309, 337, bioavailability, 283 354, 367 criteria for determining requirements, Trans fatty acids 282 absorption, metabolism, storage, and determining requirements, 282 excretion, 129 EARs, 280, 282 adverse effects of overconsumption, excess intake, 281, 284 137 food sources, 281, 283 basis for recommendation, 75 function, 281 and chronic disease risk, 75, 76, 125, inadequate intake and deficiency, 132 281, 283–284 determining requirements, 130 interaction with other nutrients, 281 dietary compounds, 126 key points for, 285 food sources, 75, 133, 134 by life stage and gender group, 280, function, 124–125 282 and lipid profile, 75, 76, 125, 137 RDAs, 280, 282 recommendations, 70 special considerations, 282 ULs, 132 supplements, 283 Transferrin, 152 ULs, 282–283 Trehalose, 104 Threonine, 147, 149 Triacylglycerol or triacylglyceride. See Thromboxanes, 124 also Fat, dietary; Lipids and lipid Thyroid papillary cancer, 321, 326 metabolism Thyroiditis, 321, 326 carbohydrate intakes and, 73, 77, 106 Thyroptropin, 321, 323 and CHD risk, 73 Thyroxine, 321

INDEX 524 composition, 125 bioavailability, 123, 126, 173, 177 fat intake and, 73, 128, 133 content of foods, 175 fiber intake and, 117 conversion factors, 466, 467–469 food sources, 132 criteria for determining requirements, glycemic index and, 106 63, 175–176 hydrolysis of, 128 determining DRIs, 173–176 low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets and, determining requirements, 171, 173 73 EARs, 170 physical exercise and, 77 excess intake, 171, 176, 179–180 Triamterine, 251 food sources, 171, 177 Triiodothyronine, 321 forms of, 171, 172 Trimethoprim, 251 fortified foods, 171, 175, 176 Trimetrexate, 251 function, 171, 172 Tryptophan, 147, 263, 264, 266, 267, inadequate intake and deficiency, 277 171, 178, 179, 216, 324 Tuberculosis, 186, 228, 264 individual assessments, 28 Tyrosine, 147, 149 interactions with other dietary factors, 123, 177–178, 271, 324 International Units on labels, 175 U key points for, 181 by life stage and gender group, 170, ULs. See Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 175–176 Undernutrition, effects of, 91 prevalence of excess intakes, 46 Underweight, BMI, 86 RDAs, 170, 173 Urea, 148, 164 retinol activity equivalents (RAEs), Uric acid, 148 170, 171, 174–175, 466, 467–469 Urinary C-peptide, 106 special considerations, 173, 176, 180 Urolithiasis, 107 supplements, 175, 176, 177, 178, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 33, 107 179 Usual intakes, 24 teratogenicity, 171, 176, 179, 180 target usual intake distribution, 47, ULs, 170, 171, 176 48–52, 63–65 vegetarian diets, 173 Vitamin B1. See Thiamin V Vitamin B6 absorption, metabolism, storage, and Valine, 147, 149, 152 excretion, 183–184 Vanadium, 414, 415, 416, 418–419, adults 70+, 62–65 420, 422 AIs, 182 Variance, defined, 21 bioavailability, 185 Vegetarians, 38, 150, 173, 190, 191, criteria for determining requirements, 249, 294, 332, 383 184 Very low density lipoproteins, 141, 236 determining DRIs, 184–185 Vision and visual disturbances, 194 determining requirements, 184 Vitamin A. See also Carotenoids dietary intakes, 44, 63, 64 absorption, metabolism, storage, and EARs, 45, 62, 64, 182 excretion, 172–173, 177 excess intake, 186 AIs, 170 food sources, 185

INDEX 525 forms and compounds, 183, 184 Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) function, 186 absorption, metabolism, storage, and inadequate intake and deficiency, excretion, 203–204, 205, 206, 183, 186, 277 381 interaction with other nutrients, 266, age/aging and, 204, 207 277 AIs, 202 key points for, 187 bioavailability, 206 by life stage and gender group, 182, and blood and urine tests, 208 184 criteria for determining requirements, medication interactions, 186 9, 205 menu planning for groups, 62–65 determining DRIs, 204–206 prevalence of inadequacy, 44, 45, 64 determining requirements, 203, 204 RDAs, 45, 182 distribution of usual intakes, 46 and sensory neuropathy, 185, 186 EARs, 202 special considerations, 186 excess intake, 208 supplements, 183, 185 food sources, 203, 206 ULs, 182, 184–185 function, 203, 305 Vitamin B12 gender and, 204, 207 absorption, metabolism, storage, and inadequate intake and deficiency, 9, excretion, 189, 190, 193, 207 203, 204, 207–208 age/aging and, 38, 189, 190–191 individual assessments, 28 AIs, 188 interactions with other dietary atrophic gastritis and, 189, 190–191, substances, 205, 207, 300, 381, 192 416 bioavailability, 190, 191, 192, 193 key points for, 209–210 criteria for determining requirements, by life stage and gender group, 202, 189, 191 205 determining DRIs, 190–192 protective effects, 203, 204 determining requirements, 189, 190 RDAs, 202 EARs, 188, 189, 190 and scurvy, 9, 204, 207–208 excess intake, 189, 194 smoking and smoke exposure and, food sources, 192 33, 38, 203, 205 function, 189 special considerations, 33, 38, 204– inadequate intake and deficiency, 205, 208 189, 193–194, 207, 245, 248, supplements, 206, 208 249, 252 ULs, 9, 202, 206 individual assessments, 28 Vitamin D (calciferol) interactions with other nutrients, 189, absorption, metabolism, storage, and 193, 207, 245, 248, 249, 334 excretion, 226, 416 key points for, 195 age/aging and, 227, 230 by life stage and gender group, 188, AIs, 14, 53, 224, 225, 226 191 bioavailability, 123, 126 RDAs, 188 conversion factors, 466, 469 special considerations, 38, 190–191 criteria for determining requirements, supplements, 189, 192, 194 227 ULs, 188, 191–192 determining DRIs, 226–228 vegetarians, 190, 191 determining requirements, 226–227

INDEX 526 excess intake, 230–231 supplements, 235, 238, 239, 240– food sources, 225, 228 241, 242 forms of, 225 ULs, 234, 235, 238 function, 225–226 Vitamin K group intake planning, 53 absorption, metabolism, storage, and in human milk, 13, 14, 226, 227 excretion, 255–256 inadequate intake and deficiency, AIs, 53, 254, 255, 256 225, 226, 227, 229–230 bioavailability, 123, 126, 258 interactions with other nutrients, 123, criteria for determining requirements, 225, 226, 227, 229, 271, 287, 257 341, 345, 346, 367, 403, 416 determining DRIs, 256–257 intoxification, 367 determining requirements, 256 key points for, 232–233 excess intake, 259–260 by life stage and gender group, 224, food sources, 255, 257–258 227 forms of, 255 special considerations, 227, 228, 230 function, 255 sunlight and, 225, 226, 227, 228, 231 group intake planning, 53 supplements, 228 inadequate intake and deficiency, ULs, 224, 225, 227–228 238, 242, 255, 256, 258, 259 Vitamin E (a-Tocopherol) interactions with other nutrients, 123, absorption, metabolism, storage, and 255, 258–259 excretion, 236, 241 key points for, 261 AIs, 234, 235, 237 by life stage and gender group, 254, 257 bioavailability, 123, 126, 237, 241 protective effects, 255, 256 conversion factors, 237, 238, 239, special considerations, 255, 256–257 240–241, 466, 470–471 supplements, 258 criteria for determining requirements, UL, 257 235, 237–238 determining DRIs, 236–239 W determining requirements, 237 distribution of usual intakes, 46 Warfarin, 136, 258 EARs, 234, 235, 237–238 Water, total. See also Dehydration excess intake, 235, 242 absorption, metabolism, storage, and food sources, 235, 239–240 excretion, 159–160, 163 forms of, 235, 237 age/aging and, 159, 161 function, 235–236 AIs, 53, 156–157, 158, 160 inadequate intake and deficiency, altitude exposure and cold 235, 241 temperature, 161 individual assessments, 28 and chronic disease risk, 160 interactions with other nutrients, 123, conversion factors, 466, 467 241, 258–259 criteria for determining requirements, key points for, 243 162 by life stage and gender group, 234, cystic fibrosis and, 162 237–238 determining requirements, 160 protective effects, 235, 237 diabetes mellitus type II and, 162 RDAs, 234, 235, 237–238 diuretics and other medications and, special considerations, 235, 238, 242 162

INDEX 527 environment and, 158, 159–160, 161 oral contraceptives, 186, 331–332, excess intake, 158, 165 478–479, 482–483 factors affecting requirements, 159, postmenopausal, 337, 484 161–162 uterine distension surgery, 165 function, 158, 159 vitamin A, 180 group intake planning, 53 vitamin B6, 44 heat strain and, 159, 161 vitamin B12 deficiency, 249 inadequate intake, 158, 163, 165 water, 165 interactions with other substances, World Health Organization, 86 158, 163, 164, 165 key points for, 166 X by life stage and gender group, 156– 157, 162 Xanthine oxidase, 357 nutrient consumption in, 309, 313, Xerophthalmia, 171, 172, 179 314, 315–316, 318, 324, 344, 354, 398–399, 421 Y physical activity and, 89, 99, 158, 159–161, 318 Young adults. See Adults, ages 19 respiratory losses, 159 through 30 years skin losses, 160, 318 sources, 163 special considerations, 160 Z UL, 163 z-score, 21, 28–29, 30, 31 urinary and gastrointestinal losses, Zeaxanthin, 211, 213 159–160 Zinc Weight. See also Obesity; Reference absorption, metabolism, storage, and weights and heights; Underweight, excretion, 293, 335, 404 BMI; individual life stage groups AIs, 402 energy balance and, 84, 85, 98 bioavailability, 405, 407 fat intake and, 73 criteria for determining requirements, fiber intake and, 79, 114 405–406 gain, 84, 89, 96 determining DRIs, 404–406 loss, 78, 79, 84, 114 determining requirements, 404–406 pregnancy, 96 EARs, 14, 48, 402 protein (nitrogen) and, 78 excess intake, 410–411 Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, 281, 284 food sources, 75, 406 Whipple’s disease, 230 function, 403 Wilson’s disease, 310 inadequate intake and deficiency, Women 178, 410 BMR, 89 interactions with other nutrients, 119, body fat, 89, 90 120, 178, 293, 308, 309, 335, female athlete triad, 95, 99 368, 403, 405, 407–409 folic acid, 38, 245, 247, 250 key points for, 412–413 iron, 10, 24, 28, 35, 38, 43, 58–60, by life stage and gender group, 402, 329, 330, 331–332, 478–479, 405–406 482–483 prevalence of excess intakes, 46 menopause, 90, 291

INDEX 528 RDAs, 14, 402 special considerations, 404–405, 410, 411 supplements, 406 ULs, 402, 406 vegetarian diets, 405

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Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements Get This Book
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Widely regarded as the classic reference work for the nutrition, dietetic, and allied health professions since its introduction in 1943, Recommended Dietary Allowances has been the accepted source in nutrient allowances for healthy people. Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, in partnership with Health Canada, has updated what used to be known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and renamed their new approach to these guidelines Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Since 1998, the Institute of Medicine has issued eight exhaustive volumes of DRIs that offer quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets applicable to healthy individuals in the United States and Canada. Now, for the first time, all eight volumes are summarized in one easy-to-use reference volume, Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment. Organized by nutrient for ready use, this popular reference volume reviews the function of each nutrient in the human body, food sources, usual dietary intakes, and effects of deficiencies and excessive intakes. For each nutrient of food component, information includes:

  • Estimated average requirement and its standard deviation by age and gender.
  • Recommended dietary allowance, based on the estimated average requirement and deviation.
  • Adequate intake level, where a recommended dietary allowance cannot be based on an estimated average requirement.
  • Tolerable upper intake levels above which risk of toxicity would increase. Along with dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, this book presents recommendations for health maintenance and the reduction of chronic disease risk. Also included is a “Summary Table of Dietary Reference Intakes,” an updated practical summary of the recommendations. In addition, Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment provides information about:
  • Guiding principles for nutrition labeling and fortification
  • Applications in dietary planning
  • Proposed definition of dietary fiber
  • A risk assessment model for establishing upper intake levels for nutrients
  • Proposed definition and plan for review of dietary antioxidants and related compounds

Dietitians, community nutritionists, nutrition educators, nutritionists working in government agencies, and nutrition students at the postsecondary level, as well as other health professionals, will find Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment an invaluable resource.

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