National Academies Press: OpenBook

Science, Evolution, and Creationism (2008)

Chapter: Index

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and . 2008. Science, Evolution, and Creationism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11876.
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Page 67
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and . 2008. Science, Evolution, and Creationism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11876.
×
Page 68
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences and . 2008. Science, Evolution, and Creationism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11876.
×
Page 69

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INDEX D Darwin, Charles, xiii, 12, 22–23, 28, 32, 38, 39 A Darwin, Erasmus, 22–23 Adaptative radiation, 8–9, 25–28, 29 Dinosaurs, 3, 9, 23, 26, 38 Age Divergence from ancestral form, 8, 9 of Earth, 17, 19, 20–21, 38, 51 DNA of universe, 19–20, 38, 51 comparisons, 29–31, 33 Amniotic eggs, 8–9 defined, 4 Amphibians, 23 evidence of evolution, xii, xiii, 17, 28–32, 58 Anthropology, 17 gene duplication, 41 Archaeopteryx, 23 microarray technology, 5 Arkansas laws, 44 mutations, 4, 28 Armadillos, 23, 27, 28 and recency of common ancestry, 29–31 Artificial selection, 5, 6 sequencing, xii, 28 Artiodactyls, 32 Dolphins, 25–26, 32 Atomic theory of matter, 11, 12 Domestication of species, 5, 6 Australopithecus afarensis, 33, 34, 35 Dorudon, 32 Drosophila species, 26, 27, 29, 30 B Bacteria, 1, 4 E age of, 21 Earth antibiotic-resistant, 7, 39 age of, 17, 19, 20–21, 38, 51 DNA, 31 origin of, 57 flagellum, 40 Education. See Public school science curriculum generations per million years, 7 Edwards v. Aguillard, 44 Bats, 24, 27 Epperson v. Arkansas, 44 “Big Bang,” 18–19, 20, 51 Evolution. See also Humans Birds, 3, 8, 9, 23, 26, 41 acceptance vs. belief, 49–50 Blood circulation and clotting, 12, 41 analogous structures, 25–26 Bonobos, 35 anatomical homologies, 24–25 Brain size, 9, 33–34 behavioral commonalities, 17, 24, 25 Brown University, 15 books on, 56–59 compatibility with religious faith, xii, 12–15, 49, 54 C continuing nature of, 18, 39 Cell theory, 11 defined, 4 Central Conference of American Rabbis, 13 DNA evidence, xii, 17, 28–32, 58 Chimpanzees, 24, 30, 31, 33, 35 as fact, xiii, 3, 11, 12 Chromosomes, 29 fossil record, xi, xii, xiii, 1–3, 9, 11, 17, 21, 22–23, Clergy Letter Project, 14 32, 33–35, 38–39, 42–43 Collins, Francis, 15 geographic evidence, 17, 26–28 Comparative anatomy, 24–26, 30 last common ancestors, 8, 24, 25 Computed axial tomography, 38 natural selection and, 50 Copernicus, 18 predictions from findings, 3, 11, 38 Coyne, George, 15 in public school education, xi–xiii, 43–45, 47, 52 Creationism. See also Intelligent design creationism recency of common ancestry, 24, 30 books on evolution-creationism controversy, scientific disputes about mechanisms of, 50–51 58–59 scientific understanding of, xi, xii, 10–12, 39, 49–50 “old Earth,” 37–38 theory, 3, 11, 12, 51 in public schools, xi–xiii, 43–45, 52, 53 Evolutionary biology views of proponents, 37–39, 52–53 agricultural applications, 6 “young Earth,” 37, 39, 52–53 industrial applications, 9 Cyanobacteria, 21 medical applications, 5 Cystic fibrosis, 30 practical value, xi, 5–6, 47 Science, Evolution, and Creationism 67

Evolutionary developmental biology, xii, 30 I Eye, complexity of, 40, 41 Ichthyosaurs, 26 Ichthyostega, 3 F Immune system, 40, 41 Fishes, 1, 2-3, 4-5, 7, 23, 24, 26, 30, 41 Intelligent design creationism Fossil record, xi, xii, xiii irreducible complexity argument, xiii, 40–41, 53 consistency of, 38–39 landmark court decisions, xii–xiii, 44–45, 52 creationists’ view of, 38 in public school curriculum, xi–xiii, 44–45, 52 dating, 17 religious nature, xiii, 43–45 earliest, 21, 23 scientific failings, 40–43, 45 hominids, 33–35 Interacademy Panel on International Issues, 49 intermediate/transitional species, 1–3, 9, 11, 22, 23, 38, 39 J sedimentary rock, 22, 38, 42–43 John Paul II, 13 Fundamentalism, 37 K G Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, xiii, 44, 45 Galaxies, 19, 51 L General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 13 Lemaître, Georges, 18 Genes, 4, 29, 32, 39 Leptin, 31 duplication, 41 Life on Earth highly conserved, 6, 30, 31 earliest, 21 similarity among organisms, 30, 31 origins of, 18, 21–22 Genetic variability, 4 Limb evolution, 3, 9, 30, 31–32, 34 Genetics, 4 Genomics, and evolution, 58 M Gorillas, 31 Mammals, 30 Gravitational theory, 11, 12, 51 fossil record, 38 geographic distribution, 27–28 H marine cetaceans, 32 Hawaiian Islands, drosophilid flies, 26–27, 29 transition from reptiles, 9 Heliocentric theory, 11, 12, 18 Meteorites, 21 Heredity, xiii, 4, 5, 12, 29. See also DNA; Mutations Mice, 26, 30, 32 Hominids Microarray technology, 5 fossil record, 33–35 Microevolutionary changes, 6–7 Laetoli footprints, 33, 34 Milky Way galaxy, 20, 51 Homo erectus, 34, 35 Miller, Kenneth, 15 Homo habilis, 34, 35 Molecular biology. See also DNA; RNA Homo sapiens, 35 evidence of evolution from, 28–32 Homologies, 24–25 Moon, 21 Horses, 5, 23, 27 Mosquitoes, insecticide resistance, 39 Hox genes, 30, 41 Mutations, 4–5, 28–29, 40, 50 Hubble Space Telescope, 19 Human Genome Project, 15 N Humans National Human Genome Research Institute, 15 ancestral species, 8, 33–35 Natural selection, xiii, 4, 40. See also Artificial selection chimpanzee compared, 24, 30, 31, 33, 35 applications outside biology, 9 DNA changes, 29–30, 31, 33 defined, 5, 50 evolution of, 8, 9, 12, 24, 25, 32–35, 57 discovery, 22–23 fossil record, 35, 38 as fact, 12 generations per million years, 7 industry applications, 9 upright walking, 33, 34 microevolutionary changes, 6–7 and origins of life, 22 and reproductive success, 50 68 Science, Evolution, and Creationism

Neanderthals, 35 S North America, mammals, 27–28 SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), 5 Nuclides, defined, 20 Scaptomyza, 27 Science O contributions of, xi Opossums, 27, 28 defined, 10 P empirical evidence, 10, 12 Paleontologists/paleontology, 2–3, 23. See also Fossil hypotheses, 41–42, 43 record and religion, xi, xiii, 12, 15, 41–42, 47, 54 Paranthropus robustus, 35 theory, generally, xii, 11, 42, 51 Pennsylvania laws, 44, 45 Scopes, John, 44 Pets, generations per million years, 7. See also Sea turtles, 8 Domestication of species Self-replication, 22 Planetary motion, 12 Solar system, 19, 20, 51 Planetesimals, 19 South America, mammals, 27–28 Plate tectonics, theory of, 11, 53 Speciation, 7–8, 26, 27 Populations of organisms Species defined, 4 defined, 1 DNA variations, 29 extinct, 33 evolution of, 5, 6, 7–8, 28–29, 50 generations per million years, 7 extinct, 33, 35 geographic distribution, 17, 26–28 highly conserved genes, 6 highly conserved elements, 6 human, 29, 35 intermediate/transitional, 1–3, 22, 23 neutral mutations in, 29 new (see Speciation) Porpoises, 32 Stars, origin of, 19, 20 Primates, 8, 9, 24, 25, 31, 32–33. See also Humans Stromatolites, 21 Proconsul, 25 Supernovas, 20 Proteins, 4, 21, 22, 31–32, 40–41 T Protocells, 22 Tennessee laws, 44 Public school science curriculum Tetrapods, 2–3, 4, 8–9, 11, 23, 24, 30, 31–32, 38 creationism in, xii–xiii, 43–45, 53 Theory, defined, 11 critical thinking in, 52 Tiktaalik, 2–3, 4, 11, 23, 30, 38 evidentiary standard for, 53 Traits, 4, 5, 6, 7, 24, 28–29, 31, 50 role of evolution, xi–xii, 43, 47 teaching the “controversies,” xiii, 52 U Universe R age of, 19–20, 38, 51 Radioactive decay, 20 expansion, 18–19 Radiometric dating, 17, 20, 51 origin of, 18–19, 57–58 Religion University of California, San Francisco, 5 compatibility of evolution with religious faith, 12–14, 49 V science and, xi, xiii, 12, 15, 47, 54 Viruses, 4, 5, 39 Reproductive W isolation, 7–8 Wallace, Alfred Russel, 12, 22–23 success, 4, 5, 8–9, 50 Warm-bloodedness, 9 Reptiles, 3, 8–9, 23, 41 Whales, 23, 24, 26, 32 RNA, 22, 31 Wheat domestication, 6 Wolves, 24, 27 Science, Evolution, and Creationism 69

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How did life evolve on Earth? The answer to this question can help us understand our past and prepare for our future. Although evolution provides credible and reliable answers, polls show that many people turn away from science, seeking other explanations with which they are more comfortable.

In the book Science, Evolution, and Creationism, a group of experts assembled by the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine explain the fundamental methods of science, document the overwhelming evidence in support of biological evolution, and evaluate the alternative perspectives offered by advocates of various kinds of creationism, including "intelligent design." The book explores the many fascinating inquiries being pursued that put the science of evolution to work in preventing and treating human disease, developing new agricultural products, and fostering industrial innovations. The book also presents the scientific and legal reasons for not teaching creationist ideas in public school science classes.

Mindful of school board battles and recent court decisions, Science, Evolution, and Creationism shows that science and religion should be viewed as different ways of understanding the world rather than as frameworks that are in conflict with each other and that the evidence for evolution can be fully compatible with religious faith. For educators, students, teachers, community leaders, legislators, policy makers, and parents who seek to understand the basis of evolutionary science, this publication will be an essential resource.

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