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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11719.
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HANDBOOK OF FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND SPECTRUM PROTECTION FOR SCIENTIFIC USES

Panel on Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses

Committee on Radio Frequencies

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11719.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the task group responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Grant No. AST-0410006 from the National Science Foundation and Grant No. NNH05CC15C-Task Order 103 from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration with the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10301-5

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10301-0

Additional copies of this report are available from the

National Academies Press,

500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11719.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.


www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11719.
×

PANEL ON FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND SPECTRUM PROTECTION FOR SCIENTIFIC USES

KAREN ST. GERMAIN,

NPOESS Integrated Program Office,

Chair

MICHAEL DAVIS,

SETI Institute

DAVID DeBOER,

SETI Institute

STEVEN W. ELLINGSON,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

AARON S. EVANS,

State University of New York at Stony Brook

JAMES M. MORAN,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

JEFFREY PIEPMEIER,

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

MELINDA PIKET-MAY,

University of Colorado at Boulder

F. PETER SCHLOERB,

University of Massachusetts

DANIEL SMYTHE,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

PAUL A. VANDEN BOUT,

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

LUCY ZIURYS,

University of Arizona

Staff

DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director

ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer

BRIAN D. DEWHURST, Senior Program Associate

DAVID B. LANG, Research Associate

PHILLIP D. LONG, Senior Program Assistant

VAN AN, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11719.
×

COMMITTEE ON RADIO FREQUENCIES

KAREN ST. GERMAIN,

NPOESS Integrated Program Office,

Chair

DAVID DeBOER,

SETI Institute,

Vice Chair

STEVEN W. ELLINGSON,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

DAVID G. LONG,

Brigham Young University

JAMES M. MORAN,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

JEFFREY PIEPMEIER,

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

MELINDA PIKET-MAY,

University of Colorado at Boulder

STEVEN C. REISING,

Colorado State University

DANIEL SMYTHE,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

PAUL A. VANDEN BOUT,

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

LUCY ZIURYS,

University of Arizona

Consultants

PAUL FELDMAN,

Esq., Fletcher, Heald and Hildreth

MICHAEL DAVIS,

SETI Institute (retired)

A. RICHARD THOMPSON,

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

NRC Staff

DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director

BRIAN DEWHURST, Senior Program Associate

DAVID B. LANG, Research Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11719.
×

BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY

BURTON RICHTER,

Stanford University,

Chair

ANNEILA L. SARGENT,

California Institute of Technology,

Vice Chair

ELIHU ABRAHAMS,

Rutgers University

JONATHAN BAGGER,

Johns Hopkins University

RONALD C. DAVIDSON,

Princeton University

RAYMOND J. FONCK,

University of Wisconsin at Madison

ANDREA M. GHEZ,

University of California at Los Angeles

PETER F. GREEN,

University of Michigan

LAURA H. GREENE,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

WICK HAXTON,

University of Washington

FRANCES HELLMAN,

University of California at Berkeley

ERICH P. IPPEN,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MARC A. KASTNER,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE,

University of California at Berkeley

JULIA M. PHILLIPS,

Sandia National Laboratories

WILLIAM PHILLIPS,

National Institute of Standards and Technology

THOMAS M. THEIS, IBM T.J.

Watson Research Center

C. MEGAN URRY,

Yale University

Staff

DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director

TIMOTHY I. MEYER, Senior Program Officer

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Senior Program Officer

ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer

NATALIA J. MELCER, Program Officer

BRIAN D. DEWHURST, Senior Program Associate

DAVID B. LANG, Research Associate

PAMELA A. LEWIS, Program Associate

PHILLIP D. LONG, Senior Program Assistant

VAN AN, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11719.
×

Preface

This handbook was developed by the National Research Council’s Panel on Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses, a panel whose membership was drawn predominantly from the Committee on Radio Frequencies (CORF). The volume sets forth the principles adopted by the panel for the allocation and protection of spectral bands for services using the radio spectrum for scientific research. The purposes of the handbook are as follows:

  • To document the panel’s positions on spectrum issues,

  • To guide spectrum managers and spectrum regulatory bodies on science issues,

  • To serve as a resource for scientists on spectrum regulation for research, and

  • To provide information to other spectrum users on the concerns of the scientific users of the spectrum.

Among the resources used to prepare this handbook were the following: Radio Astronomy Handbook of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU);1 the “Redbook” of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration2 (NTIA) (please note that the panel used the NTIA Redbook as of 2005; it is suggested that readers check the NTIA Web site, listed below, for the latest allocations and regulations); and the handbooks for radio astronomy and frequency management from the European Science Foundation’s Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies (CRAF). Because

1

International Telecommunication Union, ITU Handbook on Radio Astronomy, 2nd Ed., Geneva, Switzerland, 2003.

2

National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management (Redbook), May 2003 edition, revised January 2006, available at http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/redbook/redbook.html.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11719.
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radio-frequency regulations, regulatory footnotes, and frequency allocations are subject to change, readers are advised to check the ITU, NTIA, and Federal Communications Commission Web sites, listed below, for the latest information.

Further information on frequency management for scientific uses can be found at the following Web sites:

This handbook was edited and updated between its release in prepublication form and this final published form.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11719.
×

Acknowledgments

This handbook grew out of materials presented and ideas expressed in the report Views of the Committee on Radio Frequencies Concerning Frequency Allocations for the Passive Services at the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference.1 The efforts of previous and current members of the National Research Council’s Committee on Radio Frequencies (CORF) in compiling that document are gratefully acknowledged.

The development of the handbook spanned several years, and the panel thanks the past members of CORF for their contributions to this effort. The panel received invaluable assistance from spectrum managers Tomas Gergely of the National Science Foundation and Charles Wende of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired), whose detailed knowledge and insight were an essential resource. The panel also received substantial help from A. Richard Thompson, National Radio Astronomy Observatory (retired), and John Kiebler, former consultant to CORF. Finally, special thanks are extended to former CORF member T.B.H. Kuiper for his extensive work on the early draft of the handbook.

1

National Research Council, Views of the Committee on Radio Frequencies Concerning Frequency Allocations for the Passive Services at the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11719.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Bernard F. Burke, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

Martha P. Haynes, Cornell University,

Michael J. Marcus, Marcus Spectrum Solutions,

John M. Osepchuk, Full Spectrum Consulting, and

Charles D. Wende, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired).

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Albin J. Gasiewski, University of Colorado at Boulder. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2007. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11719.
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The electromagnetic spectrum is a vital part of our environment. Information encoded in the spectrum of radiation arriving at earth from the universe is the means by which we learn about its workings and origin. Radiation collected from the Earth's land, oceans, biosphere, and atmosphere provide us with much of the data needed to better understand this environment. Wise use of the spectrum is necessary if we are to continue these advances in scientific understanding. To help guide this effort, the NSF and NASA asked the NRC to develop a set of principles for fostering effective allocation and protection of spectral bands for scientific research. This handbook contains practical information in this connection including a description of regulatory bodies and issues, a discussion of the relevant scientific background, a list of science spectrum allocations in the United States, and an analysis of spectrum protection issues.

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