National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
×

STUDIES IN GEOPHYSICS

Climate in Earth History

Geophysics Study Committee

Geophysics Research Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS

Washington, D.C.

1982

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
×

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for this report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities, It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences.

The Geophysics Study Committee is pleased to acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Department of Energy (Grant # DE-FG02–80ER10757) for the conduct of this study.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Main entry under title:

Climate in earth history.

(Studies in geophysics)

Papers presented at the American Geophysical Union meeting, held in Toronto, May 1980.

Includes bibliographies.

1. Paleoclimatology—Addresses, essays, lectures. 2. Historical geology—Addresses, essays, lectures. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Geophysical Study Committee. II. American Geophysical Union. Meeting (1980: Toronto, Ont.) III. Series.

QC884.C574 1982 551.69 82–18857

ISBN 0-309-03329-2

Available from

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS

2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
×

Panel on Pre-Pleistocene Climates

WOLFGANG H.BERGER,

Scripps Institution of Oceanography,

Cochairman

JOHN C.CROWELL,

University of California, Santa Barbara,

Cochairman

MICHAEL A.ARTHUR,

University of South Carolina

WILLIAM A.BERGGREN,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

ARTHUR J.BOUCOT,

Oregon State University

GARRETT W.BRASS,

University of Miami

DAVID L.CLARK,

University of Wisconsin

HANS P.EUGSTER,

The Johns Hopkins University

J.FERRER,

Exxon Production Research-European

ALFRED G.FISCHER,

Princeton University

W.LAWRENCE GATES,

Oregon State University

JANE GRAY,

University of Oregon

ANTHONY HALLAM,

The University of Birmingham, England

BILAL U.HAQ,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

JON HARDENBOL,

Exxon Production Research Company

WILLIAM W.HAY,

Joint Oceanographic Institution

W.T.HOLSER,

University of Oregon

JOHN IMBRIE,

Brown University

L.D.KEIGWIN, JR.,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

THEODORE C.MOORE, JR.,

Exxon Production Research Company

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
×

W.H.PETERSON,

University of Miami

NICKLAS G.PISIAS,

Oregon State University

JAMES B.POLLACK,

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

RICHARD Z.POORE,

U.S. Geological Survey, Reston

E.SALTZMAN,

University of Miami

SAMUEL M.SAVIN,

Case Western Reserve University

J.L.SLOAN II,

University of Miami

J.R.SOUTHAM,

University of Miami

HANS R.THIERSTEIN,

Scripps Institution of Oceanography

PETER R.VAIL,

Exxon Production Research Company

JAMES W.VALENTINE,

University of California, Santa Barbara

FRANKLYN B.VAN HOUTEN,

Princeton University

JACK A.WOLFE,

U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
×

Geophysics Study Committee

CHARLES L.DRAKE,

Dartmouth College,

Chairman

LOUIS J.BATTAN,

University of Arizona,

Vice Chairman

JOHN D.BREDEHOEFT,

U.S. Geological Survey

ALLAN V.COX,

Stanford University

JOHN C.CROWELL,

University of California, Santa Barbara

HUGH ODISHAW,

University of Arizona

CHARLES B.OFFICER,

Dartmouth College

RAYMOND G.ROBLE,

National Center for Atmospheric Research

Liaison Representatives

BRUCE B.HANSHAW,

U.S. Geological Survey

GEORGE A.KOLSTAD,

Department of Energy

MURLI MANGHNANI,

National Science Foundation

NED OSTENSO,

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

WILLIAM RANEY,

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

CARL F.ROMNEY,

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Staff

THOMAS M.USSELMAN

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
×

Geophysics Research Board

PHILIP H.ABELSON,

American Association for the Advancement of Science,

Chairman

CHARLES R.BENTLEY,

University of Wisconsin

JOHN D.BREDEHOEFT,

U.S. Geological Survey

A.G.W.CAMERON,

Harvard College Observatory

DORIS M.CURTIS,

Houston, Texas

JOHN C.CROWELL,

University of California, Santa Barbara

WILLIAM R.DICKINSON,

University of Arizona

CHARLES L.DRAKE,

Dartmouth College

JOHN V.EVANS,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

WILLIAM A.FOWLER,

California Institute of Technology

KATE H.HADLEY,

Exxon Company

ARTHUR E.MAXWELL,

University of Texas at Austin

JOHN C.MAXWELL,

University of Texas at Austin

THOMAS V.McEVILLY,

University of California, Berkeley

V.RAMA MURTHY,

University of Minnesota

HUGH ODISHAW,

University of Arizona

RICHARD J.REED,

University of Washington

ALAN H.SHAPLEY,

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

EUGENE M.SHOEMAKER,

U.S. Geological Survey

JOHN H.STEELE,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
×

MURRAY STRASBERG,

U.S. Navy

VERNER E.SUOMI,

University of Wisconsin

EINAR A.TANDBERG-HANSSEN,

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

BYRON D.TAPLEY,

University of Texas at Austin

CHARLES A.WHITTEN,

Silver Spring, Maryland

Ex Officio

LOUIS J.BATTAN,

University of Arizona

OWEN GINGERICH,

Smithsonian/Harvard Center for Astrophysics

C.GORDON LITTLE,

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

ARTHUR L.SCHAWLOW,

Stanford University

Staff

PEMBROKE J.HART

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
×

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources

HERBERT FRIEDMAN,

National Research Council,

Cochairman

ROBERT M.WHITE,

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research,

Cochairman

STANLEY I.AUERBACH,

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

ELKAN R.BLOUT,

Harvard Medical School

WILLIAM BROWDER,

Princeton University

BERNARD F.BURKE,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

HERMAN CHERNOFF,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

WALTER R.ECKELMANN,

Exxon Corporation

JOSEPH L.FISHER,

Office of the Governor, Commonwealth of Virginia

JAMES C.FLETCHER,

University of Pittsburgh

WILLIAM A.FOWLER,

California Institute of Technology

GERHART FRIEDLANDER,

Brookhaven National Laboratory

EDWARD A.FRIEMAN,

Science Applications, Inc.

EDWARD D.GOLDBERG,

Scripps Institution of Oceanography

KONRAD B.KRAUSKOPF,

Stanford University

CHARLES J.MANKIN,

Oklahoma Geological Survey

WALTER H. MUNK,

University of California, San Diego

NORTON NELSON,

New York University Medical Center

DANIEL A.OKUN,

University of North Carolina

GEORGE E.PAKE,

Xerox Research Center

DAVID PIMENTEL,

Cornell University

CHARLES K.REED,

National Research Council

HATTEN S.YODER, JR.,

Carnegie Institution of Washington

RAPHAEL G.KASPER, Executive Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
×

Studies in Geophysics*

ENERGY AND CLIMATE

Roger R.Revelle, panel chairman, 1977, 158 pp.

CLIMATE, CLIMATIC CHANGE, AND WATER SUPPLY

James R.Wallis, panel chairman, 1977, 132 pp.

ESTUARIES, GEOPHYSICS, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Charles B.Officer, panel chairman, 1977, 127 pp.

THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE AND MAGNETOSPHERE

Francis S.Johnson, panel chairman, 1977, 169 pp.

GEOPHYSICAL PREDICTIONS

Helmut E.Landsberg, panel chairman, 1978, 215 pp.

IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON GEOPHYSICS

Homer E.Newell, panel chairman, 1979, 121 pp.

CONTINENTAL TECTONICS

B.Clark Burchfiel, Jack E.Oliver, and Leon T.Silver, panel cochairmen, 1980, 197 pp.

MINERAL RESOURCES: GENETIC UNDERSTANDING FOR PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

Paul B.Barton, Jr., panel chairman, 1981, 118 pp.

SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF WATER-RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Myron B.Fiering, panel chairman, 1982, 127 pp.

SOLAR VARIABILITY, WEATHER, AND CLIMATE

John A.Eddy, panel chairman, 1982, 106 pp.

CLIMATE IN EARTH HISTORY

Wolfgang H.Berger and John C.Crowell, panel cochairmen, 1982, 198 pp.

*

Published to date.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
×

Preface

In 1974 the Geophysics Research Board completed a plan, subsequently approved by the Committee on Science and Public Policy of the National Academy of Sciences, for a series of studies to be carried out on various subjects related to geophysics. The Geophysics Study Committee was established to provide guidance in the conduct of the studies.

One purpose of the studies is to provide assessments from the scientific community to aid policymakers in decisions on societal problems that involve geophysics. An important part of such an assessment is an evaluation of the adequacy of present geophysical knowledge and the appropriateness of present research programs to provide information required for those decisions. Some of the studies place more emphasis on assessing the present status of a field of geophysics and identifying the most promising directions for future research.

This study was initiated in response to the recommendation in the report Geological Perspectives on Climatic Change (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1978). The recommendation called for the following: “(1) to assess the state of the art, …and to stimulate progress in geological aspects of climate research; (2) to evaluate comprehensively and in detail the research opportunities in, the operational needs of, and the scientific and societal relevance of geological and geophysical processes affecting the understanding of climate and climatic forecasting; and (3) to recommend the appropriate geological content of a national and global climate pro-

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
×

gram.” In considering this recommendation, the Geophysics Study Committee felt that the major geologic and geophysical questions concerning climate were those found in the pre-Pleistocene (older than 2 million years) record.

The study was developed through meetings of the Geophysics Study Committee and the Panel on Pre-Pleistocene Climates. The preliminary scientific findings of the panel were presented at an American Geophysical Union meeting that took place in Toronto in May 1980. These presentations and the essays contained in this volume provide examples of current basic knowledge of the climate in the geologic past. They also pose many of the fundamental questions and uncertainties that require additional research. In completing their papers, the authors had the benefit of discussion at this symposium as well as comments of several scientific referees. Responsibility for the individual essays rests with the corresponding authors.

The Overview of the study summarizes the highlights of the essays and formulates conclusions and recommendations. In preparing it, the panel chairmen had the benefit of meetings that took place at the symposium, the comments of the panel of authors, and selected referees. Responsibility for the Overview rests with the Geophysics Study Committee and the chairmen of the panel.

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1982. Climate in Earth History: Studies in Geophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11798.
×

 

 

 

 

 

6.

 

Continental Glaciation through Geologic Time
John C.Crowell

 

77

7.

 

Ocean Circulation, Plate Tectonics, and Climate
Garrett W.Brass, E.Saltzman, J.L.Sloan II, J.R.Southam, William W.Hay, W.T.Holser, and W.H.Peterson

 

83

8.

 

The Terminal Cretaceous Extinction Event and Climatic Stability
Hans R.Thierstein

 

90

9.

 

Long-Term Climatic Oscillations Recorded in Stratigraphy
Alfred G.Fischer

 

97

10.

 

Climatic Significance of Lake and Evaporite Deposits
Hans P.Eugster

 

105

11.

 

Ancient Soils and Ancient Climates
Franklyn B.Van Houten

 

112

12.

 

Role of Ocean Gateways in Climatic Change
William A.Berggren

 

118

13.

 

Climatic Acme Events in the Sea and on Land
Bilal U.Haq

 

126

14.

 

The Arctic Ocean and Post-Jurassic Paleoclimatology
David L.Clark

 

133

15.

 

Interpreting Paleoenvironments, Subsidence History, and Sea-Level Changes of Passive Margins from Seismic and Biostratigraphy
Jon Hardenbol, Peter R.Vail, and J.Ferrer

 

139

16.

 

Tertiary Marine and Nonmarine Climatic Trends
Jack A.Wolfe and Richard Z.Poore

 

154

17.

 

The Jurassic Climate
Anthony Hallam

 

159

18.

 

Stable Isotopes in Climatic Reconstructions
Samuel M.Savin

 

164

19.

 

Cenozoic Variability of Oxygen Isotopes in Benthic Foraminifera
Theodore C.Moore, Jr., Nicklas G.Pisias, and L.D.Keigwin, Jr.

 

172

20.

 

Seasonality and the Structure of the Biosphere
James W.Valentine

 

184

21.

 

Paleozoic Data of Climatological Significance and Their Use for Interpreting Silurian-Devonian Climate
Arthur J.Boucot and Jane Gray

 

189

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