Abrams SA, Griffin IJ, Hawthorne KM, Chen Z, Gunn SK, Wilde M, Darlington G, Shypailo RJ, Ellis KJ. 2005. Vitamin D receptor Fok1 polymorphisms affect calcium absorption, kinetics, and bone mineralization rates during puberty. J Bone Miner Res 20(6): 945–953.
Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. 2001. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol 119(10):1417–1436.
Ajani UA, Ford ES, Mokdad AH. 2004. Dietary fiber and C-reactive protein: findings from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. J Nutr 134(5):1181–1185.
Armas, LAG, Hollis BW, Hearney, RP. 2004. Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:5387–5391.
Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, Giovannucci EL, Kawachi I, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. 1998. Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber, and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation 98(12):1198–1204.
Ashfield-Watt PA, Pullin CH, Whiting JM, Clark ZE, Moat SJ, Newcombe RG, Burr ML, Lewis MJ, Powers HJ, McDowell IF. 2002. Methylenetratrahydrofolate reductase 677C→T genotype modulates homocysteine responses to a folate-rich diet or a low-dose folic acid supplement: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 76(1):180–186.
Barbagallo M, Gupta RK, Dominguez LJ, Resnick LM. 2000. Cellular ionic alterations with age: Relation to hypertension and diabetes. J Am Geriatr Soc 48(9):1111–1116.
Baron JA, Cole BF, Mott L, Haile R, Grau M, Church TR, Beck GJ, Greenberg ER. 2003. Neoplastic and antineoplastic effects of beta-carotene on colorectal adenoma recurrence: Results of a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 95(10):717–722.
Basiotis PP, Welsh SO, Cronin FJ, Kelsay JL, Mertz W. 1987. Number of days of food intake records required to estimate individual and group nutrient intakes with defined confidence. J Nutr 117:1638– 1641.
Beaton GH. 1994. Criteria of an adequate diet. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th edition. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 1491–1505.
Beltran-Aguilar ED, Barker LK, Canto MT, Dye BA, Gooch BF, Griffin SO, Hyman J, Jaramillo F, Kingman A, Nowjack-Raymer R, Selwitz RH, Wu T. 2005. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Surveillance for dental caries, dental sealants, tooth retention, edentulism, and enamel fluorosis: United States, 1988– 1994 and 1999–2002. MMWR Surveill Summ 54(3):1–43.
Benyo Z, Gille A, Kero J, Csiky M, Suchankova MC, Nusing RM, Moers A, Pfeffer K, Offermanns S. 2005. GPR109A (PUMA– G/HM74A) mediates nicotinic acid-induced flushing. J Clin Invest 115(12):3634–3640.
Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Field AE, Gillman MW, Colditz GA. 2004. Sugar-added beverages and adolescent weight change. Obes Res 12:778–788.
Borghi L, Schianchi T, Meschi T, Guerra A, Allegri F, Maggiore U, Novarini A. 2002. Comparison of two diets for the prevention of recurrent stones in idiopathic hypercalciuria. N Engl J Med 346(2):77–84.
Brindle JT, Antti H, Holmes E, Tranter G, Nicholson JK, Bethell HW, Clarke S, Schofield PM, McKilligin E, Mosedale DE, Grainger DJ. 2002. Rapid and noninvasive diagnosis of the presence and severity of coronary heart disease using 1H-NMR-based metabonomics. Nat Med 8:1439–1445. Erratum in: Nat Med 2003 Apr:9(4):477.
Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. 1999. Supplemental vitamin E intake and prostate cancer risk in a large cohort of men in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8(10):893–899.
Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Duboeuf F, Brun J, Crouzet B, Arnaud S, Delmas PD, Meunier PJ. 1992. Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in elderly women. N Engl J Med 327(23):1637–1642.
Chapuy MC, Pamphile R, Paris E, Kempf C, Schlichting M, Arnaud S, Garnero P, Meunier PJ. 2002. Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: Confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk: The Decalyos II study. Osteoporos Int 13(3):257–264.
Chen J, Zhao X, Zhang X, Yin S, Piao J, Huo J, Yu B, Qu N, Lu Q, Wang S, Chen C. 2005. Studies on the effectiveness of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce in controlling iron deficiency: A population-based intervention trial. Food Nutr Bulletin 26:177–189.
Chiang EP, Selhub J, Bagley PJ, Dallal G, Roubenoff R. 2005a. Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 7(6):R1404–R1411.
Chiang EP, Smith DE, Selhub J, Dallal G, Wang YC, Roubenoff R. 2005b. Inflammation causes tissue-specific depletion of vitamin B6. Arthritis Res Ther 7(6):R1254–R1262.
Cho E, Zeisel SH, Jacques P, Selhub J, Dougherty L, Colditz GA, Willett WC. 2006. Dietary choline and betaine assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma total homocysteine concentration in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Clin Nutr 83:905-911.
Clark LC, Combs GF Jr, Turnbull BW, Slate EH, Chalker DK, Chow J, Davis LS, Glover RA, Graham GF, Gross EG, Krongrad A, Lesher JL Jr, Park HK, Sanders BB Jr, Smith CL, Taylor JR. 1996. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. JAMA 276(24):1957–1963. Erratum in: JAMA. 1997, 277(19):1520.
Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, Shearer MJ, Gilbody S, Torgerson DJ. 2006. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 166(12):1256–1261.
COMA (Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy). 1991. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report on Health and Social Subjects, No. 41. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
Cook JD, Flowers CH, Skikne BS. 2003. The quantitative assessment of body iron. Blood 101:3359–3363.
Cooney CA, Dave AA, Wolff GL. 2002. Maternal methyl supplements in mice affect epigenetic variation and DNA methylation of offspring. J Nutr 132:2392S–2400S.
Corella D, Qi L, Soreli JV, Godoy D, Portoles O, Coltell O, Greenberg AS, Ordovas JM. 2005. Obese subjects carrying the 11482G>A polymorphism at the perilipin locus are resistant to weight loss after dietary energy restriction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90(9):5121– 5126.
Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. 2005. Final report of the safety assessment of niacinamide and niacin. Int J Toxicol 24(suppl 5):1–31.
Cummings JH. 1993. The effect of dietary fiber on fecal weight and composition. In: Spiller GA, ed. CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. 1997. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 337(10):670–676.
da Costa KA, Kozyreva OG, Song J, Galanko JA, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH. 2006a. Common genetic polymorphisms affect the human requirement for the nutrient choline. FASEB J 20:1336–1344.
da Costa KA, Niculescu MD, Craciunescu CN, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH. 2006b. Choline deficiency increases lymphocyte apoptosis and DNA damage in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 84(1):88–94.
de Romana DL, Lonnerdal B, Brown KH. 2003. Absorption of zinc from wheat products fortified with iron and either zinc sulfate or zinc oxide. Am J Clin Nutr 78:279–283.
Devaney B, Ziegler P, Pac S, Karwe V, Barr SI. 2004. Nutrient intakes of infants and toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc 104(1 Suppl 1):s14–21.
Devirian TA, Volpe SL. 2003. The physiological effects of dietary boron. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 43:219–231.
DHHS/USDA (Department of Health and Human Services/U.S. Department of Agriculture). 2004. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture. [Online]. Available: http://www.healthierus.gov/dietary guidelines [accessed September 15, 2006].
DHHS/USDA. 2005. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. 6th ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. GPO No 001-000-04719-1.
Dolinoy DC, Weidman JR, Waterland RA, Jirtle RL. 2006. Maternal genistein alters coat color and protects Avy mouse offspring from obesity by modifying the fetal epigenome. Environ Health Perspect 114(4):567–572.
Domellof M, Lonnerdal B, Abrams SA, Hernell O. 2002. Iron absorption in breast-fed infants: Effects of age, iron status, iron supplements, and complementary foods. Am J Clin Nutr 76(1):198–204.
Domellof M, Lonnerdal B, Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Hernell O. 2004 Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations in breast milk are independent of maternal mineral status. Am J Clin Nutr 79(1):111–5. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr 2004 80(6):1669.
Duffield-Lillico AJ, Reid ME, Turnbull BW, Combs GF Jr, Slate EH, Fischbach LA, Marshall JR, Clark LC. 2002. Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: A summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11(7):630–639.
FAO/WHO/UNU (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization/United Nations Association). 1985. Energy and Protein Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNA Expert Consultation. Technical Report Series. No. 724. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization), The International Programme on Chemical Safety. 2005. A Model for Establishing Upper Levels of Intake for Nutrients and Related Substances: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Technical Workshop on Nutrient Risk Assessment.[Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/ipcs/methods/nra/en/index.html [accessed September 15, 2006].
Feskanich D, Singh V, Willett WC, Colditz GA. 2002. Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women. JAMA 287(1): 47–54.
Fine KD, Schiller LR. 1999. GAG technical review on the evaluation and management of chronic diarrhea. Gastroenterology 116:1464–1486.
Garza C, Scrimshaw NS, Young VR. 1977. Human protein requirements: A long-term metabolic nitrogen balance study in young men to evaluate the 1973 FAO/WHO safe level of egg protein intake. Br J Nutr 37(3):403–420.
Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Rimm EB, Hollis BW, Fuchs CS, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. 2006. Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D
status and cancer incidence and mortality in men. J Natl Cancer Inst 98:451–459.
Gori AM, Sofi F, Corsi AM, Gazzini A, Sestini I, Lauretani F, Bandinelli S, Gensini GF, Ferrucci L, Abbate R. 2006. Predictors of vitamin B6 and folate concentrations in older persons: The InCHIANTI study. Clin Chem 52(7):1318–1324.
Goulding A, Cannan R, Williams SM, Gold EJ, Taylor RW, Lewis-Barned NJ. 1998. Bone mineral density in girls with forearm fractures. J Bone Miner Res 13:143–148.
Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, Anderson FH, Cooper C, Francis RM, Donaldson C, Gillespie WJ, Robinson CM, Torgerson DJ, Wallace WA, RECORD Trial Group. 2005. Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D—RECORD): A randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 365(9471):1621–1680.
Guenther BD, Sheppard CA, Tran P, Rozen R, Matthews RG, Ludwig ML. 1999. The structure and properties of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli suggest how folate ameliorates human hyperhomocysetinemoa. Nat Struct Biol 6(4):359–365.
Guinotte CL, Burns MG, Axume JA, Hata H, Urrutia TF, Alamilla A, McCabe D, Singgih A, Cogger EA, Caudill MA. 2003. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductate 677C→T variant modulates folate status response to controlled folate intakes in young women. J Nutr 133:1272–1280.
Haddad JG, Chyu K. 1971. Competitive protein-binding radioassay for 25 hydroxychol-calciferol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 33:992–995.
Hadley KB, Johnson LK, Hunt JR. 2006. Absorption by healthy women is not associated with either serum or urinary prohepcidin. Am J Clin Nutr 84:150–155.
Hambidge KM, Krebs NF, Westcott JE, Miller LV. 2006. Changes in zinc absorption during development. J Pediatr 149(suppl 3):64–68.
Haskell MJ, Jamil KM, Hassan F, Peerson JM, Hossain MI, Fuchs GJ, Brown KH. 2004. Daily consumption of Indian spinach (Basella alba) or sweet potatoes has a positive effect on total-body vitamin A stores in Bangladeshi men. Am J Clin Nutr 80(3):705–714.
He FJ, Markandu ND, Coltart R, Barron J, MacGregor GA. 2005. Effect of short-term supplementation of potassium chloride and potassium citrate on blood pressure in hypertensives. Hypertension 45(4): 571–574.
Heaney, RP, Davies KM, Chen TC, Holick MF, Barger-Lux MJ. 2003. Human serum 25–hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 77:204–210.
Health Canada (Health Canada, Health Products and Food Branch, Office of Nutrition Policy and Promotion). 2006. Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2, Nutrition (2004): A Guide to Accessing and Interpreting the Data. Ottawa, Ontario: Health Canada. [Online]. Available: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/surveill/ nutrition/commun/index_e.html (accessed August 20, 2006).
Herman S, Griffin IJ, Suwarti S, Ernawati F, Permaesih D, Pambudi D, Abrams SA. 2002. Cofortification of iron-fortified flour with zinc sulfate, but not zinc oxide, decreases iron absorption in Indonesian children. Am J Clin Nutr 76:813–817.
Hollis, BW, Wagner CL. 2004. Vitamin D requirements during lactation: High-dose maternal supplementation as therapy to prevent hypovitaminosis D for both the mother and the nursing infant. Am J Clin Nutr 80:1752S–1758S.
Hoppe M, Hulthen L, Hallberg L. 2003. Serum iron concentration as a tool to measure relative iron absorption from elemental iron powders in man. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 63:489–496.
Hurrell R, Bothwell T, Cook JD, Dary O, Davidsson L, Fairweather-Tait S, Hallberg L, Lynch S, Rosado J, Walter T, Whittaker P. 2002. The usefulness of elemental iron for cereal flour fortification: A SUSTAIN Task Force report. Sharing United States Technology to Aid in the Improvement of Nutrition. Nutr Rev 60:391–406.
Hustad S, Ueland PM, Vollset SE, Zhang Y, Bjorke-Monsen AL, Schneede J. 2000. Riboflavin as a determinant of plasma total homocysteine: Effect of modification by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism. Clin Chem 46(8 Pt 1):1065– 1071.
International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. 2004. Assessment of the risk of zinc deficiency in populations and options for its control. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 25 (1, Supp 2):S99–S129.
IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1994. How Should the Recommended Dietary Allowances Be Revised? Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
IOM. 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
IOM. 1998a. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
IOM 1998b. A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
IOM. 2000a. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
IOM. 2000b. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
IOM. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
IOM. 2002/2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
IOM. 2003a. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Planning. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
IOM. 2003b. Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
IOM. 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
IOM. 2006a. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
IOM. 2006b. Mineral Requirements for Military Personnel; Levels Needed for Cognitive and Physical Performance During Garrison Training. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
IOM. 2006c. WIC Food Packages: Time for a Change. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O'Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D; Women's
Health Initiative Investigators. 2006. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med 354(7):669– 83. Erratum in: N Engl J Med 2006 354(10):1102.
Jacques PF, Taylor A, Moeller S, Hankinson SE, Rogers G, Tung W, Ludovico J, Willet WC, Chylack LT Jr. 2005. Long-term nutrient intake and 5-year change in nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol 123(4):517–526.
Jalla S, Westcott J, Steirn M, Miller LV, Bell M, Krebs NF. 2002. Zinc absorption and exchangeable zinc pool sizes in breast-fed infants fed meat or cereal as first complementary food. J Pediatr Gastr Nutr 34:35–41.
Kang SS, Zhou J, Wong PW, Kowalisyn J, Strokosch G. 1988. Intermediate homocysteinemia: a thermolabile variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Am J Hum Genet 43(4):414–421.
Kelly P, McPartlin J, Goggins M, Weir DG, Scott JM. 1997. Unmetabolized folic acid in serum: Acute studies in subjects consuming fortified food and supplements. Am J Clin Nutr 65(6):1790–1795.
Kirsh VA, Hayes RB, Mayne ST, Chatterjee N, Subar AF, Dixon LB, Albanes D, Andriole GL, Urban DA, Peters U; PLCO Trial. 2006. Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 98(4):245–254.
Kohlmeier M, da Costa KA, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH. 2005. Genetic variation of folate-mediated one-carbon transfer pathway predicts susceptibility to choline deficiency in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:16025-16030.
Krebs NF, Westcott JE. 2002. Zinc and breast-fed infants: If and when is there a risk of deficiency? In: Davis MK, Isaacs CE, Hanson LA, Wright AL, eds. Integrating Population Outcomes, Biological Mechanisms and Research Methods in the Study of Human Milk and Lactation. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Krebs NF, Westcott JE, Butler N, Robinson C, Bell M, Hambidge KM. 2006. Meat as a first complementary food for breast-fed infants: Feasibility and impact on zinc intake and status. J Pediatr Gastroenter Nutr 42:207–214.
Lahoz C, Schaefer EJ, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Levy D, Osgood D, Parpos S, Pedro-Botet J, Daly JA, Ordovas JM. 2001. Apolipoprotein E genotype and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Heart Study. Atherosclerosis 154(3):529–537.
Lembo A, Camilleri M. 2003. Chronic constipation. N Engl J Med 349:1360–1368.
Lips P Graafmans WC, Ooms ME, Bezemer PD, Bouter LM. 1996. Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med 124:400–406.
Liu, PT, Stenger S, Li H, Wenzel L, Tan BH, Krutzik S, Ochoa MT, Schauber J, Wu K, Meinken C, Kamen DL, Wagner M, Bals R, Steinmeyer A, Zugel U, Modlin RL. 2006. Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science 311:1770–1773.
Liuzzi JP, Cousins RJ. 2004. Mammalian zinc transporters. Annu Rev Nutr 24:151–172.
Lopez de Romana D, Salazar M, Hambidge KM, Penny ME, Peerson JM, Krebs NF, Brown KH. 2005. Longitudinal measurements of zinc absorption in Peruvian children consuming wheat products fortified with iron only or iron and 1 of 2 amounts of zinc. Am J Clin Nutr 81:637–647.
Lopez-Ridaura R, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE. 2004. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Diabetes Care 27(1):134–140.
Luft FC, Rankin LI, Bloch R, Weyman AE, Willis LR, Murray RH, Grim CE, Weinberger MH. 1979. Cardiovascular and humoral responses to extremes of sodium intake in normal black and white men. Circulation 60:697–706.
Ma Y, Griffith JA, Chasan-Taber L, Olendzki BC, Jackson E, Stanek EJ 3rd, Li W, Pagoto SL, Hafner AR, Ockene IS. 2006. Association between dietary fiber and serum C-reactive protein. Am J Clin Nutr 83(4):760–766.
Matkovic V, Goel PK, Badenhop-Stevens NE, Landoll JD, Li B, Ilich JZ, Skugor M, Nagode LA, Mobley SL, Ha EJ, Hangartner TN, Clairmont A. 2005. Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in females from childhood to young adulthood: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 81:175–188.
Melse-Boonstra A, Holm PI, Ueland PM, Olthof M, Clarke R, Verhoef P. 2005. Betaine concentration as a determinant of fasting total homocysteine concentrations and the effect of folic acid supplementation on betaine concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 81:1378-1382.
Meyer HE, Smedshaug GB, Kvaavik E, Falch JA, Tverdal A, Pedersen JI. 2002. Can vitamin D supplementation reduce the risk of fracture in the elderly? A randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 17(4):709–715.
Miller EG III, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E. 2005. Meta-analysis: High-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 142: 37-46.
Morgan HD, Sutherland, HG, Martin DI, Whitelaw E. 1999. Epigenetic inheritance at the agouti locus in the mouse. Nat Genet 23(3): 314–318.
Morris RC Jr, Sebastian A, Forman A, Tanaka M, Schmidlin O. 1999. Normotensive salt-sensitivity: Effects of race and dietary potassium. Hypertension 33:18–23.
Moshfegh A, Goldman J, Cleveland L. 2005 What We Eat in America, NHANES 2001–2002: Usual Nutrient Intakes from Food Compared to Dietary Reference Intakes. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. [Online]. Available: http://www. ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12355000/pdf/usualintaketables200 1-02.pdf (accessed September 10, 2006).
Mrdjenovic G, Levitsky DA. 2003. Nutritional and energetic consequences of sweetened drink consumption in 6- to 13-year-old children. J Pediatr 142:604–610.
Narang MA, Dumas R, Ayer LM, Gravel RA. 2004. Reduced histone biotinylation in multiple carboxylase deficiency patients: A nuclear role for holocarboxylase synthetase. Human Molecular Genet 13: 15–23.
Nemeth E, Ganz T. 2006. Regulation of iron metabolism by hepcidin. Annu Rev Nutr 26:323–342.
NRC (National Research Council). 1943. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Report of the Food and Nutrition Board. Reprint and Circular Series No. 115. Washington, DC: National Research Council.
NRC. 1989a. Diet and Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 1989b. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
O'Brien MM, Kiely M, Harrington KE, Robson PJ, Strain JJ, Flynn A. 2001. The North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey: Vitamin
intakes in 18- to 64-year-old adults. Public Health Nutr 4(5A):1069– 1079.
Oettle GJ. 1991. Effect of moderate exercise on bowel habit. Gut 32(8):941–944.
Phillips SM, Bandini LG, Naumova EN, Cyr H, Colclough S, Dietz WH, Must A. 2004. Energy-dense snack food intake in adolescence: Longitudinal relationship to weight and fatness. Obesity Res 12: 461–472.
Prince RL, Devine A, Dhaliwal SS, Dick IM. 2006. Effects of calcium supplementation on clinical fracture and bone structure: Results of a 5-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in elderly women. Arch Intern Med 166(8):869–875.
Rehman, P. 1994. Subclinical rickets and recurrent infection. J Tropical Pediatr 40:58.
Ribaya-Mercado JD, Solon FS, Solon MA, Cabal-Barza MA, Perfecto CS, Tang G, Solon JA, Fjeld CR, Russell RM. 2000. Bioconversion of plant steroids to vitamin A in Filipino school-aged children varies inversely with vitamin A status. Am J Clin Nutr 72(2):455–465.
Rocchietta, S. 1960. Notes for a history of physiotherapy. Niel Ryberg Finsen (1860–1904), pioneer of modern phototherapy. Minerva Med 51:966–968.
Rude RK, Gruber HE, Norton HJ, Wei LY, Frausto A, Mills BG. 2004. Bone loss induced by dietary magnesium reduction to 10% of the nutrient requirement in rats is associated with increased release of substance P and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Nutr 134(1):79–85.
Rude RK, Gruber HE, Norton HJ, Wei LY, Frausto A, Kilburn J. 2005. Dietary magnesium reduction to 25% of nutrient requirement disrupts bone and mineral metabolism in the rat. Bone 37(2): 211–219.
Rude RK, Gruber HE, Norton HJ, Wei LY, Frausto A, Kilburn J. 2006. Reduction of dietary magnesium by only 50% in the rat disrupts bone and mineral metabolism. Osteoporos Int 17(7):1022–1032.
Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Yang W, Selvin S, Schaffer DM. 2004. Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring. Am J Epidemiol 160(2):102–109.
Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Laurent C, Rasmussen SA. 2006. Maternal nutrient intakes and risk of orofacial clefts. Epidemiology 17(3): 285–291.
Sowers M, Whitford GM, Clark MK, Jannausch ML. 2005. Elevated serum fluoride concentrations in women are not related to fractures and bone mineral density. J Nutr 135(9):2247–2252.
Stanley JS, Griffin JB, Zempleni J. 2001. Biotinylation of histones in human cells. Effects of cell proliferation. Eur J Biochem 268:5424– 5429.
Steingrimsdottir L, Gunnarsson O, Indridason OS, Franzson L, Sigurdsson G. 2005. Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone levels, vitamin D sufficiency, and calcium intake. JAMA 294(18):2336–2341.
Suitor CW, Gleason PM. 2002. Using Dietary Reference Intake-based methods to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake school-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc 102(4):530–536.
Swain JH, Newman SM, Hunt JR. 2003. Bioavailability of elemental iron powders to rats is less than bakery-grade ferrous sulfate and predicted by iron solubility and particle surface area. J Nutr 133:3546–3552.
Tang G, Gu X, Hu S, Xu Q, Qin J, Doinikowski GG, Feld CR, Gao X, Russell RM, Yin S. 1999. Green and yellow vegetables can maintain body stores of vitamin A in Chinese children. Am J Clin Nutr 70(6):1069–1076.
Tang G, Qin J, Doinikowski GG, Russell RM, Grusak MA. 2005. Spinach or carrots can supply significant amounts of vitamin A as assessed by feeding with intrinsically deuterated vegetables. Am J Clin Nutr 82(4):821–828.
Tooze JA, Subar AF, Thompson FE, Troiano R, Schatzkin A, Kipnis V. 2004. Psychosocial predictors of energy underreporting in a large doubly labeled water study. Am J Clin Nutr 79(5):795–804.
Trivedi DP, Doll R, Khaw KT. 2003. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: Randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ 326(7387):469.
Troen AM, Mitchell B, Sorensen B, Wener MH, Johnston A, Wood B, Selhub J, McTiernan A, Yasui Y, Oral E, Potter JD, Ulrich CM. 2006. Unmetabolized folic acid in plasma is associated with reduced natural killer cell cytotoxicity among postmenopausal women. J Nutr 136(1):189–194.
Tucker DM, Sandstead HH, Logan GM Jr, Klevay LM, Mahalko J, Johnson LK, Inman L, Inglett GE. 1981. Dietary fiber and
personality factors as determinants of stool output. Gastroenterology. 81(5):879–883.
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture). 2005. MyPyramid: Steps to a Healthier You. [Online]. Available: http://www. mypyramid.gov. (accessed September 9, 2006).
Van Thuy P, Berger J, Nakanishi Y, Khan NC, Lynch S, Dixon P. 2005. The use of NaFeEDTA–fortified fish sauce is an effective tool for controlling iron deficiency in women of childbearing age in rural Vietnam. J Nutr 135:2596–2601.
Vieth R, Chan PC, MacFarlane GD. 2001. Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 intake exceeding the lowest observed adverse effect level. Am J Clin Nutr 73(2):288–294.
Virtamo J, Pietinen P, Huttunen JK, Korhonen P, Malila N, Virtanen MJ, Albanes D, Taylor PR, Albert P; ATBC Study Group. 2003. Incidence of cancer and mortality following alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation: a postintervention follow-up. JAMA 290(4):476–485.
Wagner CL, Hulsey TC, Fanning D, Ebeling M, Hollis BW. 2006. High dose vitamin D3 supplementation in a cohort of breastfeeding mothers and their infants: a six months follow-up pilot study. J Breastfeeding Medicine 33:992-995.
Waterland RA, Jirtle RL. 2003. Transposable elements: targets for early nutritional effects on epigenetic gene regulation. Mol Cell Biol 23(15):5293–5300.
Wise A, Foord SM, Fraser NJ, Barnes AA, Elshourbagy N, Eilert M, Ignar DM, Murdock PR, Steplewski K, Green A, Brown AJ, Dowell SJ, Szekeres PG, Hassall DG, Marshall FH, Wilson S, Pike NB. 2003. Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid. J Biol Chem 278(11):9869–9874.
Younes-Mhenni S, Derex L, Berruyer M, Nighoghossian N, Philippeau F, Saltzmann M, Trouillas P. 2004. Large-artery stroke in a young patient with Crohn’s disease. Rose of vitamin B6 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. J Neur Sci (1–2): 113–115.
Zimmermann MB, Winichagoon P, Gowachirapant S, Hess SY, Harrington M, Chavasit V, Lynch SR, Hurrell RF. 2005. Comparison of the efficacy of wheat-based snacks fortified with ferrous sulfate, electrolytic iron, or hydrogen-reduced elemental iron: Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in Thai women. Am J Clin Nutr 82:1276–1282.