Banzhaf, S., D. Burtraw, and K. Palmer. 2002. Efficient emission fees in the U.S. electricity sector. Discussion Paper 02-45. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future.
Brewer, Peter G. 2003. Direct injection of carbon dioxide into the oceans. The Carbon Dioxide Dilemma: Promising Technologies and Policies. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
Cifuentes, L., and Lester B. Lave. 1993. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. (18):319.
Commission of the European Communities. 1993. Externalities of the Fuel Cycle: Extern Project. Working Documents 1, 2, 5, and 9, Brussels, Belguim: European Commission.
Congressional Research Service. 2005. Appropriations Subcommittee Structure: History of Changes from 1920 to 2005. Order Code RL31572.
Council on Foreign Relations. 2006. National Security Consequences of United States Oil Dependence. Independent Task Force Report No. 58. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.
Desvousges, W.H., F.R. Johnson, and H.S. Banzhaf. 1994. Assessing Environmental Costs for Electricity Generation. Triangle Economic Research General Working Paper No. G-9402.
DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2004a. Estimating the DOE Office of Fossil Energy’s Program Benefits: FY2004 Final Report, Volume 1. December. Washington, D.C.: Office of Fossil Energy.
DOE. 2004b. Natural Gas Technologies Program Plan. April. Washington, D.C.: Office of Fossil Energy.
DOE. 2005a. Performance and Accountability Report.
DOE. 2005b. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs: FY2006 Budget Request. March. Golden, Colo.: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
DOE. 2005c. FreedomCAR and Vehicles Technology Multi-year Program Plan. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy.
DOE. 2005d. An Economic Scoping Study for CO2Capture Using Aqueous Ammonia: Final Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy.
DOE. 2005e. Chemicals Industry of the Future: Fiscal Year 2004 Annual Report. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy.
DOE. 2006a. Available at <http://www.fe.doe.gov/aboutus/budget/07/fy07_budget_request_presentation.pdf>.
DOE. 2006b. FY2007 Congressional Budget Request: Budget Highlights. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy.
DOE. 2006c. Available at <http://www.ne.doe.gov/admin/FY07BudgetRollout.html>. Accessed March 1, 2006.
EIA (Energy Information Administration). 2003. The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview. DOE/EIA-0581(2003). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy.
EIA. 2004. Annual Energy Outlook 2004. DOE/EIA-0383(2004). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy.
EIA. 2005a. Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2005. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy.
EIA. 2005b. Annual Energy Outlook 2005 with Projections to 2025. Available at <http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/archive/aeo05/electricity.html>.
EIA. 2006. Annual Energy Outlook (early release). Available at <www.eia.doe.gov>.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1997a. Final Report to Congress on Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act, 1970-1990. EPA 410-R-97-002. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
EPA. 1997b. Final Report to Congress on Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act, 1990-2010. EPA-410-R-99-01. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
EPA. 2006. Acid Rain Program Web site. Available at <http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/progsregs/arp/index.html>.
Fankhauser, S. 1994. “The social costs of greenhouse gas emissions: An expected value approach.” Energy Journal 15(2).
Finkbeiner, A. 2006. The Jasons: The Secret History of Science’s Postwar Elite. New York: Viking.
General Accounting Office. 1997. Measuring Performance: Strengths and Limitations of Research Indicators. GAO/RCED-97-91. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Budget Glossary. GAO-05-734SP. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Greene, D.L., and S. Ahmad. 2005. Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence: 2005 Update. ORNL/TM-2005/45. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Herzog, H. 2001. What future for carbon capture and sequestration? Environmental Science and Technology 35(7):148-153.
Hill, S.T. 2002. Science and Engineering Degrees: 1966-2000. NSF02-327. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resource Statistics.
Hines, P., J. Apt, H. Liao, and S. Talukdar. 2006. The frequency of large blackouts in the United States electrical transmission system: An empirical study. Presented at the Second Carnegie Mellon Conference in Electric Power Systems: Monitoring, Sensing, Software and Its Valuation for the Changing Electric Power Industry, January 11-12, 2006. Available at <http://www.ece.cmu.edu/~electricityconference/Old06/hines_blackout_frequencies_final.pdf>.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2005. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Jones, Donald W., and Paul N. Leiby. 1996. The Macroeconomic Impacts of Oil Price Shocks: A Review of Literature and Issues. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: ORNL.
Jones, Donald W., Paul N. Leiby, and Inja Paik. 2004. Oil price shocks and the macroeconomy: What has been learned since 1996? The Energy Journal 25(2):1-32.
Koomey, J. 1990. Comparative Analysis of Monetary Estimates of External Environmental Costs Associated with Combustion of Fossil Fuels. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute, and Berkeley, Calif.: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Leiby, P.N., D.W. Jones, T.R. Curlee, and R. Lee. 1997. Oil Imports: An Assessment of Benefits and Costs. ORNL-6851. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: ORNL.
Marburger, J.H., and M.E. Daniels. 2003. Memorandum for Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies: FY 2005 Interagency Research and Development Priorities. June 3. Available at <http://www.whitehouse. gov/omb/memoranda/m03-15.pdf>.
Matthews, H.S., and Lester B. Lave. 2000. Applications of environmental valuation for determining externality costs. Environmental Science Technology 34(8):1390-1395.
Maurstad, O., H. Herzog, O. Bolland, and J. Ber. 2006. Impact of coal quality and gasifier technology on IGCC performance. Presented at the 8th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies. Trondheim, Norway. June.
National Coal Council. 2004. Opportunities to Expedite the Construction of New Coal-Based Power Plants. Available at <http://www.nationalcoalcouncil.org/Documents/ExpediteNov30rpg.pdf>.
NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), Department of Transportation. 2006. Corporate Average Fuel Economy and CAFE Reform for MY 2008-2010 Light Trucks. Final Regulatory Impact Analysis.
NRC (National Research Council). 2000. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Sixth Report. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC. 2001. Energy Research at DOE: Was It Worth It? Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC. 2002a. Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC. 2002b. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC. 2004. Decreasing Energy Intensity in Manufacturing: Assessing the Strategies and Future Directions of the Industrial Technologies Program. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
NRC. 2005a. Prospective Evaluation of Energy Research and Development at DOE (Phase One): A First Look Forward. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
NRC. 2005b. Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
OMB (Office of Management and Budget). 2001. The President’s Management Agenda. Available at <http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2002/mgmt.pdf>.
OMB. 2003. Budget of the United States Government: Fiscal Year 2004. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
OMB. 2005. Guidance for Completing the Program Assessment Rating Tool. Available at <http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/part/fy2005/2005_guidance.pdf>.
Orr, Franklin M., Jr. 2003. Sequestration via direct injection of carbon dioxide deep into the earth. The Carbon Dioxide Dilemma: Promising Technologies and Policies. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1994. Studies of the Environmental Costs of Electricity. OTA ETI-134. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Ottinger, R.L. 1992. Social costs of energy. Proceedings of an International Conference held at Racine, Wisc., September 8-11. O. Hohmeyer and R.L. Ottinger, eds. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Palmgren, C.R., M.G. Morgan, W.B. de Bruin, and D.W. Keith. 2004. Initial public perceptions of deep geological and oceanic disposal of carbon dioxide. Environmental Science and Technology 38(24):6441-6450.
Parry, I.W.H., and J. Darmstadter. 2003. The costs of U.S. oil dependency. Discussion Paper 03-59. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future.
Rao, B., S. Rubin, D. Keith, and G. Morgan. 2005. Evaluation of potential cost reductions from improved amine-based CO2 capture systems. Energy Policy 34(18):3765-3772.
Rose, A., G. Oladosu, and S. Liao. 2005. Regional economic impacts of terrorist attacks on the electric power system of Los Angeles: A computable general disequilibrium analysis. Paper presented at the Second Annual Symposium of the DHS Center for Risk and Economic Analysis of Terrorism Events. Los Angeles, Calif.: University of Southern California.
Sharpe, P., and T. Keelin. 1998. How SmithKline Beecham makes better resource-allocation decisions. Harvard Business Review. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Business School Publishing. March-April.
Shogren, J.F., and S. Smulders. 1996. Resource and Energy Economics 18(4):333-509.
U.S.-Canada Power Systems Outage Task Force. 2004. Final Report on the August 14, 2003, Blackout in the United States and Canada. Available at <https://reports.energy.gov/BlackoutFinal-Web.pdf>.
White House. 2002. “Fact sheet: President Bush announces Clear Skies and Global Climate Change Initiatives.” Office of the Press Secretary, February 14.
Zerriffi, H., H. Dowlatabadi, and N.D. Strachan. 2002. Electricity and conflict: The robustness of distributed generation. Electricity Journal 15(1).
Zuckerman, B., and F. Ackerman. 1995. The 1994 Update of the Tellus Institute Packaging Study Impact Assessment Method. SETAC Impact Assessment Working Group Conference, Washington, D.C.