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Suggested Citation:"C Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions." National Research Council. 2006. Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11805.
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C
Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions

ACBM: Advisory Committee for Biology and Medicine

ACERER: Advisory Committee for Energy-Related Epidemiological Research

ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

BEIR: Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (NRC)

Bias: Factors that influence the outcome of data collection, such as causing certain measurements to have a greater chance of being included than others

BSC: Board of Scientific Counselors

CAB: Citizens’ Advisory Board

CAREs: Communities Against a Radioactive Environment

Case-control study: Epidemiologic study in which people with disease and a similarly composed control group are compared in terms of exposures to a putative causative agent

CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (DOE)

CEHIC: Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control (CDC)

CERCLA: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; CERCLA provides a federal “Superfund” to clean up uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites as well as accidents, spills, and other emergency releases of pollutants and contaminants into the environment

CHE: Coalition for a Healthy Environment

Suggested Citation:"C Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions." National Research Council. 2006. Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11805.
×

CI (confidence interval): Interval estimate of an unknown parameter such as a risk; 95% CI, as an example, is constructed from a procedure that is theoretically successful in capturing the parameter of interest in 95% of its applications. Confidence limits are the end points of a confidence interval

CIC: Community Involvement Committee (LANL)

CLL: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

COWG: Communications and Outreach Workgroup (Oak Ridge)

DOE: U.S. Department of Energy

Dose: Short name for absorbed dose (1 Gy = 1 J/kg) and also for equivalent dose, effective dose, and weighted dose (1 Sv = 1 J/kg)

EEOICPA: Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act

EPA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Epidemiology: Study of the determinants of the frequency of disease in humans.The two main types of epidemiologic studies of chronic disease are cohort (or follow-up) studies and case-control studies

EPR: Electron paramagnetic resonance

ERDA: Energy Research and Development Administration

ERR: Estimated excess relative risk. The rate of disease in an exposed population divided by the rate of disease in an unexposed population minus 1.0.

ES&H: Office of Environment, Safety and Health (DOE)

ETTP: East Tennessee Technology Park

Exposure: Condition of having contact with a physical or chemical agent

FACA: Federal Advisory Committee Act

FWMSP: Former Worker Medical Surveillance Program (DOE)

HCHP: Hanford Community Health Project

HEDR: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

HEHF: Hanford Environmental Health Foundation.

HERB: Health-Related Energy Research Branch (NIOSH)

HES: Health Effects Subcommittee

HETA: Hazard Evaluation and Technical Assistance

HHE: Health Hazard Evaluation

HHES: Hanford Health Effects Subcommittee

HHIN: Hanford Health Information Network

HHS: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

HTDS: Hanford Thyroid Disease Study

I-131: Iodine-131

ICD: International Classification of Diseases

ICRP International Commission on Radiological Protection: Independent inter-

Suggested Citation:"C Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions." National Research Council. 2006. Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11805.
×

national organization that provides recommendations and guidance on protection against ionizing radiation

IDA: Individual Dose Assessment Project (Hanford)

Incidence (also incidence rate): Rate of occurrence of a disease within a specified period of time, often expressed as a number of cases per 100,000 individuals per year

INL: Idaho National Laboratory

IOM: Institute of Medicine

Ionizing radiation: Radiation sufficiently energetic to dislodge electrons from an atom, thereby producing an ion pair; ionizing radiation includes X- and gamma radiation, electrons (beta radiation), alpha particles (helium nuclei), and heavier-charged atomic nuclei. Neutrons ionize indirectly by first colliding with components of atomic nuclei

LAHDRA: Los Alamos Historical Document Retrieval and Assessment

LANL: Los Alamos National Laboratory

LET: Linear energy transfer

Linear (L) model or relationship (also linear dose-effect relationship): A special case of the linear-quadratic model, with the quadratic coefficient equal to zero; this model expresses the effect (e.g., cancer, mutation) as proportional to dose (linear function of the dose)

Linear-quadratic (LQ) model (also linear-quadratic dose-effect relationship): This model expresses the effect (e.g., cancer) as the sum of two components, one proportional to the dose (linear term) and one proportional to the square of the dose (quadratic term). The linear term predominates at low doses; the quadratic term, at high doses

LLNL: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

LNT model: Linear no-threshold dose-response for which any dose greater than zero has a positive probability of producing an effect (e.g., mutation, cancer); the probability is calculated either from the slope of a linear (L) model or from the limiting slope, as the dose approaches zero, of a linear-quadratic (LQ) model

LOAEL: Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level

MED: Manhattan Engineering District

Meta-analysis: Analysis of epidemiologic data from several studies based on data included in publications

Minimal risk level (MRL): Estimate of the daily human exposure to a hazardous substance that is likely to be without appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effects over a specified duration of exposure

MMP: Medical Monitoring Program

Model: Schematic description of a system, theory, or phenomenon that accounts

Suggested Citation:"C Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions." National Research Council. 2006. Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11805.
×

for its known or inferred properties and may be used for further study of its characteristics

Mortality (rate): Frequency at which people die from a disease (e.g., a specific cancer), often expressed as the number of deaths per 100,000 population per year

NAHH: National Alliance for Hispanic Health

NAS: National Academy of Sciences

NBS: National Bureau of Standards (now National Institute of Standards and Technology)

NCEH: National Center for Environmental Health

NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements): U.S. council commissioned to formulate and disseminate information, guidance, and recommendations about radiation protection and measurements

NER: National Exposure Registry (ATSDR)

NIOSH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NNMCAB: Northern New Mexico Citizens’ Advisory Board

NOAEL: No-observed-adverse-effect level

NPCR: National Program of Cancer Registries (CDC)

NPL: National Priorities List; a list of national priorities among the known releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants throughout the United States and its territories

NRC: National Research Council

NTS: Nevada Test Site

OEHS: Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance (DOE)

OERP: Occupational Energy Research Program (NIOSH)

OMB: Office of Management and Budget

OR (Odds ratio): the odds of being exposed among diseased persons divided by the odds of being exposed among nondiseased persons

ORAU: Oak Ridge Associated Universities

OREPA: Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance

ORERP: Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project

ORNL: Oak Ridge National Laboratory

ORO: Oak Ridge Operations Office

ORR: Oak Ridge Reservation

ORRHASP: Oak Ridge Reservation Health Agreement Steering Panel

ORRHES: Oak Ridge Reservation Health Effects Subcommittee

ORRLOC: Oak Ridge Reservation Local Oversight Committee

ORRSSAB: Oak Ridge Reservation Site Specific Advisory Board

OTA: Office of Technology Assessment

Suggested Citation:"C Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions." National Research Council. 2006. Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11805.
×

PCB: Polychlorinated biphenyl

PHA: Public Health Assessment

PHEP: Public Health Education Program

PHS: Public Health Statement; the first chapter of ATSDR’s Toxicological Profiles

PNNL: Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a contractor at the Hanford Site

Pooled analysis: An analysis of epidemiologic data from several studies based on original data from the studies

PSR: Physicians for Social Responsibility

RAC: Radiological Assessment Corporation (later, Risk Assessment Corporation)

Rad: A special unit of absorbed dose, now replaced by the SI unit gray; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy = 100 erg/g

Radiation: Energy emitted in the form of waves or particles by radioactive atoms as a result of radioactive decay or produced by artificial means, such as X-ray generators

Radiogenic: Caused by radiation

Radionuclide: Radioactive species of an atom characterized by the constitution of its nucleus

Rem (rad equivalent man): A special unit of dose equivalent, now replaced by the SI unit sievert; 1 rem = 0.01 Sv

REMS: Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (DOE)

RERP: Committee on the Department of Energy Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs (NRC)

RfD: Reference dose (DOE)

Risk: Chance of injury, loss, or detriment; a measure of the deleterious effects that may be expected as the result of an action or inaction

Risk assessment: Process by which the risks associated with an action or inaction are identified and quantified

Risk estimate: Increment of the incidence or mortality rate projected to occur in a specified exposed population per unit dose for a specified exposure regime and expression period

RL: Richland Operations Office (DOE)

SENES: Specialists in Energy, Nuclear and Environmental Studies

Sievert (Sv): Special name of the SI unit of dose equivalent; 1 Sv = 1 J/kg = 100 rem

SI units: International System of Units as defined by the General Conference of Weights and Measures in 1960; these are the base units, such as meter (m), kilogram (kg), second (s), and their combinations, which have special names

Suggested Citation:"C Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions." National Research Council. 2006. Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11805.
×

(e.g., the unit of energy 1 J = 1 kg m2/s2, or of absorbed dose 1 Gy = 1 J/kg = 1 m2/s2)

SPEERA: Secretarial Panel for the Evaluation of Epidemiological Research Activities (DOE)

SRS: Savannah River site

SSAB: Site-Specific Advisory Board (DOE)

Standardized morbidity ratio or standardized mortality rate (SMR): Rate (multiplied by 100) of mortality from a disease in the population being studied divided by the comparable rate in a standard population; ratio is similar to a relative risk times 100

TAG: Technical Assistance Grant

TCA: Trichloroethane

TCE: Trichloroethylene

TDH: Tennessee Department of Health

Threshold hypothesis: Assumption that no injury occurs below a specified dose

TSCA: Toxic Substances Control Act

TSP: Technical Steering Panel composed of independent scientists and members of the public created to oversee and direct HEDR

Uncertainty: Range of values within which the true value is estimated to lie; a best estimate of possible inaccuracy due to both random and systemic errors:

Random Errors: Errors that vary in a nonreproducible way around a limiting mean; these can be treated statistically by use of the laws of probability

Systemic Errors: Errors that are reproducible and tend to bias a result in one direction; their causes can be assigned, at least in principle, and they can have constant and variable components; generally, these errors cannot be treated statistically

UNSCEAR: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

X-rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation, usually produced by bombarding a metallic target with fast electrons in a high vacuum

YDI: Youth Development, Inc.

Suggested Citation:"C Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions." National Research Council. 2006. Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11805.
×
Page 266
Suggested Citation:"C Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions." National Research Council. 2006. Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11805.
×
Page 267
Suggested Citation:"C Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions." National Research Council. 2006. Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11805.
×
Page 268
Suggested Citation:"C Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions." National Research Council. 2006. Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11805.
×
Page 269
Suggested Citation:"C Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions." National Research Council. 2006. Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11805.
×
Page 270
Suggested Citation:"C Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions." National Research Council. 2006. Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11805.
×
Page 271
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Ever since the United States began producing and testing nuclear weapons during World War II, the effects of ionizing radiation on human health and the environment have been a serious public concern. The Worker and Public Health Activities Program was established more than 20 years ago to study the consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation and other hazardous materials from Department of Energy operations to workers and members of the surrounding communities. In 2005, the National Academies convened an expert committee to conduct a review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program, which is operated by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities under a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with DOE.

Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services concludes that the program has used sound research methods and generally has enhanced public understanding of the risks involved. However, the report recommends that more two-way communication between the agencies and workers and members of the public is needed. The report also explores the ways in which the agencies involved could develop a more coordinated, effective, and thorough evaluation of the public health concerns involved in cleanup and remediation activities at Department of Energy sites.

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