National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

Index

A

AAAS. See American Association for the Advancement of Science

Abilities, of children. See Children’s abilities

“Absolutist” view of knowledge, 173, 175

Abstraction, information at various levels of, 94

Adding It Up, 22

Ages, for introduction of key ideas, 247

Alcohol, mixing with water, 240

Ambiguity, involved in interpretation, 174175

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 43, 178, 217

Project 2061, 216217, 318

American Educational Research Association, 307

American Federation of Teachers, 307

Analogical reasoning, 114

Anchoring intuitions, 114

Animals, classifying, 6667

Anomalous data, 111

Argumentation

in K-8 classrooms, 117, 258259

in the language of science, 33, 171

plausibility of, 187

supporting, 203

talk and, 187189

teachers uncomfortable with, 187

Aristotle, 62

Arizona, 299

Articulation, supporting, 278279

Assessment.

See also Benchmarking assessment systems;

Classroom-based assessment practices;

Formative assessment

by conversation, 281

curriculum-embedded, 281, 320

large-scale, 247

ongoing, 344

planned-for, 281283

recommendations for policy and practice, 348349

reflective, 284

Atlas of Science Literacy, 216

Atomic-molecular theory, developing an initial understanding of, 32, 72, 102103, 111, 220, 222, 239245

Atomic-molecular theory of matter learning progressions

for grades K-2, 226233

for grades 3-5, 233239

for grades 6-8, 239245

Attention, 302

Attitudes, 195201

beliefs about oneself and about science, ability to “do science,” 196197

goals, values, and interest, desire to “do science,” 197200

identity, feeling of “belonging,” 200201

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

B

Bay Area School Reform Collaborative (BASRC), 308309

BEAR. See Berkeley Evaluation and Assessment Research Center

Beliefs, 173174.

See also Competencies of K-8 students

about causal mechanism and plausibility, 143146

about oneself and about science, ability to “do science,” 196197

young children’s understanding of, 7879

Belvedere, 274

Benchmarking assessment systems, for coherent instruction, 319322, 344

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 16, 35, 44, 216

Berkeley Evaluation and Assessment Research Center (BEAR), 320

BGuILE, 269

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 13

Biology, children’s early conceptual understanding of naïve, 6669

Black students, 315

Bohr, Niels, 244

Book of nature, 189

Bootstrapping, 154

Border crossing, 201

“Boundary-filling” conception of measurement, 155

Bracketing, 138

“Bridging analogies” strategy, 114

Burning, concepts of, 101

C

California, 307309

Categorization, 74

Causal nexus, 228

Causation

beliefs about the mechanisms of, 59, 143146, 148

correlation versus, 266

hypotheses about, 140142, 144

multiple, 75

and their effects, 63

Ceiling effects, 298

Cells, misconceptions about, 100

Centralized education policy, Americans’ distaste for, 16

Certainty, 171

Cheche Konnen Center, 194, 266, 311312

ChemStudy, 13

Children’s abilities, 130

Children’s ideas about the mind, 169170

tasks used to study, 65

Children’s learning of science, 51210

foundations for science learning in young children, 5392

generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations, 129167

knowledge and understanding of the natural world, 93128

participation in scientific practices and discourse, 186210

understanding how scientific knowledge is constructed, 168185

Children’s reasoning, 3, 222

China, 96

Classroom-based assessment practices, 247

and student learning outcomes, 285

Classroom discourse, 268, 299

Classrooms.

See also Instruction in K-8 science classrooms

as scientific communities, 40

that promote productive participation, 202203

Cognition

epistemic, 173, 175, 178

“situated,” 29

Cognitive inference, 75, 103

Cognitive processes, 130.

See also Noncognitive factors

basic research in, 42, 52

interaction with social factors, 29

in preschool children, 53

Cognitive science, 63

of science itself, 66

“Cognitively guided instruction,” 312

Coherent instructional systems, 317322, 345

benchmarking assessment systems, 319322

curriculum materials, 318319

Collaborations, 188, 263, 319

Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade, 2123

charge to, 21

Commonsense properties of materials, 229

Communities.

See also Scientific communities

“communities of practice,” 308

“community of learners” approach, 275

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

Competencies of K-8 students, 19, 172

beliefs about, gender factors in, 196197

Complexity, of science learning, 212

“Composite culture,” 276

Comprehension, reading, 274275

Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, 282

Computer-based investigations, 279

Computer simulations, 140

Computer visualization tools, 277

Concept-oriented reading instruction (CORI), 199, 259

Conceptual change, 106118

versus developmental change, 117118

differentiating, 108

forms of, 107110

mechanisms of, 110117

nature of, 106118

restructuring a network of concepts, 108109

Conceptual structures, 119120

acquiring, 37

coalescing, 109

constructing new representations, 113116

elaborating on existing, 107108

scaffolding models, 276278

understanding, 215

Conceptual understanding during the K-8 years, 19, 3031, 94106

an expanding theory of psychology, 103104

expanding understandings of matter and its transformation, 101103

extending and changing understandings of naïve physics, 9698

extending and revising naïve biology, 98101

literature on, 51

summary of knowledge growth across the domains, 105106

toward a mature cosmology, 104105

Concrete experiences, 105

with the natural world, 260

progressions involving, 54

Confounding, 134, 142

Congress, 15

Consensus view, 170

Conservation of matter, 71

Construal principles, 106

Constructivist epistemologies, 177

Content.

See also Strands of scientific proficiency

dual focus on, 304

including in standards, 219

Contingency-based movement, 64, 75

Continuum, of formative assessment, 280

Contrastive tests, 144

Control-of-variables strategy, 150151, 190

Convocation on Science and Mathematics, 15

Core ideas

emergent, 119, 223

learning progressions needed for, 226

research and development needed in identifying, 178179, 352

CORI. See Concept-oriented reading instruction

Correlation, versus causation, 266

Cosmology, toward a mature, 104105

Counterintuitive findings, 146

Covariation evidence

complex patterns of, 61

evaluating, 138141, 145

identifying patterns of, 137

versus noncovariation, 139, 143

reasoning about, 75

Credentialing requirements, 300

Critical areas for research and development, 351355

curriculum and instruction, 352353

diversity and equity, 354355

evaluation and scale-up, 353354

identifying core ideas and developing learning progressions, 352

learning across the four strands, 351352

professional development and teacher learning, 353

Cues, 64, 75

Cultural institutions, 200

Cultural values and norms, 69, 101, 190194, 199200, 340

Current approaches in policy and practice, 20, 182, 214219, 253255, 267

curriculum and instruction in K-8 science classrooms, 217219

curriculum standards, 216217

progressing beyond, 231245

science process skills, 215216

Current textbooks, 244

Current theories of science, 52, 107

limitations of, 27

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

Curriculum-embedded assessment, 281, 320321

Curriculum in K-8 science classrooms, 217219.

See also Science curriculum reforms of the 1960s

in coherent instructional systems, 318319

major findings and conclusions concerning, 340344

materials for, 268, 318319, 321, 353

modularized, 318319

not dumbing down, 4

political costs of, 14

recommendations for next generation, both state and national, 5, 348

recommendations for policy and practice, 348349

research and development needed in, 352353

“spiral,” 341

standards for, 216217, 246247

D

Data

anomalous, 111

from assessments, sharing with students, 322

in the language of science, 3133

reflecting on, 148

rounds of collecting, 132

supporting modeling, 155157

trends in, 266

Data-driven discoveries, 135

Data modeling practices, 261

Data quality, evaluating, 27

Data sets, 268

Debates, 266

formal, 33

policy, 11

Deficit assumptions, 336

Delaware, 299

Design challenges, 45

in conducting empirical investigations in K-8 classrooms, 256257

future, 223

in learning progressions, 221222

Desire to “do science,” 197200

goals for, 197198

intrinsic motivation and interest, 199200

and values, 198199

Detroit Public Schools, 312

Developers of standards, curricula, and assessment, recommendations for, 5, 1314, 348

Developmental change

cognitive, 52

and learning and instruction, 4145

literature of, 219

that is not conceptual change, 117118

Diagrams, supporting modeling, 157159

Digestion, children’s understanding of, 68

Disabilities, students with, 202, 266

Disciplinary knowledge, 220

Disciplinary language, 267

“Disciplined perception,” 154

Discourse

difficulty of, 212

logical, 33

structure of, 187

Discovery argumentation, example of, 114115

“Discrepant events,” catalyzing conceptual change, 113

“Distributed expertise” activity structures, 275

Diversity in science education, 340

major findings and conclusions concerning, 346347

research and development needed in, 354355

Dogs, classifying, 108

“Doing science,” 4, 256, 268

professional development programs in, 311312

Domain-general developmental sequences, 28, 55, 220

Domain-specific knowledge, 55, 133, 148, 223, 336

E

E. coli bacteria, identifying, 143

Early conceptual understanding of natural systems, 5674

earth systems and cosmology, 7374

naïve biology, 6669

naïve physics, 5663

naïve psychology, 6366

substances and their transformations, 6973

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

Earth Science Curriculum Study, 13

Earth systems and cosmology, children’s early conceptual understanding of, 7374

Earthquakes, 31

Education.

See also Science education

importance of teaching science, 34

major findings and conclusions concerning diversity in, 346347

strands of scientific proficiency, 3641

Elementary grades, inquiry and models, as evidence of student learning, 260261

Embedding instructional guidance in students’ performance of scientific tasks, 271278

conceptual models, 276278

scaffolding, 272278

scientific process, 273274

social interaction, 274276

Emergent core ideas, 223

Empirical investigations, conducting in K-8 classrooms, 256257

Energy, introducing ideas about, 246

Engagement, defining, 194195

Engaging Schools, 196

“Engineering context,” 135

English-language learners, 266, 303304, 314

Latino, 314315

Epistemic model, 169173

Equity in science education

major findings and conclusions concerning, 346347

research and development needed in, 354355

Errors

about the physical world, 61

mathematical descriptions of, 157

mental, 104

of representation, 76

ESRU cycles, 282283

Essentialist bias, 68

Ethnic factors. See People of color

Ethnographic case analyses, 202

Evaluation, research and development needed in, 353354

Evaluation of evidence across the K-8 years, 137142, 145

covariation evidence, 138140

evidence in the context of investigations, 140142

trends in, 131142

Evaluation of scientific evidence and explanations, 129167

asking questions and formulating hypotheses, 131132

conclusions, 159160

designing experiments, 132136

importance of experience and instruction, 149152

knowledge and skill in modeling, 152159

one strand of scientific proficiency, 37, 39

role of prior knowledge, 142149

Evidence

covariation versus noncovariation, 139

generating and evaluating, 245

in the language of science, 3133

that contradicts prior beliefs, evaluating, 146149

Evidence of student learning, 260264

elementary grades, with inquiry and models, 260261

middle grades, with problem-based and conceptual change approaches, 261264

Evolutionary theory

battles over teaching, 12

developing an initial understanding of, 100, 222224

Experience

controlled, 266

importance of, 130, 149152

inquiry, 179

with liquids, 233234

project-based, 263

Experiments, 35, 142, 253, 268

designing, 131136, 147, 271

interpreting, 147

laboratory, 13, 256

self-directed, 132, 137

theory-driven approach to, 135

thought, 102

“try-and-see” approach to, 135

Explanations

of conceptual change, adding new (deeper) levels of, 109110

in K-8 classrooms, 148, 258259, 337

testing, 30

written, 274

Explanatory models, of science, 39

Explicit awarenesses, 69

instruction in, 94

modeling, 236

Exploratory studies, 131

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

F

Facts

acquiring, 37

role of, in science, 26, 31

False belief, understanding, 65

FAST. See Foundational Approaches to Science Teaching curriculum

Federal agencies that support professional development, recommendations for, 7, 350

Feedback

looping, 280

periodic, 321

Folk cosmology, 74

Folk pedagogy, 301302

Force, physicists’ notions of, 97

Formal operational thought, 44

Formative assessment, 279285

classroom-based assessment practices and student learning outcomes, 285

and student learning, 281284

Forms of conceptual change, 107110

adding new (deeper) levels of explanation, 109110

elaborating on an existing conceptual structure, 107108

restructuring a network of concepts, 108109

Foundational Approaches to Science Teaching (FAST) curriculum, 320

“Framework theory,” 73

Full Option Science System, 320

Future directions for policy, practice, and research, 331355

agenda for research and development, 350355

conclusions and recommendations, 333355

major findings and conclusions, 334347

recommendations for policy and practice, 347350

G

Galapagos island system, 261, 269271

Gases, understanding the behavior of, 101, 103, 241242

Gender factors, in competency beliefs, 196197

Generating scientific evidence and explanations, 129167

asking questions and formulating hypotheses, 131132

conclusions, 159160

designing experiments, 132136

importance of experience and instruction, 149152

knowledge and skill in modeling, 152159

one strand of scientific proficiency, 37, 39

role of prior knowledge, 142149

trends across the K-8 years, 131142

Geometry, 154

Georgia, 300

Goals

and the desire to “do science,” 197198

for elementary and middle school science, 3436

Grades K-2 learning progression for the atomic-molecular theory of matter, 226233

developing an understanding of materials and measurement, 226231

progressing beyond current practice, 231233

Grades 3-5 learning progression for the atomic-molecular theory of matter, 233239

developing an explicit macroscopic understanding of matter, 233237

progressing beyond current practice, 237239

Grades 6-8 learning progression for the atomic-molecular theory of matter, 239245

developing an initial understanding of the atomic-molecular theory, 239243

progressing beyond current practice, 244245

Gravitation, 32

Group processes, 19

agreement within, 4, 276

diverse, 314315

The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence, 43

Guidance.

See also Scaffolding

explicit and implicit, 271273

provided by the researcher, 131

Guided inquiry science instruction, 259

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

H

Haiti, 266

Harvard University, 173

Hawaii, 299

Helicobacter pylori, 29

High-stakes testing, 319

Historical context of U.S. science education, 1218

emergence of standards-based reform, 1518

legacy of the 1960s science curriculum reforms, 1215

Historical tracing, 229

How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience and School, 22, 42, 336

Human body, children’s understanding of, 68, 99, 111

Hypotheses.

See also Theory and hypothesis

causal, 140

considering, 268

evaluating alternative, 76

formulating, 131132

revising, 132

“Hypothesis-oriented” approaches, 135

“Hypothetico-deductive” model-based reasoning, 241

I

Ideas, young children’s understanding of, 7879

Identity, 195201

ability to “do science,” 196197

beliefs about oneself and about science, 196197

desire to “do science,” 197200

feeling of “belonging,” 200201

goals, values, and interest, 197200

Illinois, 300, 317

Implicit reasoning, 77

Indeterminacy, 141

Individual cognitive activity, 3, 203

Individual interest, 199

Induction, 74

Infants’ understanding of the physical world, 5759

Inference strategies

cognitive, 75, 103

multiple, 142

Infrastructure, needed for researching science education, 351

Inquiry

as evidence of student learning in the elementary grades, 260261

experiences with, 179

Institute of Medicine, 196, 304

Instruction in K-8 science classrooms, 217219, 247

aims of, 257

approaches and strategies, 252253

designing, 3

explicit, 94

factors affecting quality of, 296297

how to teach, recommendations for policy and practice, 349

importance of, 130, 149152

improving, 17

major findings and conclusions concerning, 340344

professional development programs in, 312314

research and development needed in, 352353

suboptimal, 55

Instructional congruence, 192

Instructional support, importance of, 133

Intellectual roles, 275

“Intent participation,” 191

Interactions.

See also Social interactions

and force, 97

multidimensional, 6, 178, 349

with simulations, 268

with texts in K-8 classrooms, 259260

Interest

development of, 200

individual, 199

situational, 199200

Interpretation, ambiguity involved in, 39, 174175

Intervention studies, 148150, 253, 255, 257, 268

Intraindividual variability, 4, 134, 142

Intrinsic motivation and interest, in the desire to “do science,” 199200

Investigations

evaluating evidence in the context of, 140142

sustained, 343

Israel, 99

Iterative processes, 27

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

J

Japan, 99

Journaling, thoughts about science, 299

Justifications, 80

K

Kansas, 299

Kawasaki’s syndrome, 143

Kits. See Science kits

Knowing What Students Know, 22

Knowledge

“absolutist” view of, 173

acquiring new, over an existing base of concepts, 110111

change process of, 94, 147

evaluating one’s own, 27

growth of, across the domains, 105106

in modeling, 152159

personal, 245

young children’s understanding of, 7879

Knowledge construction. See Meaning-making practices

Knowledge-lean tasks, 133

Knowledge of science, of science teachers, 297300

Knowledge of the natural world, 93128

changes in conceptual understanding during the K-8 years, 94106

conclusions, 118120

nature of conceptual change, 106118

“Knowledge problematic” epistemologies, 176

L

Laboratory experiments, 13, 256

Language of science, 3033, 267

argument, 33

data and evidence, 3133

disciplinary, 267

theory and hypothesis, 3031

Large-scale assessment, 247

Learners

major findings and conclusions concerning, 334340

mental models of, 302

Learning

across the four strands, research and development needed in, 351352

earlier theories of, 19

major findings and conclusions concerning, 334340

mental models of, 302

recent developments in, 1820

“Learning cycle,” 14

Learning goals, 20, 280

“Learning hierarchies,” 215

Learning progressions, 213250, 297

conclusions, 246247

constructing, 225246

current approaches in policy and practice, 214219

defining, 219222

design challenges, 221222

initial work on, 222226

key characteristics, 220221

research and development needed in developing, 352

Learning progressions for the atomic-molecular theory of matter, 226246, 359365

grades K-2, 226233

grades 3-5, 233239

grades 6-8, 239245

limitations, 246

Legacy of the 1960s science curriculum reforms, 1215

Limitations

of current theories of science, 27

of K-8 students, 56, 172

memory, 137

of one’s scientific reasoning, 40

Liquids, experiences with, 202, 233234

Local leaders in science education, recommendations for, 6, 16, 349

Longitudinal studies, 352

M

Macroscopic understandings, 102, 239

Maine, 299

Man: A Course of Study, 15

Maps, supporting modeling, 157159

Maryland, 299

Mastery learning, 198, 320

Materials

developing an understanding of, in grades K-2, 226231

resource centers for, 319

teachers’ interpretations of, 269

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

Mathematics

interest in, 199

supporting modeling, 153155

theories expressed in form of, 32

Matter and its transformation

developing an explicit macroscopic understanding of, in grades 3-5, 233237

expanding understandings of, 72, 101103

Maturation, change factors based in, 9597

Meaning-making practices, 215, 224225

Measurement

“boundary-filling” conception of, 155

developing an understanding of, in grades K-2, 154, 226231

recording, 31

Mechanisms of conceptual change, 110117

acquiring new knowledge over an existing base of concepts, 110111

constructing new conceptual representations, 113116

information about, 143

metacognitively guided learning, 111113

strengthening new systems of ideas, 116117

Media attention, 11, 18

Medieval impetus theorists, 62

Memorization, 299, 338

Memory

limitations of, 137

short-term storage span of, 95

Memory skills, of children, 142

Mental models, 78, 82

of learning, 5960, 145, 302

Merck Institute for Science Education, 307

Meta-analyses, 322

Metacognitively guided learning, 3536, 82, 111113, 137, 150

Metaconceptual activities in grades 1-6, progression of increasingly sophisticated, 180181

Middle grades, problem-based and conceptual change approaches as evidence of student learning, 261264

Minorities, underrepresented in science, 11, 20, 303

Misconceptions, 61, 82, 98101

Mississippi, 300

Model building, 27, 232

data supporting, 155157

“direct,” 76

explicit, 236

in K-8 classrooms, 258259

students with prior experience in, 237

studies of, 152153

Models

epistemology of, 172

as evidence of student learning in the elementary grades, 260261

explanatory, 39

of instruction, ineffective, 211

of the natural world, building and critiquing, 131

scaffolding, 276278

Modules, curricular, 318319

Motivation, 97, 195201

beliefs about oneself and about science, ability to “do science,” 196197

goals, values, and interest, desire to “do science,” 197200

identity, feeling of “belonging,” 200201

Muller-Lyer optical illusions, 231

Multicultural issues, 303

Multidimensionality

of interactions among models, 178

of the practice of science, 286

Multidisciplinary approach, 333

Multiple inference strategies, 142

Mutations, studying, 258

N

NAEP. See National Assessment of Educational Progress

Naïve biology

children’s early conceptual understanding of, 6669

extending and revising, 98101

Naïve physics

children’s early conceptual understanding of, 5663

extending and changing understandings of, 9698

Naïve psychology, children’s early conceptual understanding of, 6366

A Nation at Risk, 1516

National Academy of Sciences, Convocation on Science and Mathematics, 15

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 20, 263

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification, 300

National Center for Education Statistics, 303

National Commission for Excellence in Education, 1516

National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, standards established by, 300

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 154155

National Education Longitudinal Study, 298

National Research Council (NRC), 22, 42, 112, 195196, 216, 280, 304, 318

National Science Education Standards (NSES), 16, 34, 38, 216

National Science Foundation (NSF), 12, 1415, 307, 314, 318

National Staff Development Council, 307

Nationwide action, roadmap for, 4

Natural world

building and critiquing models of, 131

concrete experiences with, 260

observing, 258

understanding, 26, 41, 93128

using scientific explanations of, 244

Negotiation, 263

Network of conceptual change concepts, restructuring, 108109

New levels of descriptions, adding, 109110

New systems of ideas, strengthening, 116117

No Child Left Behind Act, 11, 17, 22, 354

Noncognitive factors, 30

Nonmainstream children, 36, 201

underrepresented in science, 11, 20, 303

Nonsense sounds, 64

Notebooks, use of, 135

NRC. See National Research Council

NSES. See National Science Education Standards

NSF. See National Science Foundation

O

Observation

across the K-8 years, 31, 136137, 191, 268

generating, 132

indirect, 31

scientific, 35

sensory, 31

Ohio, 315

Orientation, 159

Oversimplification, 191

P

Participation in scientific practices and discourse, 186210

conclusions, 203

cultural values and norms, 190194

one strand of scientific proficiency, 37, 40

productive, 194203

talk and argument, 187189

Patterns of covariation evidence, identifying, 137

People of color, underrepresented in science, 20, 303

Personal knowledge, 245

Physical Science Study Committee, 13

Physical world. See Natural world

Physics

children’s early conceptual understanding of naïve, 5663

everyday, 62

“Piggybacking,” 193

Planned-for assessment, 281283

Plate tectonics, 31

Plausibility

of argument, 187

beliefs about, 143146

Poincare, Henri, 26

“Points of contact,” 193

Policy

debates over, 11

future directions for, 331355

recommendations for, 347350

Political costs, curricular, 14

Practice of science

future directions for, 331355

importance of, 133

as multidimensional, 286

recommendations for, 347350

Pre-service training, 300

Precision, 76

“Prediction-oriented” approaches, 135, 148

Preschool children, 114, 182, 227

cognitive development in, 53

sense of mechanical causality in, 61

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

Prior knowledge, 19, 130132, 138, 142149, 160, 173, 268

beliefs about causal mechanism and plausibility, 143146

evaluating evidence that contradicts prior beliefs, 146149

familiarity or strength of, 137

Probabilistic relationships, 18, 75

Problem-based learning curriculum, 188, 312

Problem solving, 271272

“Process skills,” 14

Process view. See Science as a process

Productive participation, 194203

classrooms that promote, 202203

motivation, attitudes, and identity, 195201

Professional development programs, 300, 310314

in doing science, 311312

in engineering instructional improvement, 312314

recommendations for federal agencies that support, 7, 350

recommendations for sustained science-specific, 7, 350

supporting effective science instruction, recommendations for policy and practice, 349350

and teacher learning, research and development needed in, 353

in understanding student ideas, 312

Proficiency in science, 2, 298, 334, 338.

See also Strands of scientific proficiency

of adults versus children, 134

baseline, 300

Programme for International Student Assessment, 316

Progress beyond current practice

in grades K-2, 231233

in grades 3-5, 237239

in grades 6-8, 244245

Progress Portfolio tool, 278

Progressions. See Learning progressions

Project 2061, 216217, 318

Project-based experiences, 263, 268

Project SEPIA. See Science Education through Portfolio Instruction and Assessment project

Psychology

children’s early conceptual understanding of naïve, 6366

expanding theory of, 103104

and the study of science, 130

Psychometric data analyses, 320

Public scientific issues, 11, 203

Q

Quality

of data, evaluating, 27

of science education, 354

Questioning process, three-step, 283n

Questions

asking, 131132

generating researchable, 192, 256, 268, 311

identifying meaningful, 304, 351

R

Race factors. See People of color

Reading comprehension, 274275

Reagan, Ronald, 15

Reasoning, 77.

See also Analogical reasoning;

Children’s reasoning

Recommendations

for developers of standards, curricula, and assessment, 5, 348

for federal agencies that support professional development, 7, 350

on instruction, how to teach, 349

for next generation standards and curricula, both state and national, 5, 348

for policy and practice, 347350

for presenting science as a process, 56, 348349

on professional development, 67, 349350

on standards, curricula, and assessment, 46, 348349

for state and local leaders in science education, 6, 349

for sustained science-specific professional development for teachers, 7, 350

for teaching the four strands of scientific proficiency, 6, 349

for university-based science courses for teacher candidates, 7, 350

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

Record keeping, during the K-8 years, 31, 136137

Reflection, supporting, 278279

Reflective assessment, 284

Reforms. See Science curriculum reforms of the 1960s

“Registers,” 189

Relativity, 32

Representational systems

conceptual structures constructing new, 113116

data, 155157

mathematics, 153155

new, 237

scale models, diagrams, and maps, 157159

spatial, 74

that support modeling, 153159

working with scientific representations and tools, 267268

Research

difficulty integrating base, 131, 355

future directions for, 331355

on learning, 21

Researchers, 22

guidance provided by, 131

Resource issues, 17, 310

S

Scaffolding, 259, 272278, 287

conceptual models, 276278

scientific process, 273274

social interaction, 274276

Scale models, 79

supporting modeling, 157159

Scaling-up, research and development needed in, 353354

Scenario building, 22, 27, 30

Schools, major findings and conclusions concerning, 344346

Science.

See also Strands of scientific proficiency

claims of, 31

cognitive, 63

defining, 2633

explanatory models of, 39

history of, 32

journaling thoughts about, 299

language of, 3033

recent developments in, 1820

in social interactions, 265266

understanding the nature of, 37, 3940, 175179

using, 40

Science: A Process Approach, 215, 224

Science as a process, 2630

of logical reasoning about evidence, 28

of participation in the culture of scientific practices, 2930

recommendations for presenting, 56, 348349

scaffolding, 273274

skills in, 215216

of theory change, 2829

Science as practice, 251295, 298

conclusions, 285287

current instructional practice, 253255

elements of practice, 264268

in social interactions, 265266

specialized language of science, 266267

supporting the learning of, 268285

work with scientific representations and tools, 267268

Science as practice in research-based instructional design, 255264, 342

argumentation, explanation, and model building in K-8 classrooms, 258259

designing and conducting empirical investigations in K-8 classrooms, 256257

evidence of student learning, 260264

interacting with texts in K-8 classrooms, 259260

Science-as-theory perspective, 28

“Science context,” 135

Science courses for teacher candidates, recommendations for university-based, 7, 350

Science Curriculum Improvement Study, 14

Science curriculum reforms of the 1960s, legacy of, 1215

Science education goals, 2649

addressing inequities, 4

defining science, 2633

development, learning, and instruction, 4145

for elementary and middle school science, 3436

research on, 176

science education, 3441

supporting, 296330

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

Science Education through Portfolio Instruction and Assessment (SEPIA) project, 283

Science kits, 39, 218

sharing, 319

Science learning, 211330

complexity of, 212

historical context of U.S. science education, 1218

learning progressions, 213250

past and present, 1125

recent developments in science, learning, and teaching, 1820, 252

teaching science as practice, 251295

Science learning in young children

conclusion, 8183

early conceptual understanding of natural systems, 5674

foundations for, 5392

organizing themes, 5456

underpinnings of scientific reasoning, 7478

young children’s understanding of knowledge and of science, 7881

Science specialists, 22, 315316

Science teachers

knowledge of science, 297300

knowledgeable, 297306

number of science courses taken, 297298

subject matter knowledge for teaching, 304306

understanding learners and learning, 301304

Science testing, nationwide, 18

Science writing, 189

Scientific community, 13

classrooms as, 40

Scientific evidence. See Evidence

Scientific explanations of the natural world, knowing, using, and interpreting, as one strand of scientific proficiency, 3739

Scientific knowledge

operationalizing for teaching, 306

young children’s understanding of, 8081, 245

The “scientific method,” 27, 215

Scientific proficiency. See Strands of scientific proficiency

Scientific reasoning, 130, 223

interdependence of theory and evidence in, 144

Scientific theories, significance of, 244

Scientific visualization tools, 263

Scientific worldview, persuading students of the validity of, 187

Scientist’s notebooks, 259

Selecting Instructional Materials, 318

Self-directed experiments, 132, 137, 140

SenseMaker, 274

SEPIA. See Science Education through Portfolio Instruction and Assessment project

Sequencing units of study, 269271

Simulations

computer, 140

interaction with, 268

“Situated cognition,” 29

Situational interest, 199200

Skeletal principles, 106

Skills.

See also “Process skills”

in modeling, 152159

promoting, 149

teaching as needed, 55, 255

Sleep-deprivation, 118

Social interactions, 39, 130, 335

and cognitive factors, 29

patterning in, 65

scaffolding, 274276

science in, 265266

Social trust, building, 309

Software tools, 172, 274

Solar system, 104

Sources of knowledge, young children’s understanding of, 7980

Spanish-speaking students, 314315

Spatial representations, 74

Specialists, in science, 22, 315316

Specialized language of science, 266267

Species, misconceptions about, 100

Standardized tests, state, 263

Standards, 5

including content in, 219

recommendations for next generation, both state and national, 5, 348

recommendations for policy and practice, 348349

Standards-based reform, emergence of, 1518

Stanford Education Assessment Laboratory, 279, 320

Starting Out Right, 22

State leaders in science education, recommendations for, 6, 16, 349

Statistics, creation of, 157

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

Strands of scientific proficiency, 2, 23, 3641, 285286, 296

generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations, 37, 39

interconnections among, 4041

knowing, using, and interpreting scientific explanations of the natural world, 3739

participating productively in scientific practices and discourse, 37, 40

recommendations for teaching the four, 6, 349

understanding the nature and development of scientific knowledge, 37, 3940

Strategies, coexistence of valid and invalid, 134

Stress, 29

Struggle for Survival unit, in the middle school curriculum, 269270

Student learning.

See also Learners;

Learning

collective, 275

conditions that support, 297

formative assessment and, 281284

link to science knowledge of teachers, 298

“nudging” necessary for, 287

supporting, 217

Student predictions, 262

Subject matter knowledge

optimal level of, 298

of science teachers for teaching, 304306

as situated, not absolute, 305

Suboptimal instruction, in K-8 science classrooms, 55

Substances and their transformations, children’s early conceptual understanding of, 6973

Success for All, 320

Supporting science instruction, 296330

coherent instructional systems, 317322

conclusions, 322323

knowledgeable science teachers, 297306

teachers’ opportunities to learn, 306316

Supporting the learning of science as practice, 268285

embedding instructional guidance in students’ performance of scientific tasks, 271278

formative assessment, 279285

sequencing units of study, 269271

supporting articulation and reflection, 278279

Systems for State Science Assessment, 22

T

Talk and argument, 187189, 266

Target situations, 114

Task-performance. See Scaffolding

Teacher leaders, 315316

Teacher learning, 306316

effective opportunities, 306308

opportunities that focus on diverse student groups, 314315

in the organizational context of schooling, 308310

professional development programs, 310314

recent developments in, 1820

science specialists, 315316

Teachers.

See also Science teachers

beliefs about student learning, 301303

major findings and conclusions concerning, 344346

perceptions of diverse student learners, 303304

sensitizing to capabilities of all learners, 349

“Teachers’ dispositions,” 301

Teaching innovations, timescale of, 219

Teaching science, importance of, 34

Teleological stance, 69

Textbooks, 211, 253, 257, 341

current, 244

innovative, 259

interaction with, in K-8 classrooms, 259260

limited in the U.S., 218

Theory and hypothesis.

See also Scientific theories

in the language of science, 3031, 271

Thinkertools, 277278

Thought experiments, 65, 102103

Thoughts about science, journaling, 299

Three-dimensional arrays, 236

Tracing, historical, 229

Trends across the K-8 years, 131142

evaluating evidence, 137142

generating evidence, 131136

observing and recording, 136137

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, 217, 263, 316

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

U

Ulcers, bacterial theory of, 29, 143

Underlying model of the nature and development of scientific knowledge, 170172

Underlying science and knowledge in the K-8 years, 172179

knowledge construction, 173175

the nature of science and how it is constructed, 175179

Underpinnings of scientific reasoning, 7478

Understanding knowledge construction, in the K-8 years, 173175

Understanding learners and learning, 301304

of science teachers, 301304

teachers’ beliefs about student learning, 301303

teachers’ perceptions of diverse student learners, 303304

Understanding of the natural world, 93128

changes in conceptual understanding during the K-8 years, 94106

conclusions, 118120

nature of conceptual change, 106118

Understanding student ideas, professional development programs in, 312

Understanding the nature of science

and how it is constructed in the K-8 years, 175179

one strand of scientific proficiency, 37, 3940

Units of study

highly integrated, 257

sequencing, 269271

University of Wisconsin, 312

U.S. pedagogy, patterns in, 254255

V

Valid strategies, coexistence with invalid, 134, 141

Values

clustered, 157

and the desire to “do science,” 198199

traditional, 265

Variables

causal versus noncausal, 141

intraindividual, 4, 134, 142

isolating, 132

Verbal interaction, 191.

See also Talk and argument

Visual analogies, 237

Visualization tools, scientific, 154, 263, 268, 277

Vocabulary, 303

Vocalization, patterns of, 64

W

Willingness to participate, 203

Women, underrepresented in science, 11, 303

Word learning, 70

Working-class men, underrepresented in science, 303

Working with scientific representations and tools, 267268

World. See Natural world

WorldWatcher, 277

Written explanations, 274

Y

Young children’s understanding of knowledge and of science, 7881

ideas, beliefs, and knowledge, 7879

scientific knowledge, 8081

sources of knowledge, 7980

Yup’ik people, 191

Z

Zoos, 98

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 373
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 374
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 375
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 376
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 377
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 378
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 379
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 380
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 381
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 382
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 383
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 384
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 385
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 386
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 387
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11625.
×
Page 388
Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 Get This Book
×
Buy Hardback | $69.95 Buy Ebook | $54.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

What is science for a child? How do children learn about science and how to do science? Drawing on a vast array of work from neuroscience to classroom observation, Taking Science to School provides a comprehensive picture of what we know about teaching and learning science from kindergarten through eighth grade. By looking at a broad range of questions, this book provides a basic foundation for guiding science teaching and supporting students in their learning. Taking Science to School answers such questions as:

  • When do children begin to learn about science? Are there critical stages in a child's development of such scientific concepts as mass or animate objects?
  • What role does nonschool learning play in children's knowledge of science?
  • How can science education capitalize on children's natural curiosity?
  • What are the best tasks for books, lectures, and hands-on learning?
  • How can teachers be taught to teach science?

The book also provides a detailed examination of how we know what we know about children's learning of science--about the role of research and evidence. This book will be an essential resource for everyone involved in K-8 science education--teachers, principals, boards of education, teacher education providers and accreditors, education researchers, federal education agencies, and state and federal policy makers. It will also be a useful guide for parents and others interested in how children learn.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!