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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×

POLAR ICEBREAKERS IN A CHANGING WORLD

An Assessment of U.S. Needs

Committee on the Assessment of U.S. Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Roles and Future Needs

Polar Research Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

Marine Board

Transportation Research Board

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

Support for this project was provided by the Department of Transportation under Contract No. DTMA1H04002. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10321-3

International Standard Book Number-10 0-309-10321-5

Additional copies of this report are available from the

National Academies Press,

500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); internet, http://www.nap.edu.

Cover: U.S. Coast Guard Cutter POLAR STAR underway enroute to McMurdo Station, Antartica. Photo courtesy of U.S. Coast Guard.

Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.


www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×

COMMITTEE ON THE ASSESSMENT OF U.S. COAST GUARD POLAR ICEBREAKER ROLES AND FUTURE NEEDS

ANITA K. JONES (Chair),

University of Virginia, Charlottesville

ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR.,

The Baciocco Group, Inc., Mount Pleasant, South Carolina

JULIE BRIGHAM-GRETTE,

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

RITA R. COLWELL,

University of Maryland, College Park, and Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

HAJO EICKEN,

University of Alaska, Fairbanks

JEFFREY M. GARRETT,

United States Coast Guard (retired), Mercer Island, Washington

JACQUELINE M. GREBMEIER,

University of Tennessee, Knoxville

MAHLON C. KENNICUTT II,

Texas A&M University, College Station

RONALD K. KISS,

Webb Institute, Glen Cove, New York

DOUGLAS R. MACAYEAL,

University of Chicago, Illinois

ROBERT C. NORTH,

North Star Maritime, Inc., Queenstown, Maryland

RAYMOND J. PIERCE,

Departmental Renewal Implementation Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ontario

STEVEN T. SCALZO,

Marine Resources Group, Inc., Seattle, Washington

DAVID G. ST. AMAND,

Navigistics Consulting, Boxborough, Massachusetts

JAMES H. SWIFT,

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego

NRC Staff

MARIA UHLE, Study Director

BEVERLY HUEY, Study Director

ELIZABETH A. GALINIS, Research Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×

POLAR RESEARCH BOARD

ROBIN BELL (Chair),

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York

JAMES E. BERNER,

Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, Alaska

DAVID BROMWICH,

Ohio State University, Byrd Polar Research Center, Columbus

CALVIN ROBERT CLAUER,

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

JODY W. DEMING,

University of Washington, School of Oceanography, Seattle

ANDREW G. FOUNTAIN,

Portland State University, Oregon

RICHARD GLENN,

Arctic Slope Regional Corporation, Barrow, Alaska

JAQUELINE M. GREBMEIER,

University of Tennessee, Knoxville

SVEN D. HAAKANSON,

Alutiiq Museum, Kodiak, Alaska

LAWRENCE HAMILTON,

University of New Hampshire, Durham

LARRY HINZMAN,

University of Alaska, Fairbanks

DAVID KARL,

University of Hawaii, Honolulu

STEPHANIE PFIRMAN,

Barnard College, New York, New York

DIANA HARRISON WALL,

Colorado State University, Ft. Collins

JOHN WALSH,

University of Alaska, Fairbanks International Arctic Research Center

JAMES WHITE,

University of Colorado, Department of Geological Sciences, Boulder

WARREN M. ZAPOL, M.D.,

Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston

Ex-Officio

MAHLON C. KENNICUTT II (U.S. Delegate to SCAR),

Texas A&M University, College Station

PATRICK WEBBER (U.S. Delegate to IASC),

Michigan State University, East Lansing

TERRY WILSON (Alternate U.S. Delegate to SCAR),

Ohio State University, Columbus

NRC Staff

CHRIS ELFRING, Director

MARIA UHLE, Program Officer

RACHAEL SHIFLETT, Senior Program Assistant

ANDREAS SOHRE, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×

MARINE BOARD

GERALDINE KNATZ (Chair),

Port of Long Beach, California

MARTHA GRABOWSKI (Vice Chair),

LeMoyne College, Cazenovia, New York

KENNETH E. ARNOLD,

AMEC Paragon, Houston, Texas

CHARLES R. CUSHING,

C. R. Cushing & Co., Inc., New York, New York

LARRY L. DAGGETT,

Waterway Simulation Technology, Inc., Vicksburg, Mississippi

ROBERT A. DALRYMPLE,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

PAUL S. FISCHBECK,

Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

STEPHEN E. FLYNN,

Council on Foreign Relations, New York, New York

RODNEY GREGORY,

IBM Global Services, Fairfax, Virginia

I. BERNARD JACOBSON,

IBJ Associates, Boston, Massachusetts

RONALD K. KISS,

Webb Institute, Glen Cove, New York

SALLY ANN LENTZ,

Ocean Advocates, Clarksville, Maryland

MALCOLM MACKINNON III,

MSCL LLC, Alexandria, Virginia

REGINALD MCKAMIE, ESQ.,

Houston, Texas

ROBERT C. NORTH,

North Star Maritime, Inc., Queenstown, Maryland

PATRICK O’CONNOR,

BP America, Inc., Houston, Texas

ROBERT PORTISS,

Tulsa Port of Catoosa, Catoosa, Oklahoma

EDWIN J. ROLAND,

Seaworthy Systems, Inc., Houston, Texas

JERRY R. SCHUBEL,

Aquarium of the Pacific, Long Beach, California

RICHARD H. VORTMANN,

National Steel and Shipbuilding Company, San Diego, California

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2005 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS

JOHN R. NJORD (Chair), Executive Director,

Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City

MICHAEL D. MEYER (Vice Chair), Professor,

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

C. MICHAEL WALTON (Division Chair for NRC Oversight), Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering,

University of Texas, Austin

ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. (Executive Director),

Transportation Research Board

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×

Acknowledgments

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Brian N. Bershad, University of Washington, Seattle

Lawson Brigham, U.S. Arctic Research Commission, Anchorage, Alaska

David H. Bromwich, The Ohio State University, Columbus

Thomas R. Case, University of Alaska, Anchorage

Margo H. Edwards, University of Hawaii, Manoa

Richard M. Goody, Harvard University (emeritus), Falmouth, Massachusetts

Rodney Gregory, IBM Global Services, Reston, Virginia

Robert Knox, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla

George B. Newton, Jr., Planning Systems Inc., McLean, Virginia

Robert H. Rutford, University of Texas, Dallas

Norman C. Venzke, U.S. Coast Guard (retired), Virginia Beach, Virginia

Richard Voelker, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the report’s conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by George M. Hornberger, University of Virginia, and John B. Mooney, Jr., U.S. Navy (retired). Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×
   

 The Present Fleet of U.S. Icebreakers,

 

56

   

 The Current World Fleet of Polar Icebreakers,

 

57

   

 Icebreaker Technology,

 

58

   

 Icebreakers Under Construction,

 

62

   

 U.S. Polar Icebreaker Operations in the Last Twenty Years,

 

62

7

 

ICEBREAKING ENVIRONMENTS AND CHALLENGES TO THE U.S. FLEET

 

65

   

 Operating Environments,

 

65

   

 Potential Challenges to the U.S. Fleet,

 

71

8

 

ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES FOR USAP RESUPPLY

 

75

   

 Current Logistics Support in Antarctica,

 

75

   

 Alternatives for Antarctic Resupply,

 

75

9

 

ANALYSIS OF U.S. CURRENT AND FUTURE POLAR ICEBREAKING NEEDS

 

79

   

 Needs Analysis,

 

79

   

 Gap Analysis,

 

81

10

 

OPTIONS FOR ACQUIRING NEW POLAR ICEBREAKING SERVICES

 

83

   

 Options for Meeting Gaps in U.S. Polar Icebreaking Capabilities,

 

83

   

 Ship Renewal and Transition Schedule,

 

87

   

 Options for Polar Icebreaking Crewing,

 

88

11

 

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

95

   

 Icebreaking Needs in the Arctic,

 

95

   

 Icebreaking Needs in the Antarctic,

 

96

   

 Support of U.S. Polar Research,

 

97

   

 Renewal of the Nation’s Polar Icebreaking Fleet,

 

98

   

 Transition to a new Polar Icebreaking Fleet,

 

100

   

 Managing the Nation’s Polar Icebreaking Fleet,

 

101

   

 Clarification of National Policy,

 

102

 

 

REFERENCES

 

103

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

A

 

STATEMENT OF TASK

 

107

B

 

SUMMARY FROM INTERIM REPORT

 

109

C

 

U.S. COAST GUARD POLAR ICEBREAKING AUTHORITY AND POLICY

 

113

D

 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS

 

117

E

 

ACRONYMS

 

121

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11753.
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