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Status of Pollinators in North America (2007)

Chapter: Color Plates

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Suggested Citation:"Color Plates." National Research Council. 2007. Status of Pollinators in North America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11761.
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PLATE 1 Structure of a flower (Frasera speciosa, Gentianaceae; visited by the bumble bee Bombus flavifrons). Photo by David Inouye, University of Maryland, College Park.

Suggested Citation:"Color Plates." National Research Council. 2007. Status of Pollinators in North America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11761.
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PLATE 2 Pollinating insects, clockwise from top left: honey bee (Apis mellifera, photo by S. Buchmann, University of Arizona, Tucson); sphinx moth (Hyles lineata, photo by W. May); yucca moths (Tegeticula yuccasella, photo by W. May); a fly (Bombyliidae, photo by D. Inouye, University of Maryland, College Park).

Suggested Citation:"Color Plates." National Research Council. 2007. Status of Pollinators in North America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11761.
×

PLATE 3 Lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris nivalis), a mammalian pollinator (photo © Merlin D. Tuttle, Bat Conservation International, reprinted with permission).

Suggested Citation:"Color Plates." National Research Council. 2007. Status of Pollinators in North America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11761.
×

PLATE 4 Hummingbird, an avian pollinator (photo by W. May).

Suggested Citation:"Color Plates." National Research Council. 2007. Status of Pollinators in North America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11761.
×
Page 309
Suggested Citation:"Color Plates." National Research Council. 2007. Status of Pollinators in North America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11761.
×
Page 310
Suggested Citation:"Color Plates." National Research Council. 2007. Status of Pollinators in North America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11761.
×
Page 311
Suggested Citation:"Color Plates." National Research Council. 2007. Status of Pollinators in North America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11761.
×
Page 312
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Pollinators--insects, birds, bats, and other animals that carry pollen from the male to the female parts of flowers for plant reproduction--are an essential part of natural and agricultural ecosystems throughout North America. For example, most fruit, vegetable, and seed crops and some crops that provide fiber, drugs, and fuel depend on animals for pollination.

This report provides evidence for the decline of some pollinator species in North America, including America's most important managed pollinator, the honey bee, as well as some butterflies, bats, and hummingbirds. For most managed and wild pollinator species, however, population trends have not been assessed because populations have not been monitored over time. In addition, for wild species with demonstrated declines, it is often difficult to determine the causes or consequences of their decline. This report outlines priorities for research and monitoring that are needed to improve information on the status of pollinators and establishes a framework for conservation and restoration of pollinator species and communities.

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