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Assessment of the Performance of Engineered Waste Containment Barriers (2007)

Chapter: Appendix C Construction Quality Assurance Monitoring Techniques

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Construction Quality Assurance Monitoring Techniques." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Performance of Engineered Waste Containment Barriers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11930.
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Appendix C
Construction Quality Assurance Monitoring Techniques

TABLE C.1 CQA Techniques for End-of-Construction Barrier Element Integrity

Barrier Element

CQA Integrity Monitoring Techniques

Compacted low-permeability soil

In situ density and water content testing; in situ hydraulic conductivity testing using infiltrometers, pan lysimeters, and borehole permeameters; physical sampling and laboratory testing for index properties and saturated hydraulic conductivity

Evapotranspirative cover soil

In situ water content testing; in situ flux rate testing using pan lysimeters; physical sampling and laboratory testing for index properties, including saturated hydraulic conductivity, and for the soil water characteristic curve

Geomembranes

Nondestructive seam testing; physical sampling and laboratory testing of seams; electrical leak detection testing; interface shear testing

Geosynthetic clay liners

Physical sampling and testing for bentonite unit weight and saturated hydraulic conductivity; interface shear testing

Soil-bentonite walls

Sounding of the trench prior to backfill placement, physical sampling, and testing backfill soil from the borrow pit for saturated hydraulic conductivity; physical sampling and testing backfill soil from the wall for saturated hydraulic conductivity; in situ saturated hydraulic conductivity testing of the wall backfill

Cement-bentonite walls

Sounding of the trench prior to backfill placement, physical sampling and testing of the cement-bentonite backfill for saturated hydraulic conductivity; physical sampling and testing of cores from the wall for saturated hydraulic conductivity

Soil-mixed walls

Physical sampling and testing of cores from the wall for saturated hydraulic conductivity

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Construction Quality Assurance Monitoring Techniques." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Performance of Engineered Waste Containment Barriers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11930.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Construction Quality Assurance Monitoring Techniques." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Performance of Engineered Waste Containment Barriers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11930.
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Page 115
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Construction Quality Assurance Monitoring Techniques." National Research Council. 2007. Assessment of the Performance of Engineered Waste Containment Barriers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11930.
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Page 116
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President Carter's 1980 declaration of a state of emergency at Love Canal, New York, recognized that residents' health had been affected by nearby chemical waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, enacted in 1976, ushered in a new era of waste management disposal designed to protect the public from harm. It required that modern waste containment systems use "engineered" barriers designed to isolate hazardous and toxic wastes and prevent them from seeping into the environment. These containment systems are now employed at thousands of waste sites around the United States, and their effectiveness must be continually monitored.

Assessment of the Performance of Engineered Waste Containment Barriers assesses the performance of waste containment barriers to date. Existing data suggest that waste containment systems with liners and covers, when constructed and maintained in accordance with current regulations, are performing well thus far. However, they have not been in existence long enough to assess long-term (postclosure) performance, which may extend for hundreds of years. The book makes recommendations on how to improve future assessments and increase confidence in predictions of barrier system performance which will be of interest to policy makers, environmental interest groups, industrial waste producers, and industrial waste management industry.

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