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Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues (2006)

Chapter: Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
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APPENDIX A
Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene

ROGENE HENDERSON (Chair) is a senior scientist emeritus at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute. She is also a clinical professor in the College of Pharmacy at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. Her major research interests are in the use of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analyses to detect and characterize biomarkers of developing lung disease, the toxicokinetics of inhaled vapors and gases, and the use of biological markers of exposure and of effects to link environmental exposure to disease. She has served on a number of scientific advisory boards, including those of the Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army. She was recently appointed chair of EPA’s Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee. Dr. Henderson is a National Associate of the National Academies and is a former member of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. She received her Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Texas.


SCOTT BARTELL is assistant professor in the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health and the Department of Epidemiology at the Emory University Rollins School of Public Health. His research interests are in probabilistic models and statistical methods for environmental epidemiology, exposure assessment, risk assessment, and decision analysis. Dr. Bartell was a research scientist at the University of Washington Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication for 4 years, where he conducted research related to child environmental health, chronic beryllium disease susceptibility, applications of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic models to risk assessment, and other topics. His current research efforts include de-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
×

veloping statistical approaches for estimating time-varying exposures using biomarkers, two-stage epidemiologic study design, and applications of toxicokinetic models in epidemiologic analyses involving silica, polychlorinated biphenyls, and methylmercury. Dr. Bartell received an M.S. in environmental health from the University of Washington and an M.S. in statistics and a Ph.D. in epidemiology from the University of California at Davis.


SCOTT BURCHIEL is professor of pharmacology, toxicology, and immunology in the College of Pharmacy at the University of New Mexico. He is also associate dean for research at the college and is director of the New Mexico National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Center. His research interests are in immunotoxicology, with an emphasis on the effects of drugs and environmental agents on signaling pathways controlling lymphocyte activation and apoptosis, protooncogene activation, and mechanisms of signaling in human mammary epithelial cells. Dr. Burchiel was a member of the National Research Council Subcommittee on Jet Propulsion Fuel 8. He received his Ph.D. in pharmacology from the University of California at San Francisco.


DEBORAH CORY-SLECHTA is director of the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute and chair of the Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. Her research interests are in the relationships between neurotransmitter systems and behavior and how such relationships are altered by exposure to environmental toxicants, particularly the role of environmental neurotoxicants in developmental disabilities and neurodegenerative diseases. Dr. Cory-Slechta has served on numerous national research review and advisory panels, including those for the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. She is a former member of the National Research Council Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology’s Committee on Toxicology and the Institute of Medicine Committee on the Gulf War and Health: Literature Review of Pesticides and Solvents. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota.


MARY DAVIS is a professor in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology at the West Virginia University Health Sciences Center. Her research interests are in the toxicology of environmental and occupational pollutants, including water-disinfection by-products, halogenated solvents, and arsenic. She is particularly interested in mechanisms of toxicity in the liver, kidneys, and vascular system. Dr. Davis is a former treasurer of the Society of Toxicology and is a former president of the Society’s Allegheny-Erie

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
×

Regional Chapter. She received her Ph.D. in pharmacology from Michigan State University.


KELLY J. DIX is a scientist in the Toxicology Division of the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute. She also holds an appointment as clinical assistant professor at the University of New Mexico College of Pharmacy. Her research interests are in the areas of preclinical toxicity and metabolism and the pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics; routes of exposure include inhalation, intratracheal instillation, nasal, oral, intravenous, and dermal. She has been involved in analyzing pharmacokinetic data from preclinical and clinical studies by noncompartmental, classic compartmental, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic methods. Dr. Dix is a diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology. She was a member of the National Research Council Subcommittee on Iodotrifluoromethane. She received her M.S. in environmental sciences and engineering from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and her Ph.D. in toxicology from the North Carolina State University.


MARK GOLDBERG is associate professor at McGill University in the Department of Medicine and associate member in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, the Department of Occupational Health, the McGill School of Environment, and the Department of Oncology. His research interests are occupational and environmental epidemiology, environmental and occupational causes of cancer, and epidemiologic and biostatistical methodology. Dr. Goldberg was a member of the Institute of Medicine Committee on the Health Effects of the Gulf War that reviewed the literature on pesticides and solvents. He received his M.Sc. and Ph.D. in epidemiology and biostatistics from McGill University.


EVAN KHARASCH is professor and director of the Clinical Research Division of the Department of Anesthesiology at Washington University. His research interests include drug metabolism, mechanisms of anesthetic hepatic and renal toxicity, and interindividual and pharmacogenetic variability in drug disposition and effects. Dr. Kharasch has served on a number of scientific advisory boards, including those of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, and the International Society for Anaesthetic Pharmacology. He received his M.D. and Ph.D. in pharmacology from Northwestern University. He is certified by the National Board of Medical Examiners and the American Board of Anesthesiology.


SERRINE S. LAU is professor of pharmacology and toxicology and director of the Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center at the University of

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
×

Arizona Health Sciences Center in Tucson. Her research focuses on coupling the metabolic activation of chemicals to their target organ toxicity. Specific areas of interest include genomic and proteomic approaches to understanding the genetic and cellular mechanisms of chemical-induced nephrocarcinogenicity, molecular mechanisms of prostanoid-mediated cytoprotection, and the development of mass spectrometric approaches in proteomics to study chemical-induced alterations in protein structure and function. Dr. Lau completed a term (2002-2004) as councilor of the Society of Toxicology and is currently president of the Society’s Mechanisms Specialty Section. She is a former member of the National Research Council Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Environmental Contaminants. She received her Ph.D. in pharmacology from the University of Michigan.


JOSÉ MANAUTOU is associate professor of toxicology in the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Connecticut. His research interests are in biochemical and molecular mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. Specifically, he is interested in studying the role of multidrug-resistance proteins in the hepatobiliary disposition of xenobiotics. Other areas of investigation include changes in expression of transport proteins in response to chemical liver injury and the hepatoprotective effect of peroxisome proliferators. Dr. Manautou is a councilor of the Society of Toxicology and is a former councilor of the Society’s Mechanisms Specialty Section. He was the recipient of the Society’s 2006 Achievement Award for significant contributions to the field of toxicology. He received his Ph.D. in pharmacology and toxicology from the Purdue University School of Pharmacy and his postdoctoral training in toxicology at the University of Connecticut.


D. GAIL MCCARVER is associate professor in the Departments of Pediatrics and Pharmacology at the Medical College of Wisconsin. She is also codirector of the Birth Defects Research Center, associate director (training grant and pediatric satellite) of the General Clinical Research Center, and director of the Pediatric Section of Clinical Pharmacology, Pharmacogenetics, and Teratology. She is board certified in pediatrics and neonatal-perinatal medicine. Dr. McCarver’s research interests are in genetically determined and environmentally induced differences in xenobiotic metabolism as risk factors for birth defects. Studies involve multiple approaches and tools, including epidemiologic methodology, clinical outcome assessment, molecular techniques, and chemical analysis. She has a grant from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences to study trichloroethylene and congenital heart disease. She received her M.D. from the University of Tennessee College of Medicine.


HARIHARA MEHENDALE is professor and Kitty DeGree Endowed Chair in

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
×

Toxicology at the University of Louisiana at Monroe. His research interests are in pulmonary and hepatic toxicology, mechanisms of toxicology, tissue repair, and toxicology of toxicant mixtures. He is a member of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Advisory Committee and its Dietary Supplements Subcommittee and is chair of the Publications Committee of the American College of Toxicology. Dr. Mehendale received his Ph.D. in physiology from the North Carolina State University. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology, a fellow of the Academy of Toxicological Sciences, and a former member of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology.


PETER MUELLER is professor in the Department of Biostatistics at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. He is also an adjunct professor of statistics at Rice University. His research interests include numerical integration in Bayesian statistics, including Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. He was treasurer of the International Society for Bayesian Analysis and program chair of the American Statistical Association, Section on Bayesian Statistical Science. Dr. Mueller received M.S. degrees in computer science and business from the Technical University, Austria, and in mathematics and physics education from the University of Vienna, Austria; he received his Ph.D. in statistics from Purdue University.


JOHN M. PETERS is Hastings Professor and director of the Division of Occupational and Environmental Health in the Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, at the University of Southern California. He is also director of the Southern California Environmental Health Sciences Center and holds an appointment as adjunct professor of epidemiology at the University of California at Los Angeles School of Public Health. His research interest is in determining the health effects of environmental exposures using epidemiologic approaches. He has published more than 150 research papers, reports, and chapters on subjects such as the health effects of air pollution, magnetic fields, asbestos, vinyl chloride, and other chemicals in both the workplace and the general environment. Dr. Peters received his M.D. from the University of Utah and his M.P.H. in occupational medicine and Sc.D. in environmental medicine from Harvard University.


THOMAS SMITH is professor of industrial hygiene at the Harvard School of Public Health. His research interests are in characterizing environmental and occupational exposures for studies of health effects and investigating of the relationship between environmental exposure and internal dose. He has developed a toxicokinetic modeling approach for designing exposure evaluations for epidemiologic studies. He is using the approach in a cohort

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
×

study of lung cancer mortality in the United States trucking industry, where workers are exposed to diesel exhaust. Dr. Smith is also involved in an exposure study of human metabolism of 1,3-butadiene. He was a member of the Institute of Medicine Committee on the Assessment of Wartime Exposures to Herbicides in Vietnam for 7 years. He received his M.P.H. and Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota.


LESLIE STAYNER is professor and director of epidemiology and biostatistics at the University of Illinois School of Public Health. Before joining the university in 2003, Dr. Stayner was chief of the Risk Evaluation Branch of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Education and Information Division. His research interests include occupational, environmental, and chronic disease epidemiology; epidemiologic methods; and risk assessment. Recent work has involved using Monte Carlo methods to assess the impact of uncertainties in exposure on analysis of dose-response in epidemiologic data. He received his M.Sc. in epidemiology and occupational health from the Harvard School of Public Health and his Ph.D. in epidemiology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


ROCHELLE TYL is director of the Center for Life Sciences and Toxicology at the Research Triangle Institute. Her research interests include reproductive toxicology, reproductive endocrinology, and environmental and comparative toxicology. She has served on numerous scientific committees, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Endocrine Disrupters Screening and Testing Advisory Committee. Dr. Tyl is a former president of the Teratology Society. She received her Ph.D. in developmental genetics from the University of Connecticut and is a diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology.


JACK VANDEN HEUVEL is professor of molecular toxicology and carcinogenesis in the Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences at Penn State University. He is also codirector of the Center for Excellence in Nutrigenomics. His research interests are in mechanisms of action of hypolipidemic drugs and peroxisome proliferators, steroid hormone-receptor-mediated signal transduction, signal transduction by lipids and fatty acids, and receptor-mediated carcinogenesis. Dr. Vanden Heuvel is also co-owner of Indigo Biosciences, LLC, a contract research company that provides consulting and screening services to pharmaceutical and chemical companies. Some of this work involves evaluating chemicals for their potential to bind with certain enzyme receptors, which are the same targets for trichloroethylene and its metabolites. However, none of his consulting work has been on trichloroethylene or its metabolites. He also is president of the Molecular

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
×

Biology Specialty Section of the Society of Toxicology. He received his Ph.D. in environmental toxicology from the University of Wisconsin.


JANICE W. YAGER is senior scientist in the Environment Division of the Electric Power Research Institute. Her current research interests are in applying toxicology to develop biomarkers for human exposure and effects assessment and in the toxicology of metals including arsenic. She has served as an external program peer reviewer of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Health and Environmental Effects Research Carcinogenesis Section, president of the Genetic and Environmental Toxicology Association, and council member of the Environmental Mutagen Society. She has worked on a number of scientific advisory committees including those for the National Institutes of Health, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. She serves on the Arsenic Review Panel of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Scientific Advisory Board. She received her M.P.H. and Ph.D. in environmental health sciences from the University of California at Berkeley.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
×
Page 384
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
×
Page 385
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
×
Page 386
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene." National Research Council. 2006. Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11707.
×
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Trichloroethylene is a chlorinated solvent widely used as a degreasing agent in industrial and manufacturing settings. It is also used as a chemical intermediate in making other chemicals and is a component of products such as typewriter correction fluid, paint removers, adhesives, and spot removers. In 2001, EPA issued a draft health risk assessment and proposed exposure standards for trichloroethylene. PA's Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) reviewed the draft and it was issued for public comment. A number of scientific issues were raised during the course of these reviews.

Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene identifies and assesses the key scientific issues relevant to analyzing the human health risks of trichloroethylene, considering pertinent toxicologic, epidemiologic, population susceptibility, and other available information, including relevant published scientific literature, EPA's 2001 draft health risk assessment of trichloroethylene, scientific and technical comments received by EPA from public and private sources, and additional relevant information to be provided by the sponsoring agencies. This report highlights issues critical to the development of an objective, realistic, and scientifically balanced trichloroethylene health risk assessment.

Guidance for hazard characterization of trichloroethylene is presented in Chapters 2 through 10. Chapter 2 provides guidance for evaluating large sets of epidemiologic data. In Chapter 3, the committee applies this guidance as an example in its evaluation of the epidemiologic data on trichloroethylene and kidney cancer, and this example should help guide evaluations of other cancer risks. Chapter 3 also assesses new information on the kidney toxicity of trichloroethylene and its metabolites and potential modes of action. Chapters 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 evaluate the key issues regarding liver toxicity and cancer, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, respiratory tract toxicity and cancer, and immunotoxicity, respectively. However, the committee's review focused on mode-of-action information to understand how trichloroethylene might affect certain processes differently in different species. Chapter 9 discusses susceptibility to trichloroethylene and its metabolites, and Chapter 10 describes important factors in considering trichloroethylene in mixtures. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are evaluated in Chapter 11, and guidance is provided on future directions for model development. Finally, Chapter 12 considers issues related to dose-response assessment and quantitative assessment of risk.

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