William H. Webster, Chair, is a senior partner at Milbank, Tweed, Hadley and McCloy LLP’s Washington, D.C., office and heads the Litigation Department there. He is also involved in the firm’s international corporate, banking, trade, and administrative law practices. Prior to joining Milbank, Tweed in 1991, Judge Webster had been, since 1987, director of Central Intelligence, where he headed all the foreign intelligence agencies of the United States and directed the Central Intelligence Agency. Earlier, he had served as director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, from 1978 to 1987; judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, from 1973 to 1978; and judge of the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri, from 1970 to 1973. A practicing attorney with a St. Louis law firm from 1949 to 1959, Judge Webster served as U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Missouri from 1960 to 1961. He returned to private practice in 1961. From 1964 to 1968, he was a member of the Missouri Board of Law Examiners. Judge Webster graduated from Amherst College and received his Juris Doctor from Washington University Law School. He is a member of the American Bar Association, the Council of the American Law Institute, Order of the Coif, and a fellow of the American Bar Foundation. He has received numerous honorary degrees and awards, including the Freedoms Foundation National Service Medal (1985), the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1991), the National Security Medal (1991), and the 2001 Justice Award of the American Judicature Society. He is a past chair of the American Bar Association Business Law
Section and past president of the Institute of Judicial Administration. He is a trustee of Washington University in St. Louis.
James Waldo, Vice Chair, is the lead architect for Jini, a distributed programming system based on Java. Before joining Jini, Dr. Waldo worked in JavaSoft and Sun Microsystems Laboratories, where he did research in the areas of object-oriented programming and systems, distributed computing, and user environments. Before joining Sun, Dr. Waldo spent 8 years at Apollo Computer and Hewlett-Packard (HP) working in the areas of distributed object systems, user interfaces, class libraries, text, and internationalization. While at HP, he led the design and development of the first Object Request Broker and was instrumental in getting that technology incorporated into the first OMG CORBA specification. He edited the book The Evolution of C++: Language Design in the Marketplace of Ideas (MIT Press), and was the author of the “Java Advisor” column in Unix Review’s Performance Computing magazine. Dr. Waldo is an adjunct faculty member of Harvard University, where he teaches distributed computing in the Department of Computer Science. He received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Massachusetts (Amherst). He also holds M.A. degrees in both linguistics and philosophy from the University of Utah. He is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). He served on the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board’s (CSTB’s) Committee on Networked Systems of Embedded Computers, which produced the report Embedded, Everywhere: A Research Agenda for Networked Systems of Embedded Computer (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2001).
Julie E. Cohen is a professor of law at the Georgetown University Law Center. She teaches and writes about intellectual property law and information privacy law, with particular focus on digital works and on the intersection of copyright and privacy rights. She is a member of the Advisory Board of the Electronic Privacy Information Center and the Advisory Board of Public Knowledge. Prior to joining the Law Center faculty, Professor Cohen was an assistant professor of law at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. She previously practiced with the San Francisco firm of McCutchen, Doyle, Brown and Enersen, where she specialized in intellectual property litigation. Professor Cohen is a graduate of Harvard University (A.B., 1986) and the Harvard Law School (J.D., 1991). She is a former law clerk to the Hon. Stephen Reinhardt of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
Oscar Gandy, Jr., is professor emeritus at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania. Previously he was director of the Center for Communication Research at Howard University. His Ph.D. in public affairs communication was awarded by Stanford University in 1976. He is author of The Panoptic Sort and Beyond Agenda Setting, two books that explore issues of information and public policy. His most recent work is in the area of communication and race and the ways in which the media frame racial comparisons. His most recent book, Communication and Race, explores the structure of media and society, as well as the cognitive structures that reflect and are reproduced through media use. A book in progress, If It Weren’t for Bad Luck, explores the ways in which probability and its representation affect the lives of different groups in society. He has been an active member of several professional organizations, serving as head of the Minorities and Communication Division and chair of the Standing Committee on Research for the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, and as a member of the International Council of the International Association for Media and Communication Research. He also served as chair of the board of directors of the Electronic Privacy Information Center. He was awarded the Dallas Smythe Award in 1999 from the Union for Democratic Communication.
James Horning is chief scientist and director of West Coast operations at Network Associates Laboratories. He was the founder of InterTrust’s Strategic Technologies and Architectural Research Laboratory (STAR Lab) in 1997 and its director through October 2001. Previously, he was a founding member and senior consultant at Digital’s Systems Research Center (DEC/SRC), a research fellow at Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), and a founding member and chair of the University of Toronto’s Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG). He is a member and past chair of the International Federation for Information Processing’s (IFIP’s) Working Group 2.3 (Programming Methodology). He is a coauthor of two books, Larch: Languages and Tools for Formal Specification (1993), and A Compiler Generator (1970). He wrote his first computer program in 1959 and received his Ph.D. in computer science from Stanford University 10 years later. He is a fellow of the ACM.
Gary King is the David Florence Professor of Government at Harvard University. He also serves as director of the Institute for Quantitative Social Science. Dr. King has been elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (2004), fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1998), fellow of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (2004), president of the Society
for Political Methodology (1997-1999), and vice president of the American Political Science Association (APSA) (2003-2004). He was also appointed a fellow of the Guggenheim Foundation (1994-1995), visiting fellow at Oxford (1994), and senior science adviser to the World Health Organization (1998-2003). Dr. King has won the McGraw-Hill Award (2006), the Durr Award (2005), the Gosnell Prize (1999 and 1997), the Outstanding Statistical Application Award (2000), the Donald Campbell Award (1997), the Eulau Award (1995), the Mills Award (1993), the Pi Sigma Alpha Award (2005, 1998, and 1993), the APSA Research Software Award (2005, 1997, 1994, and 1992), the Okidata Best Research Software Award (1999), and the Okidata Best Research Web Site Award (1999), among others. His more than 100 journal articles, 10 public domain software packages, and 7 books span most aspects of political methodology, many fields of political science, and several other scholarly disciplines. Dr. King’s work is cited widely across scholarly fields and beyond academia. His work on legislative redistricting has been used in most American states by legislators, judges, lawyers, political parties, minority groups, and private citizens, as well as by the U.S. Supreme Court. His work on ecological inference has been used in as many states by these groups, and in many other practical contexts. His contributions to methods for achieving cross-cultural comparability in survey research have been used in surveys in more than 80 countries by researchers, governments, and private concerns. The statistical methods and software that he developed for addressing many problems are used extensively in academia, government, consulting work, and private industry.
Lin E. Knapp is currently an independent consultant. Previously, she was the vice chair of PricewaterhouseCoopers (and one of its predecessor firms) for 10 years and, before that, a senior partner in the management consulting practice. As a vice chair, Ms. Knapp has held the positions of Global Chief Information Officer (CIO) and Global Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO). A well-known authority on the strategic use of both intellectual capital and technology, she has been a member of the firm’s global leadership team—its Management Committee and Board of Partners. Ms. Knapp has received worldwide recognition for her work in technology, knowledge management, and the new economy. She served as a member of the National Research Council’s study team examining Computer Technology and Its Impact on Service Sector Productivity. She is a frequent keynote speaker; her recent addresses include those at the European Business Information Conference, Harvard University’s Women In Leadership Conference, the World Congress on Information Technology, and the White House-sponsored Critical Infrastructure Assurance Conference. She is a member of Harvard University’s global Women’s Leadership
Board and was recently recognized by Crain’s New York Business as one of New York’s 100 most influential women in business.
Brent Lowensohn has served, during the course of this study, as director of the IT Advanced Technologies Department and director of IT Research at the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, the largest health maintenance organization in the country, with more than 100,000 employees serving 9 million members from a $28 billion annual budget. Dr. Lowensohn has also served as a visiting scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT’s) Media Laboratory. His Ph.D. in social psychology was awarded by Syracuse University in 1976. His research, which opened up a new area in environmental psychology, won his induction into Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society. Dr. Lowensohn led his department in the identification, creation, evaluation, and implementation of innovative, high-technology applications for health care management and operations. As a result, the department has been on the forefront of many technology-based issues such as electronic clinical information systems, biometrics, intelligent spaces, and automated authentication systems. His current activities are focused on social and technological support for home-based health monitoring and chronic disease management. Dr. Lowensohn is a founding member of the Gartner Group Advanced Technologies Best Practices Group; was a member of three MIT consortia (Things that Think, Center for Bits and Atoms, and Changing Places), a member of the Biometrics Working Group of the Biometrics Consortium, and a member of Cross Industry Working Team of the Center for National Research Initiatives. His background in the social sciences, health care, and technology provides a unique perspective on contemporary issues.
Gary T. Marx is professor emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has written, among other works, Protest and Prejudice: A Study of Belief in the Black Community; Undercover: Police Surveillance in America; and Undercover: Police Surveillance in Comparative Perspective. His work has appeared or has been reprinted in more than 250 books, monographs, and periodicals and has been translated into many languages. He received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley. He has taught there, at Harvard University, at the University of Colorado, and in Belgium, Spain, Austria, and China. He has lectured throughout the world. He has served in an advisory capacity for many government and nonprofit organizations and on many editorial boards. He has a book in progress on new forms of surveillance.
Helen Nissenbaum is associate professor in the Department of Culture and Communication and a senior fellow of the Information Law Insti-
tute at New York University. She specializes in social, ethical, and political dimensions of technology, with a focus on information technology. Her published works on privacy, property rights, electronic publication, accountability, the use of computers in education, and values embodied in computer systems have appeared in scholarly journals of philosophy, applied ethics, law, and computer science. She is the author of Emotion and Focus (University of Chicago Press), coeditor (with D.J. Johnson) of Computers, Ethics and Social Values (Prentice-Hall), and a founding coeditor of the journal Ethics and Information Technology (Kluwer Academic Press). Grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Ford Foundation have supported her work, including an interdisciplinary study of human values in Web-browser security with Batya Friedman and Edward Felten, and an internship for undergraduates to promote the public interest in information technology. She has served on committees of the National Research Council, NSF, UNESCO, AAAS, and ACM. Professor Nissenbaum was a member of the School of Social Science, Institute for Advanced Study (2000-2001); served as associate director of Princeton University’s Center for Human Values; and held a postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for the Study of Language and Information at Stanford University. She earned a B.A. (honors) from the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, and a Ph.D. in philosophy from Stanford University.
Robert M. O’Neil became the founding director of the Thomas Jefferson Center for the Protection of Free Expression in August 1990, after serving 5 years as president of the University of Virginia. He continues as a member of the university’s law faculty, teaching courses in constitutional law and a new course on free speech and cyberspace. In 1963, after serving as law clerk to Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, Jr., Professor O’Neil began three decades of teaching about free speech and press at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Universities of Cincin-nati, Indiana, Wisconsin, and Virginia. In addition to teaching, he has had a distinguished career in higher-education administration, serving as provost of the University of Cincinnati, vice president of Indiana University for the Bloomington Campus, and president of the University of Wisconsin, before coming to Virginia. He has chaired the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges and served on the executive committee of the Association of American Universities. From 1992 to 1999, he chaired Committee A (Academic Freedom and Tenure) of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP), of which he was general counsel from 1970 to 1972 and again from 1990 to 1992. He has also served as a trustee or director of the Commonwealth Fund, the Fort James Corporation, the Media Institute, and Teachers Insurance
and Annuity Association (TIAA). He chairs special committees of the AAUP on Academic Freedom and National Security in Time of Crisis, and on Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans Universities, and directs the Ford Foundation’s Difficult Dialogues Initiative. In Virginia he serves as chairman of the board of WVPT-Public Television, as a trustee and former president of the Council for America’s First Freedom, and is the first president of Virginia’s Coalition for Open Government. He is the author of several books, including Free Speech: Responsible Communication Under Law, The Rights of Public Employees (2nd edition, 1993), and Classrooms in the Crossfire, as well as many op-ed pieces and articles on free speech and press in law reviews and other journals. His latest book, Free Speech in the College Community (March 1997), is published by the Indiana University Press. On numerous occasions, Professor O’Neil has testified before state legislatures and congressional committees on the First Amendment implications of proposed legislation.
Janey Place is CEO of DigitalThinking, a business strategy, technology, innovation, and payment systems consulting company based in New York and Los Angeles. Prior to starting DigitalThinking in 2004, she was executive vice president of eCommerce Strategy for Mellon Financial Corporation, responsible for Mellon’s eCommerce strategy and customer information management. She was president of MellonLab and a member of Mellon’s Senior Management Committee. Formerly, she was the executive vice president for Bank of America’s Strategic Technology Group, which was responsible for Internet initiatives, advanced technology research and development, and information technology architecture. Previously, Ms. Place was senior vice president in charge of Internet strategy and research and development at Wells Fargo Bank. She was information technology manager at Hughes Aircraft Company and served as corporate manager of Strategic Technology Planning for Tosco Corporation. Ms. Place also was a lecturer in systems and communication theory at the University of California, Santa Cruz. She is a published author of two books and many articles, editor of a communications magazine, producer and director of film and video programs, and a frequent speaker. She has served on a number of corporate boards and currently is a director for PortBlue, an information management company. Ms. Place earned a bachelor’s degree from the University of California at Los Angeles. She holds a master’s degree and a doctorate in systems theory and attended the Graduate School of Management at the University of California at Los Angeles.
Ronald L. Rivest is a member of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, a member of the laboratory’s Theory of Computation Group, and a leader of its
Cryptography and Information Security Group. He is also a founder of RSA Data Security. (RSA was bought by Security Dynamics; the combined company has been renamed RSA Security.) Professor Rivest has research interests in cryptography, computer and network security, and algorithms. He is a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and is also a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Together with Adi Shamir and Len Adleman, he was awarded the 2000 IEEE Koji Kobayashi Computers and Communications Award and the Secure Computing Lifetime Achievement Award. Professor Rivest received an honorary degree (the “laurea honoris causa”) from the University of Rome. He is an inventor of the RSA public-key cryptosystem. He has extensive experience in cryptographic design and cryptanalysis and has published numerous papers in these areas. He has served as a director of the International Association for Cryptologic Research, the organizing body for the Eurocrypt and Crypto conferences, and as a director of the Financial Cryptography Association.
Lloyd N. Cutler, of Wilmer, Cutler and Pickering, was co-chair until he passed away on May 8, 2005.
Robert W. Crandall, Brookings Institution, resigned on April 4, 2006.
Herbert S. Lin is senior scientist and senior staff officer at the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies, where he has been the study director for major projects on public policy and information technology. These studies, published by the National Academy Press, include a 1991 study on the future of computer science (Computing the Future), a 1996 study on national cryptography policy (Cryptography’s Role in Securing the Information Society), a 1999 study of Department of Defense systems for command, control, communications, computing, and intelligence (Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges), and a 2000 study on workforce issues in high-technology (Building a Workforce for the Information Economy). Prior to his NRC service, he was a professional staff member and staff scientist for the House Armed Services Committee (1986 to 1990), where his portfolio included defense policy and arms control issues. He also has significant expertise in math and science education. He received his Ph.D. in physics from MIT in 1979. Avocationally, he is a long-time folk and swing dancer and a poor magician. Apart from his CSTB work, a list of publications in cognitive science, science education, biophysics, and arms control and defense policy is available on request.
Lynette I. Millett is a senior program officer at the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council. She is currently involved in several CSTB projects, including a comprehensive exploration of privacy in the information age, a study on certification and dependable software systems, an assessment of biometrics technologies, and an examination of the Social Security Administration’s electronic services strategy. Her portfolio includes significant portions of CSTB’s recent work on software and on identity systems and privacy. She was the study director for the CSTB project that produced the reports Who Goes There? Authentication Through the Lens of Privacy and IDs—Not That Easy: Questions About Nationwide Identity Systems. She has an M.Sc. in computer science from Cornell University, along with a B.A. in mathematics and computer science with honors from Colby College, where she was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. Her graduate work was supported by both an NSF graduate fellowship and an Intel graduate fellowship.
Kristen Batch is an associate program officer with the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council. She is currently involved with several projects focusing on emerging wireless technology and spectrum policy, biometrics technologies, and privacy in the information age. While pursuing an M.A. in international communications from American University, she interned at the National Telecom-
munications and Information Administration in the Office of International Affairs and at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in the Technology and Public Policy Program. She also earned a B.A. from Carnegie Mellon University in literary and cultural studies and Spanish, and received two travel grants to conduct independent research in Spain.
David Padgham (re)joined CSTB as an associate program officer in the spring of 2006, following nearly 2 years as a policy analyst in the Association for Computing Machinery’s (ACM’s) Washington, D.C., Office of Public Policy. While at ACM, he worked closely with that organization’s public policy committee, USACM. Previously, he spent nearly 6 years with CSTB in positions ranging from project assistant to research associate working on, among other things, the studies that produced Trust in Cyberspace, Funding a Revolution, and Realizing the Potential of C4I. More recently, he has assisted with the research and production of Broadband: Bringing Home the Bits, LC21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress, The Internet’s Coming of Age, Looking Over the Fence at Networks, and Information Technology Research, Innovation, and E-Government. He holds a master’s degree in library and information science (2001) from the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., and a bachelor of arts degree in English (1996) from Warren Wilson College in Asheville, N.C.
Jennifer M. Bishop, program associate, began working with the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council in 2001. She was involved in several studies, including those on telecommunications research and development, digital archiving and the National Archives and Records Administration, and information technology and creativity. She also maintained CSTB’s contact database, handled updates to the CSTB Web site, coordinated the layout and design of Update, the CSTB newsletter, and designed book covers and promotional materials. Prior to her move to Washington, D.C., she worked for the City of Ithaca, New York, coordinating the Police Department’s transition to a new SQL-based time accrual and scheduling application. Her other work experience includes designing customized hospitality industry performance reports for RealTime Hotel Reports, LLC.; maintaining the police records database for the City of Ithaca; and freelancing in publication design. She is a visual artist working in oil and mixed media. She holds a B.F.A. from Cornell University.
Janice M. Sabuda is a senior program assistant at the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council. She currently supports all board activities and is involved in several studies, including Improving Cybersecurity Research in the United States,
Information Technology and the States: Public Policy and Public Interests, Planning Meeting on Fundamental Research Challenges in Computer Graphics, Privacy in the Information Age, and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technologies: A Workshop. Previously, she focused on the congressionally requested study that resulted in Youth, Pornography, and the Internet (2002) and the project that resulted in Global Networks and Local Values (2001). Prior to joining CSTB in August 2001, she worked as a customer service representative at an online fundraising company and as a client services analyst at a prospect research firm. She is currently pursuing a certificate in event management from the George Washington University Center for Professional Development. She received her bachelor of science degree (1999) in business administration from the State University of New York College at Fredonia.