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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B List of Acronyms." National Research Council. 2006. Dynamic Changes in Marine Ecosystems: Fishing, Food Webs, and Future Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11608.
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Appendix B
List of Acronyms


APB

Attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs


CCSBT

Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species


EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

ESA

Endangered Species Act

EwE

Ecopath-with-Ecosim


FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization (United Nations)

FIB

fishing-in-balance

FMSY

Fishing Mortality Rate


GIS

Geographical Information System


IATTC

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission

IFQ

Individual fishing quota

IQ

Individual quota

ITQ

Individual transferable quota

IUCN

The World Conservation Union (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources)

IWC

International Whaling Commission


LTER

Long Term Ecological Research

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B List of Acronyms." National Research Council. 2006. Dynamic Changes in Marine Ecosystems: Fishing, Food Webs, and Future Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11608.
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MMPA

Marine Mammal Protection Act

MPA

Marine Protected Area

MSFCMA

Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act

MSY

Maximum Sustainable Yield


NAO

North Atlantic Oscillation

NCEAS

National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis

NMFS

National Marine Fisheries Service

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NRC

National Research Council


PDO

Pacific Decadal Oscillation

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B List of Acronyms." National Research Council. 2006. Dynamic Changes in Marine Ecosystems: Fishing, Food Webs, and Future Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11608.
×
Page 139
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B List of Acronyms." National Research Council. 2006. Dynamic Changes in Marine Ecosystems: Fishing, Food Webs, and Future Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11608.
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Page 140
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Recent scientific literature has raised many concerns about whether fisheries have caused more extensive changes to marine populations and ecosystems than previously realized or predicted. In many cases, stocks have been exploited far beyond management targets, and new analyses indicate that fishing has harmed other species—including marine mammals, seabirds, sea turtles, and sea grasses—either directly through catch or habitat damage, or indirectly through changes in food-web interactions. At the request of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Research Council conducted an independent study to weigh the collective evidence for fishery-induced changes to marine ecosystems and the implications of the findings for U.S. fisheries management. Dynamic Changes in Marine Ecosystems provides comprehensive information in regard to these findings.

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