Committee and Staff Biographies
Seymour (Sy) E. Goodman, Chair, is a professor of international affairs and of computing, respectively, at the Sam Nunn School of International Affairs and the College of Computing at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He is also a co-director of the Center for International Strategy, Technology and Policy and associate director for policy of the Georgia Tech Information Security Center. Previously he has been director of the Consortium for Research on Information Security and Policy at the Center for International Security and Cooperation and the School of Engineering at Stanford University. Dr. Goodman is interested in the international diffusion and the national absorption of information technology (IT); the digital divide problems for small, poor and remote villages; and national and international security dimensions of IT. He is contributing editor for International Perspectives for Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and has served with many study and advisory groups, including the President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection. He received a B.S. degree in engineering from Columbia University (1965) and a Ph.D. in applied mathematics/mathematical physics from the California Institute of Technology (1970). Dr. Goodman has previously served on several National Research Council (NRC) committees, including as chair of the meeting on Technical Responses to Cyber-attack and their Legal Implications. He also chaired the first large committee (Committee to Study International Developments in Computer Science and Technology) ever to produce a study for the Computer Science and
Telecommunications Board (CSTB); the committee produced the report Global Trends in Computer Technology and Their Impact in Export Control, published in 1988.
David Aucsmith is the security architect and chief technology officer for Microsoft Corporation’s Security Business Unit, responsible for defining the overall security architecture for Microsoft products. He is currently working on a unified security architecture that spans Microsoft’s products and is responsible for government-specific features in the Windows platform. Before joining Microsoft in 2002, Mr. Aucsmith was the chief security architect at Intel Corporation for 8 years. His responsibilities included working on security technology for hardware and software, together with random number generation, cryptography, steganography, and network-intrusion detection. Mr. Aucsmith has been heavily involved in computer security and cybercrime issues for more than 20 years. He is an industry representative to numerous international, government, and academic organizations: he is a member of the advisory board of the National Security Agency, co-chairman of the FBI’s Information Technology Study Group, and a member of the President’s Task Force on National Defense and Computer Technology. Mr. Aucsmith holds 29 patents for digital security technology. He received a B.S. degree in biochemistry from the University of Georgia, an M.S. in physics from the Naval Postgraduate School, and an M.S. in information and computer sciences from the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Steven M. Bellovin is a professor at Columbia University. He was a fellow at AT&T Labs Research, where he did research in networks and security and why the two do not get along. He has embraced a number of public interest causes and weighed in (e.g., through his writings) on initiatives (e.g., in the areas of cryptography and law enforcement) that appear to threaten privacy. He is currently focusing on cryptographic protocols and network management. Dr. Bellovin is a co-author of the book Firewalls and Internet Security: Repelling the Wily Hacker (Addison-Wesley, 2nd edition, 2003), and he is one of the security area directors for the Internet Engineering Task Force. He received a B.A. degree from Columbia University and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He was a member of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) committees that produced the NRC reports Trust in Cyberspace (1999), IDs—Not That Easy: Questions About Nationwide Identity Systems (2002), Information Technology for Counterterrorism: Immediate Actions and Future Possibilities (2003), and Who Goes There? Authentication Through the Lens of Privacy (2003). Dr. Bellovin is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE).
Joel S. Birnbaum was formerly senior technical adviser to the chief executive officer (CEO) of the Hewlett-Packard (HP) Company. Dr. Birnbaum’s role was to help the company shape its technology strategy and to communicate this strategy to the marketplace. Prior to this, he served as the company’s first chief scientist, a consulting position, created for him upon his retirement in February 1999 from his position as senior vice president for research and development (R&D) and director of HP Laboratories. Dr. Birnbaum joined HP in 1980 after 15 years at IBM’s Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y., where he had last served as director of computer sciences. His first assignment at HP was as the founding director of the Computer Research Center within HP Labs, which conducted research into new directions in computer architecture, hardware, and software, as well as some novel applications. In 1984 Dr. Birnbaum was named an HP vice president and director of HP Labs. In 1986 he was named general manager of the Information Technology Group. He managed the development of all core hardware platforms and systems software for the Precision Architecture product line, HP’s first reduced instruction set computers (RISCs). After the first successful shipment of these systems in 1988, he was named general manager of the new Information Architecture Group, which developed systems architectures for cooperative computing environments, the basis of HP’s product line today. In 1991 he was elected senior vice president of R&D and once again director of HP Labs. In this role, as a member of the management staff, he was responsible for coordinating HP’s global research and development, directing central research, and acting as the company’s chief technical officer. He is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the ACM, and the California Council on Science and Technology, and a foreign member of the Royal Academy of Engineering. He holds a bachelor’s degree in engineering physics from Cornell University and master’s and doctoral degrees in nuclear physics from Yale University. He has been granted an honorary doctorate by the Technion University of Israel. Dr. Birnbaum is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.
Anjan Bose is dean of the College of Engineering and Architecture and Distinguished Professor of Electric Power Engineering at Washington State University. He has served as an engineer and manager in industry and as chair and then dean at Washington State University. He also served as the program manager in the Engineering Division of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for a year. Dr. Bose is a researcher in the operation and control of power grids, and his methods and software are widely used in grid control centers around the world. He received the Third Millennium Medal and the Outstanding Power Engineering Educator
Award from the IEEE. He serves on the board of directors of the governor-appointed Washington Technology Council (vice-chair since 2000) and the Indian Institute of Technology Foundation. He served on the committee appointed by the secretary of energy to study electric power blackouts. Dr. Bose is the author or co-author of more than 75 journal articles and book chapters and has served on the editorial board of several IEEE publications. He is active on several national and international technical committees in the field of electric power engineering. Dr. Bose is a fellow of the IEEE. He received a B.S.E.E. degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (1967); an M.S.E.E. from the University of California, Berkeley (1968); and a Ph.D.E.E. from Iowa State University (1974). He is a member of the NAE.
Barbara Fraser is a senior consulting engineer in the Technology Policy and Consulting Engineering Organization for Cisco Systems, Inc., and is responsible for influencing the security features and characteristics of the company’s products. Her primary goal is to help Cisco develop and implement a coherent, achievable network security strategy for all Cisco products. Ms. Fraser’s current activities and interests include improving Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) protocols, increasing security in Internet Operating Systems (IOS) software, and improving security testing in Cisco’s overall engineering development processes. She participates in Cisco’s IPsec Steering Group and is also an adviser to Cisco’s Product Security Incident Response Team (PSIRT). Ms. Fraser is an active member of the Internet Engineering Task Force where she co-chairs the IPsec working group. She was editor of the Site Security Handbook, and has contributed to a number of other Request for Comments (RFCs). She has been a delegate to the G8 Cybercrime workshops around the world and was also a trustee of the Internet Society. For 10 years prior to joining Cisco, Ms. Fraser was a senior member of the technical staff at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI), located at Carnegie Mellon University. She was one of the early members of the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) Coordination Center (CERT/CC). While at the SEI, she led a team that designed and developed a security assessment method and supporting tools, and performed field assessments at major financial institutions, technology producer corporations, and government agencies and organizations. Ms. Fraser earned a B.S. degree in biology at Florida State University and an M.S. in computer science from the University of Central Florida.
James Gosler is a Sandia Fellow for Information Operations Studies. He was commissioned in the U.S. Navy in 1975, and following his active-duty service he became a member of the technical staff at the Sandia National
Laboratories. Early contributions included establishing a performance modeling/simulation program in the data-processing operating systems design area and the development of attack methodologies for both cryptographic and nuclear weapon-systems in the Adversarial Analysis Group. In 1989 Mr. Gosler became Sandia’s first visiting scientist to the National Security Agency, where he consulted on computer security concerns and established and chaired key Information Security and Technology (INFOSEC)-related working groups. In 1996 Mr. Gosler entered the Senior Intelligence Service at the Central Intelligence Agency as the first director of the Clandestine Information Technology Office. In 2001 he returned to Sandia as a senior scientist; there he supports national information operations, information assurance, critical infrastructure, and terrorism initiatives. He has completed numerous professional courses and schools, including the National Senior Cryptologic Course, the National Senior Intelligence Course, Harvard’s Program for Senior Executives in National and International Security, and the Intelligence Fellows Program. Mr. Gosler received a B.S. degree in physics and mathematics and an M.S. in mathematics.
William Guttman is a Distinguished Service Professor of Economics and Technology at the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management at Carnegie Mellon University. He was also part of the founding group of Carnegie Mellon’s CyLab, one of the world’s largest university-based research initiatives focused on dependability and security in software and networked systems, where he serves as co-chairman of the Operations Committee and director of Cylab’s Sustainable Computing Consortium. He previously directed the Sloan Software Industry Center at Carnegie Mellon. Dr. Guttman’s teaching and research interests include international economic policy as well as competition, innovation, and public policy in the global software industry. Earlier in his career, he served in various advisory capacities at the U.S. Department of State, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). He is the author of several issued and pending software patents and has written two books on economic policy, among many other academic writings. After receiving a B.A. degree from the University of California, Los Angeles, he was a British Council Scholar and received his master’s and doctoral degrees from Balliol College, Oxford University.
Ruby B. Lee is the Forrest G. Hamrick Professor of Engineering and Professor of Electrical Engineering at Princeton University, with an affiliated appointment in the Computer Science Department. She is the director of the Princeton Architecture Laboratory for Multimedia and Security
(PALMS). Her current research is in building security into core computer architecture, protecting critical information, providing hardware “safety-nets” for software vulnerabilities, mitigating information leaks boosted by modern microprocessor architecture features, and designing innovative instruction-set architecture to accelerate software cryptography and cryptanalysis. She is a fellow of the ACM, a fellow of the IEEE, associate editor-in-chief of IEEE Micro, and an editorial board member of IEEE Security and Privacy. Prior to joining the Princeton faculty in 1998, Dr. Lee served as chief architect at Hewlett-Packard, responsible at different times for processor architecture, multimedia architecture, and security architecture. She was a key architect of the Precision Architecture– Reduced Instruction Set Computers (PA-RISC) architecture used for HP workstations and servers. She pioneered adding multimedia instructions to microprocessors, facilitating ubiquitous and pervasive multimedia. She co-led an Intel-HP architecture team designing new instruction set architecture for multimedia and data parallelism for 64-bit Intel microprocessors. Simultaneous with her full-time HP tenure, Dr. Lee was also consulting professor of electrical engineering at Stanford University. She has a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering and an M.S. in computer science, both from Stanford University, and an A.B. with distinction from Cornell University, where she was a College Scholar. She has been granted more than 115 U.S. and international patents and has authored numerous conference and journal papers on computer architecture, multimedia, and security topics.
Fernando (Fred) Luiz was most recently division general manager with the Hewlett-Packard Company before retiring in 2002. During a 17-year career, he was a member of the research staff working on the first commercial RISC system at HP Labs; R&D laboratory director; and director of the Distributed Systems Architecture Laboratory. He was also division general manager for HP’s UNIX software systems and division general manager for enterprise security. He was also chief input/output (I/O) architect for HP’s PA-RISC computer line and a senior technical strategist within HP. From 1987 to 1991, he was with Rolm Corporation, working on the architecture and design of computer integrated telephony systems with interests in the integration of automated and interactive voice sequences into complex and distributed transaction systems. Prior to working at HP, Mr. Luiz was with IBM Corporation for 20 years, as a lead engineer for IBM I/O for disk drives, design and development engineer, principal architect at storage technology, and system and field engineer. He has obtained 10 U.S. patents and several foreign patents. Mr. Luiz has an M.S.E.E. degree, with graduate studies in software tools, communication networks, and business administration and management.
Teresa F. Lunt is principal scientist and area manager of the Security Group and area manager of the Theory Group at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), where she heads a project to develop technologies to protect privacy in terrorist-tracking applications. Previously she was assistant director for distributed systems in the Information Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), as well as program manager of DARPA’s information survivability program, where she launched a series of DARPA-funded security programs that continue today. At SRI International, Ms. Lunt led the development of the SeaView multilevel secure database system, the Next-Generation Intrusion Detection Expert Systems (NIDES) intrusion-detection system, and the DISSECT tool to detect inferences of highly sensitive information from less sensitive information. She received an A.B. degree from Princeton University (1976) and an M.A. in applied mathematics from Indiana University (1979). She is a member of the current NRC Panel on Survivability and Lethality Analysis and a former member of the NRC Committee on Network-Central Naval Forces.
Peter G. Neumann is principal scientist with Stanford Research Institute (SRI) International’s Computer Science Laboratory. He was at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, N.J., in the 1960s, during which time he was heavily involved in the Muliplexed Information and Computing Services (Multics) development jointly with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Honeywell International, Inc. He is concerned with computer systems and networks, security, reliability, survivability, safety, and many risk-related issues such as voting-system integrity, crypto policy, social implications, and human needs including privacy. He moderates the ACM Risks Forum, edits the monthly “Inside Risks” column in Communications of the ACM, chairs the ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, co-founded People For Internet Responsibility, and co-founded the Union for Representative International Internet Cooperation and Analysis. He is a fellow of the ACM, IEEE, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and SRI. He has taught at Stanford University; the University of California, Berkeley; and the University of Maryland. He received A.B., S.M., and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard University (1954, 1955, and 1961, respectively); he also holds a doctorate from Darmstadt. Dr. Neumann was a member of the CSTB committees that produced the NRC reports Cryptography’s Role in Securing the Information Society (1996) and Computers at Risk: Safe Computing in the Information Age (1991).
Stefan Savage is an assistant professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of California, San Diego. His current research interests focus on large-scale network security, wireless
networking, and self-managing distributed systems. Previously he has worked broadly in the field of experimental computer systems, including research on wide-area networking, real-time scheduling, operating system construction, disk array design, concurrency control, and performance analysis. He recently served as co-organizer of the 2003 Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science (DIMACS) Workshop on Large-Scale Internet Attacks, as founding program chair of the ACM Workshop on Rapid Malcode (WORM), and as founding program co-chair of the ACM/USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI). Professor Savage holds a B.S. degree in applied history from Carnegie Mellon University (1991) and a Ph.D. in computer science and engineering from the University of Washington (2002).
William L. Scherlis is a professor in the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), a member of CMU’s International Software Research Institute, and the founding director of CMU’s Ph.D. program in software engineering. He is principal investigator of the 5-year High Dependability Computing Project with NASA. His research relates to software evolution, software assurance, and collaboration technology. He served 6 years at DARPA, with responsibilities including research and strategy in computer security, high-performance computing, and information infrastructure, before departing in 1993 as senior executive responsible for coordination of software research. He has served as program chair for a number of technical conferences and has more than 70 scientific publications. He holds an A.B. degree from Harvard University and a Ph.D. in computer science from Stanford University. He chaired the CSTB committee that produced the NRC report Information Technology Research, Innovation, and E-Government (2002) and its two workshop summaries.
Fred B. Schneider is a professor in the Department of Computer Science and director of the Information Assurance Institute at Cornell University. Dr. Schneider’s research is intended to support the construction of concurrent and distributed systems for high-integrity and mission-critical settings. He is co-author, with David Gries, of the introductory text A Logical Approach to Discrete Math (Springer-Verlag, 1997) and author of the monograph On Concurrent Programming (Springer-Verlag, 1997). A member of the editorial board for IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, Dr. Schneider is also associate editor-in-chief for IEEE Security and Privacy magazine and co-managing editor for Springer-Verlag Texts and Monographs in Computer Science. He was a member of the 1995 DARPA/Innovative Space Based Radar Antenna Technology (ISAT) study on defensive information warfare. He currently serves on the NSF Com-
puter and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) Advisory Board and the Griffis Institute’s board of directors. A consultant to industry, Dr. Schneider serves on technical advisory boards for Cigital, Inc., Fortify Software, Intel Corporation, Microsoft Corporation, and Packet General Networks; he also serves as a consultant to DARPA and in a senior technical advisory position with Fast Search and Transfer ASA (“FAST”) on matters of reliability and security. He is a fellow of the ACM and AAAS and the recipient of a doctor of science [honoris causa] degree from the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (2003). Dr. Schneider holds a B.S. degree from Cornell University (1975) and a Ph.D. from the State University of New York, Stony Brook (1978). He is a current board member of CSTB and chaired the CSTB committee that produced the NRC report Trust in Cyberspace (1999).
Alfred Z. Spector is currently a technology consultant and was recently vice president of strategy and technology for IBM’s software business, responsible for technical and business strategy, various technical and business initiatives, standards, and software engineering across the worldwide software group. Prior to that, he was vice president of services and software in IBM research, responsible for IBM’s worldwide services and software research. Before that, Dr. Spector was the general manager of Marketing and Strategy for IBM’s AIM business, with responsibility for a number of IBM software product families including Customer Information Control System, WebSphere, and MQSeries, and the general manager of IBM’s Transaction Systems software business. Dr. Spector was also founder and CEO of Transarc Corporation, a pioneer in distributed transaction processing and wide-area file systems, and an associate professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. He is a member of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council. He remains active in the field of distributed computing, but his interests have inevitably broadened due to his recent job assignments. Dr. Spector received his Ph.D. in computer science from Stanford University and his A.B. in applied mathematics from Harvard University. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a fellow of the IEEE and ACM, and the recipient of the 2001 IEEE Computer Society’s Tsutomu Kanai Award for major contributions to state-of-the-art distributed computing systems and their applications.
John Wankmueller is vice president for electronic security and technology at MasterCard International. He is responsible for the global security architecture and technologies used in emerging channels and MasterCard’s electronic commerce infrastructure. Mr. Wankmueller is currently working on the security infrastructure for payments involving consumer-
owned mobile devices as well as biometric verification methods. Previously he worked on the design and development of the Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) specification jointly created by MasterCard, Visa, IBM, Microsoft, GTE, and others. Mr. Wankmueller helped develop MasterCard’s integrated chip (smart) card business plan to migrate MasterCard products to integrated circuit (IC) chip technology. He also originated MasterCard’s first centralized neural network fraud detection technology project. In 1994 he initiated MasterCard’s efforts to create a secure payment standard over open networks like the Internet. Prior to joining MasterCard, Mr. Wankmueller was a staff member in AT&T’s research and development area. He holds a bachelor’s degree in mathematics from Fordham University New York and a master’s degree from New York University.
Jay Warrior leads distributed systems research at Agilent Laboratories. He has more than 15 years of experience creating new networking-technology-based business opportunities for Honeywell, Fisher Rosemount systems, and HP/Agilent. He has led multiple efforts in networking standards setting and currently chairs the IEEE standards working group that developed IEEE 1451.1, a U.S. standard for network-independent interfaces for smart sensors to enable easy support of multiple communication protocols within products. In 1999 he received the IEEE Standards Association Award for his efforts. At HP and Agilent Laboratories, Dr. Warrior led the team that developed an Internet-based distributed system technology that was incorporated into two cellular infrastructure monitoring product lines. He was a laboratory scientist and program manager in the Distributed Measurement and Control Program at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories. Dr. Warrior recently co-founded Sensor Networking Applications and Technology Forum (SNAFUnet) and established Java Distributed Data Acquisition and Control (JDDAC), a joint effort between Agilent Laboratories and Sun Microsystems creating open source Java technology for sensor networks.
Herbert S. Lin is senior scientist and senior staff officer at the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council of the National Academies, where he has been study director of major projects on public policy and information technology. These studies include a 1996 study on national cryptography policy (Cryptography’s Role in Securing the Information Society); a 1992 study on the future of computer science (Computing the Future: A Broader Agenda for Computer Science and Engineering); a 1999 study of the U.S. Department of Defense systems for command,
control, communications, computing, and intelligence (Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges); a 2001 study on workforce issues in high technology (Building a Workforce for the Information Economy); and a 2002 study on protecting children from Internet pornography and sexual exploitation (Youth, Pornography, and the Internet). Prior to his NRC service, he was a professional staff member and staff scientist for the House Armed Services Committee (1986-1990), where his portfolio included defense policy and arms control issues. He also has significant expertise in mathematics and science education. He received his doctorate in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
Kristen Batch is an associate program officer with the NRC’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board. She is currently involved with several projects focusing on emerging wireless technology and spectrum policy, biometrics technologies, and privacy in the information age. While pursuing an M.A. in international communications from American University, she interned at the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, in the Office of International Affairs, and at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, in the Technology and Public Policy Program. She also earned a B.A. degree in literary and cultural studies and Spanish from Carnegie Mellon University and received two travel grants to conduct independent research in Spain.
Jennifer M. Bishop, program associate, began working with the NRC’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board in 2001. She was involved in several studies, including those on telecommunications research and development, policy consequences and legal/ethical implications of offensive information warfare, and assessing the information technology research and development ecosystem. She also maintained CSTB’s databases, managed the CSTB Web site, produced Update, the CSTB newsletter, and designed book covers and promotional materials. Prior to joining CSTB, Ms. Bishop worked for the City of Ithaca, New York, coordinating the Police Department’s transition to a new Structured Query Language (SQL)-based time accrual and scheduling application, a project that grew out of her experience maintaining the police records databases. Her other work experience includes designing customized hospitality industry performance reports for Smith Travel Research, and freelance publication design. She is interested in the social and cultural impacts of information technology, including researching and developing effective information design for education and lifelong learning. In her spare time, Ms. Bishop is a visual artist working in oil and mixed media. She holds a B.F.A. degree from Cornell University’s College of Architecture, Art, and Planning.
Charles N. Brownstein was the director of the NRC’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board from January 2004 to September 2005. He joined the NRC in 2004 from the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), where from 1994 to 2004 he directed the Cross Industry Working Team and did independent research with support from NSF and DARPA. His interests are in innovation, applications, and impacts of information technology, Internet performance, and the technology-policy interface. Dr. Brownstein joined CNRI in 1994 after a 20-year career at NSF. There he served in positions including program director for telecommunications policy and IT applications, division director for information science and technology, deputy assistant director and assistant director of NSF for CISE, and director of the Office of Planning and Assessment. His federal achievements are recognized by Presidential Meritorious and Distinguished Senior Executive Service awards and by NSF’s Distinguished Service Award.
Janice M. Sabuda is a senior program assistant at the NRC’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board. She currently supports all CSTB activities and is involved in several studies, including Improving Cybersecurity Research in the United States, Information Technology and the States: Public Policy and Public Interests, Planning Meeting on Fundamental Research Challenges in Computer Graphics, Privacy in the Information Age, and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technologies: A Workshop. Previously, she focused on the congressionally requested study that resulted in Youth, Pornography, and the Internet (2002) and the project that resulted in Global Networks and Local Values (2001). Prior to joining the CSTB in August 2001, Ms. Sabuda worked as a customer service representative at an online fundraising company and as a client services analyst at a prospect research firm. She is currently pursuing a certificate in event management from the George Washington University Center for Professional Development. She received her B.S. (1999) in business administration from the State University of New York College at Fredonia.
Ted Schmitt is a program officer for the NRC’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board. He is currently involved in the CSTB projects providing a comprehensive exploration of cybersecurity and the use of IT to enhance disaster management. Before joining CSTB, Mr. Schmitt was involved in the development of the digital publishing industry and played an active role in various related standards groups. Prior to that, he served as technical director at a number of small technology companies in Germany, Sweden, and the United States. He started his career in 1984 as a software engineer for IBM, earning two patents and several techni-