National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×

A REVIEW OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE and DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Aerospace Propulsion Needs

Committee on Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs

Air Force Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.

This is a report of work supported by Grant F49620-01-1-0269 between the U.S. Air Force and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
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COMMITTEE ON AIR FORCE AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AEROSPACE PROPULSION NEEDS

KENNETH E. EIC KMANN, Chair,

U.S. Air Force (retired)

DONALD W. BAHR, Independent Consultant

DILIP R. BALLAL,

University of Dayton, Ohio

YVONNE C. BRILL, Independent Consultant

DENNIS M. BUSHNELL,

NASA Langley Research Center

PAUL G.A. CIZMAS,

Texas A&M University

CHARLES H. COOLIDGE,

EADS North America Defense Company

DAVID E. CROW,

University of Connecticut

THOMAS W. EAGAR,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

GERARD W. ELVERUM, Independent Consultant

CARL E. FRANKLIN,

International Falcon Associates, Inc.

FRANK C. GILLETTE, Independent Consultant

EDWARD M. GREITZER,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JEFFREY W. HAMSTRA,

Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company

BERNARD L. KOFF,

TurboVision

MITSURU KUROSAKA,

University of Washington, Seattle

D. BRIAN LANDRUM,

University of Alabama, Huntsville

IVETT A. LEYVA,

Microcosm, Inc.*

LOURDES Q. MAURICE,

Federal Aviation Administration

NEIL E. PATON,

Liquidmetal Technologies

LAWRENCE P. QUINN,

Aerojet

ELI RESHOTKO,

Case Western Reserve University (emeritus)

KENNETH M. ROSEN,

General Aero-Science Consultants, LLC

ROBERT L. SACKHEIM,

NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center**

BEN T. ZINN,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

Staff

JAMES C. GARCIA, Study Director

DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Program Officer

CARTER W. FORD, Research Associate

WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Senior Program Associate

LaNITA R. JONES, Senior Program Assistant

LINDA D. VOSS, Technical Writer

*

Affiliation to April 6, 2006.

**

Affiliation to May 5, 2006.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×

AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD

LAWRENCE J. DELANEY, Chair, Independent Consultant

R. NOEL LONGUEMARE, Vice Chair, Independent Consultant

FRANK J. CAPPUCCIO,

Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company

THOMAS DARCY, EADS

North America Defense Company

STEVEN D. DORFMAN,

Air Force (retired)

PAMELA A. DREW,

Boeing Integrated Defense Systems

KENNETH E. EICKMANN, Independent Consultant

JOHN V. FARR,

Stevens Institute of Technology

RAND H. FISHER,

Titan Corporation

JACQUELINE GISH,

Northrop Grumman Corporation

KENNETH C. HALL,

Duke University

WESLEY L. HARRIS,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

LESLIE KENNE,

LK Associates

DONALD J. KUTYNA, Independent Consultant

TAYLOR W. LAWRENCE,

Raytheon Company

GREGORY S. MARTIN,

GS Martin Consulting

DEBASIS MITRA,

Bell Laboratories

CHANDRA N. KUMAR PATEL,

University of California, Los Angeles

RICHARD R. PAUL,

The Boeing Company

ROBERT F. RAGGIO,

Dayton Aerospace, Inc.

GENE W. RAY,

GMT Ventures

ELI RESHOTKO,

Case Western Reserve University (emeritus)

LOURDES SALAMANCA-RIBA,

University of Maryland, College Park

MARVIN R. SAMBUR, Independent Consultant

LYLE H. SCHWARTZ, Independent Consultant

EUGENE L. TATTINI,

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Staff

MICHAEL A. CLARKE, Director

JAMES C. GARCIA, Senior Program Officer

DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Program Officer

CARTER W. FORD, Research Associate

CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate

LaNITA R. JONES, Senior Program Assistant

LaSHAWN N. SIDBURY, Program Associate

DEANNA P. SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator

WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Senior Program Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×

Preface

This study responds to a request by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Science, Technology, and Engineering (SAF/AQR) and the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) that the National Research Council (NRC) evaluate the U.S. aerospace propulsion technology base to determine if efforts under way will support necessary warfighter capabilities to 2020. The current national context for the study includes fuel prices at historically high levels, ever-increasing costs for sustaining aircraft, a decreasing domestic launch capability, and uncertainty about the availability of U.S. citizens to perform the requisite research on propulsion. All of these factors are of critical importance to U.S. national security. The committee sincerely hopes that this report—the culmination of an extremely intense effort—will enable the Air Force and Department of Defense (DoD) to make informed decisions on future aerospace propulsion needs. As chair, I want to applaud the committee members for their commitment and diligence during the study that enabled us to complete the task successfully. I also want to express the members’ thanks to the Air Force and DoD for their dedicated support throughout the study and for the efforts of National Research Council staff consisting of Michael Clarke, Jim Garcia, Daniel Talmage, Carter Ford, LaNita Jones, Bill Campbell, Liz Fikre, and Anderson intern Dionna Ali.


Kenneth E. Eickmann, Chair

Committee on Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
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ROLE OF THE BOARD

The Air Force Studies Board (AFSB) was established in 1996 by the National Academies at the request of the Air Force. The AFSB brings to bear broad military, industrial, and academic scientific, engineering, and management expertise on Air Force technical challenges and other issues of importance to senior Air Force leaders. The board discusses potential studies of interest, develops and frames study tasks, ensures proper project planning, suggests potential committee members and reviewers for reports produced by fully independent ad hoc study committees, and convenes meetings to examine strategic issues. The board members listed on page vi were not asked to endorse the committee’s conclusions or recommendations, nor did they review the final draft of this report before its release. Board members with appropriate expertise may be nominated to serve as formal members of study committees or to review reports.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Peter M. Banks, Independent Consultant,

Edgar Choueiri, Princeton University,

Earl H. Dowell, Duke University,

Kenneth C. Hall, Duke University,

Hans G. Hornung, California Institute of Technology,

Kenneth K. Kuo, Pennsylvania State University,

Carl J. Meade, Northrop Grumman Corporation,

Michael M. Micci, Pennsylvania State University,

Robert E. Schafrik, GE Aircraft Engines, and

William A. Sirignano, University of California, Irvine.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×

or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Louis J. Lanzerotti, New Jersey Institute of Technology. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×
   

 Current Technology for Large, First-Stage, Strap-on, Solid Propellant Motors,

 

38

   

 Current Technology for Delta IV and Atlas V Second Stages: RL-10 Family of Engines,

 

39

   

 Propulsion Needs and Propulsion Technologies for Responsive Spacelift,

 

40

   

 Initiatives for Developing New Aerospace Propulsion Technology,

 

46

   

 The U.S. Rocket Propulsion Industry,

 

48

   

 Rocket Propulsion Systems for In-Space Operations,

 

50

   

 Current Propulsion Technologies,

 

51

   

 Current Propulsion Research,

 

53

   

 Critical Needs for Meeting In-Space Propulsion Goals,

 

55

   

 Propulsion Systems for Strike and Tactical Missiles,

 

56

   

 IHPRPT Goals for Improving Missile Propulsion,

 

56

   

 Current IHPRPT Research,

 

57

   

 Two Potentially Transformative Concepts,

 

59

   

 Outlook for All Rocket Propulsion Systems: Access to Space, In-Space Operations, and Airborne Missiles,

 

60

   

 Cross-cutting Technologies,

 

60

   

 Investment Strategy Options,

 

61

   

 References,

 

64

 

 

Chapters 2-7 and Appendixes A-E are reproduced on the CD-ROM that contains the full report but are not included in the printed report.

 

 

2

 

MILITARY PROPULSION NEEDS

 

 

   

 Background

 

 

   

 Global Strike

 

 

   

 Global Mobility and Airborne C4ISR

 

 

   

 Cross-Cutting Capabilities

 

 

   

 Reliability and Maintainability

 

 

   

 Rotorcraft

 

 

   

 Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

 

 

   

 Economics of Turbine Engines

 

 

   

 Space

 

 

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
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 Summary

 

 

   

 References

 

 

3

 

AIR-BREATHING PROPULSION

 

 

   

 Introduction

 

 

   

 Large Gas Turbine Engine Programs

 

 

   

 Engine Development Programs

 

 

   

 IHPTET and VAATE Demonstrator and Research Programs

 

 

   

 Component Improvement Programs

 

 

   

 Derivative Engine Programs

 

 

   

 Small Gas Turbine Engine Programs

 

 

   

 Engine Requirements and Development

 

 

   

 Component Improvement Programs

 

 

   

 Derivative Engine Programs

 

 

   

 Engine Demonstration Programs

 

 

   

 Expendable Turbine Engine S&T Programs

 

 

   

 Other Technology Programs

 

 

   

 Ramjet and Scramjet Engine Programs

 

 

   

 Pulse Detonation Engine Programs

 

 

   

 High-Thrust Electric Propulsion

 

 

   

 High-Energy-Density Materials as Propellants

 

 

   

 Turbine Combustors

 

 

   

 Distributed Propulsion

 

 

   

 References

 

 

4

 

ROCKET PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR ACCESS TO SPACE

 

 

   

 Introduction

 

 

   

 Current Capabilities of Large Launch Vehicles

 

 

   

 Delta IV Family of Vehicles

 

 

   

 Atlas V Family of Vehicles

 

 

   

 Booster Engines for Large Launch Vehicles

 

 

   

 First-Stage, Liquid Propellant

 

 

   

 First-Stage, Strap-on, Solid Propellent

 

 

   

 First-Stage, Strap-on, Liquid or Solid Propellant

 

 

   

 Hybrid Propellant Strap-ons

 

 

   

 Second-Stage Engines

 

 

   

 Small to Medium-Sized Launch Vehicles

 

 

   

 Existing Vehicles

 

 

   

 Vehicle in Development

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×
   

 FALCON Small Launch Vehicles

 

 

   

 Air-Based Vertical Launch Concept

 

 

   

 Multimission Modular Vehicle Air-Based Launch

 

 

   

 ORS Requirements

 

 

   

 Affordable Responsive Spacelift Vehicle

 

 

   

 Initiatives to Establish New Propulsion Technology Base

 

 

   

 National Aerospace Initiative

 

 

   

 Integrated High-Performance Rocket Propulsion Technology

 

 

   

 Air Force Research Laboratory Efforts Under IHPRPT

 

 

   

 Contractor Efforts Under IHPRPT Funding

 

 

   

 Other Efforts Under Government or Industry Funding: New Engine Designs and New Propellants, Feed Systems, Pressurization, and Materials

 

 

   

 Apparently Superior Foreign Technologies

 

 

   

 Defining DoD and Air Force Needs for Propulsion Technology and Tools

 

 

   

 Systems Engineering

 

 

   

 Modeling and Simulation

 

 

   

 Rocket Engine and Motor Test Beds

 

 

   

 Important Technologies for Propulsion Systems

 

 

   

 Areas That Need More Attention

 

 

   

 Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Fuels and Oxidizers

 

 

   

 Propulsion Elements

 

 

   

 Reliability of the Supply Base

 

 

   

 Leveraging Opportunities for Access-to-Space Propulsion

 

 

   

 Low-Cost, Responsive Launch Vehicles

 

 

   

 Propulsion Technologies Developed by NASA

 

 

   

 Status and Capabilities of the U.S. Rocket Propulsion Industry

 

 

   

 References

 

 

5

 

ROCKET PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR IN-SPACE OPERATIONS AND MISSILES

 

 

   

 Introduction

 

 

   

 Current State of the Art in On-Orbit Propulsion

 

 

   

 Chemical Propulsion

 

 

   

 Electric Propulsion

 

 

   

 Promising Technologies for On-Orbit Propulsion and for Tactical and Strike Missiles

 

 

   

 IHPRPT Targets for Propulsion Performance

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×
   

 Chemical Propulsion

 

 

   

 Electric Propulsion

 

 

   

 Propulsion for Strike and Tactical Missiles

 

 

   

 Critical Technology Needs That Call for More Attention

 

 

   

 Specific Needs

 

 

   

 Other Needs

 

 

   

 SCARLET: An Existing Technology That Could Be Leveraged

 

 

   

 Current Work on Propulsion

 

 

   

 Solid Propellant Motors

 

 

   

 Hybrid Motors

 

 

   

 Gelled Propellant Motors

 

 

   

 Opportunities for Transformation in Accomplishing Responsive Global Reach and ABM Missions

 

 

   

 Air-Based Vertical Launch Concept

 

 

   

 Multimission Modular Vehicle Concept

 

 

   

 Critical Enabling Technologies

 

 

   

 Final Observation

 

 

   

 References

 

 

6

 

CROSS-CUTTING TECHNOLOGIES

 

 

   

 Introduction

 

 

   

 Fuels

 

 

   

 Gas Turbines

 

 

   

 High-Altitude, Long-Endurance Unmanned Aircraft Systems

 

 

   

 Expendable Missiles with Turbine Engines

 

 

   

 Hypersonic and Scramjet Vehicles

 

 

   

 Pulsed Detonation Engines

 

 

   

 Combined Cycle Engines

 

 

   

 Liquid Hydrocarbon Propellants for Rockets

 

 

   

 Modeling and Simulation of Complex Hydrocarbon Fuels

 

 

   

 Fuel Cost and Logistics Barriers and Alternative Fuels

 

 

   

 Materials

 

 

   

 High-Temperature Structural Materials

 

 

   

 Combustion and Thermal Management

 

 

   

 References

 

 

7

 

STRATEGIES, ISSUES, AND FUNDING TRENDS

 

 

   

 Maximizing the Return on Investment

 

 

   

 Using the Air Logistics Center to Enhance Technology Transition

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
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Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×

Acronyms

AATE Affordable Advanced Turbine Engine

ABM antiballistic missile

ABVL air-based vertical launch

ACS assembly and command ship

AEDC Arnold Engineering Development Center

AFOSR Air Force Office of Scientific Research

AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory

AFSB Air Force Studies Board

AFSPC Air Force Space Command

AIAA American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AMROC American Rocket Company

AoA analysis of alternatives

AP ammonium perchlorate

AR nozzle area ratio

ARES Affordable Responsive Spacelift (vehicle)

AT&L acquisition, technology, and logistics

BAE British Aerospace

BMDO Ballistic Missile Defense Organization

C4ISR command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance

CADB Chemiautomatics Design Bureau

Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×

CADM computer-aided design and manufacturing

CCA cooled cooling air

CDR critical design review

CEV crew exploration vehicle

CFD computational fluid dynamics

CIP Component Improvement Program

CMC ceramic matrix composite

CNT carbon nanotube

COBRA Co-optimized Booster for Reusable Applications

CONOPS concept of operations

CRRA capabilities review and risk assessment

CSAR Center for the Simulation of Advanced Rockets

CUIP Constellation University Institutes Project

CVC constant volume combustor

DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DCR dual-combustor ramjet

DDR&E Director of Defense Research and Engineering

DoD Department of Defense

DOE Department of Energy

DTAP Defense Technology Area Plan

ECEP engine capability enhancement program

EELV evolved expendable launch vehicle

EHF extremely high frequency

EMA electromechanical actuator

EMDP engine model derivative program

EMTVA electromechanical thrust vector assembly

EOP Executive Office of the President

EP electric propulsion

EPDM ethylene propylene diene monomer

ESA European Space Agency

ETO Earth-to-orbit

FAA Federal Aviation Administration

FADEC fuel-authority digital engine/electronic control

FALCON Force Application and Launch from the Continental United States

FATE Future Affordable Turbine Engine

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×

FBM fleet ballistic missile

FCS Future Combat Systems

FEM finite-element model

FY fiscal year

GE General Electric

GEM graphite epoxy motor

GITVC gas injection thrust vector control

GLOW gross liftoff weight

GOTChA goals, objectives, technical challenges, and approaches

GTE gas turbine engine

GTO geosynchronous transfer orbit

H2 hydrogen

H2O2 hydrogen peroxide

HAN hydroxylammonium nitrate

HCV hypersonic cruise vehicle

HEDM high-energy-density materials

HiReTS high Reynolds number thermal stability

HiSTED High-Speed Turbine Engine Demonstration

HPDP hybrid propulsion development program

HTPB hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene

HTV hypersonic technology vehicle

HUMS health and usage monitoring system

HyCAUSE hypersonic collaboration between Australia and United States experiment

HyFly Hypersonics Flight Demonstration

HyTech hypersonic technology

HyTOP Hybrid Technology Options Project

Isp specific impulse

IBR integrally bladed rotor

IC internal combustion

ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization

ICBM intercontinental ballistic missile

IHPRPT Integrated High-Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology

IHPTET Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology

IM insensitive munitions

IOC initial operational capability

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×

IPD integrated powerhead demonstrator

IR&D independent research and development

ITAPS integrated total aerospace power system

ITEP Improved Turbine Engine Program

JASSM joint air-to-surface standoff missile

JCIDS joint capabilities integration and development system

JHL joint heavy lift

JSF Joint Strike Force

JTAGG joint turbine advanced gas generator

lbf pound force

lbf/sec pound force per second

LEO low Earth orbit

LH2 liquid hydrogen

LISA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna

LOx liquid oxygen

LP launch platform

ManTech Manufacturing Technology

MBSAT Mobile Broadcasting Satellite

MHD magnetohydrodynamic

MMH monomethylhydrazine

MMMV multimission modular vehicle

MON mixed oxides of nitrogen

M&S modeling and simulation

MSFC Marshall Space Flight Center

N2H4 monopropellant hydrazine

N2O nitrous oxide

N2O4 dinitrogen tetroxide

NAI National Aerospace Initiative

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NEXT NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster

NGLT Next-Generation Launch Technology

NOx nitrogen oxides

NPSH net positive suction head

NRC National Research Council

NSSK North-South station keeping

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
×

NSSS National Security Space Strategy

OAM orbit adjust module

OC-ALC Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center

OEM original equipment manufacturer

ORS operationally responsive spacelift

ORSC oxygen-rich staged combustion

OSC Orbital Sciences Corporation

OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense

OSP Orbital Suborbital Program

OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy

OUSD Office of the Undersecretary of Defense

Pc chamber pressure

PBR Presidential Budget Request

PDE pulsed detonation engine

PDR pulsed detonation rocket/preliminary design review

PDW pulse detonation wave

POM program objectives memorandum

POSS polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane

PPT pulsed plasma thruster

PPU power processing unit

PR propulsion and power

PRV personnel recovery vehicle

psi pounds per square inch

psia pounds per square inch absolute

P-STAR propulsion sizing, thermal analysis, accountability, and weight relationship first-order modeling tool

RATTLRS Revolutionary Approach to Time-Critical Long-Range Strike

RCE reaction control engine

REAP2 Rocket Engine Advancement Progra

R&D research and development

RDT&E research, development, testing, and evaluation

RDX royal demolition explosive

ROM rough order of magnitude

SAF Secretary of the Air Force

Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2006. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11780.
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SCARLET solar concentrator array with refractive linear element technology

SCAT secondary combustion augmented thruster

SDD system design and development

SECDEF Secretary of Defense

SED single-engine demonstrator

SFC specific fuel consumption

SFS sequential feed system

SHFE small heavy fuel engine

SHP shaft horsepower

SLBM submarine-launched ballistic missile

SLI Space Launch Initiative

SLV small launch vehicle

SMART 1 small missions for advanced research in technology 1

SMP FY06 Strategic Master Plan for FY06 and Beyond

SPT stationary plasma thruster

SRB solid rocket booster

SRM solid rocket motor

SSME space shuttle main engine

S&T science and technology

STOL short takeoff and landing

STOVL short takeoff and vertical landing

SVTI Space Vehicle Technology Institute

TARA technology area review and assessment

TBC thermal barrier coating

THAAD terminal high-altitude area defense

TM thermal management

TOW tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided missile

TPA turbopump assembly

TRL technology readiness level

TVC thrust vector control

T/W thrust to weight

UAH University of Alabama at Huntsville

UAS unmanned aircraft system

UCAV unmanned combat air vehicle

UCC ultracompact combustor

UER unscheduled engine removal

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USAF U.S. Air Force

USET upper-stage engine technology

VAATE Versatile, Affordable, Advanced Turbine Engine

VaPak vapor pressurization technology

V/STOL vertical or short takeoff and landing

VTOL vertical takeoff and landing

XIPS Xenon Ion Propulsion System

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Rocket and air-breathing propulsion systems are the foundation on which planning for future aerospace systems rests. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs assesses the existing technical base in these areas and examines the future Air Force capabilities the base will be expected to support. This report also defines gaps and recommends where future warfighter capabilities not yet fully defined could be met by current science and technology development plans.

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