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Recommended Missions T ables 1 and 2 show launch, orbit, and instrument specifications for the missions recommended to NOAA and NASA by the survey committee with input from the seven panels. Colors denote mission cost categories as estimated by the committee. Blue, green, and yellow shading represents missions classified respectively as small (less than $300 million), medium ($300 million to $600 million), and large ($600 million to $900 million). The missions are listed in order of ascending cost within each launch time frame. The full names for each mission are given in the one-page descriptions that follow. To augment the measurements of tem- perature and water vapor from GPSRO and other operational radio occultation missions, all appro- priate NASA low-Earth-orbit missions should carry a Global Positioning System receiver in addition to the primary instruments listed in Tables 1 and 2. TABLE 1â Launch, Orbit, and Instrument Specifications for Missions Recommended to NOAA Decadal Rough Cost Survey Estimate Mission Mission Description Orbita Instruments (FY 06 $million) 2010-2013 CLARREO Solar and Earth radiation characteristics for LEO, Broadband 65 (instrument understanding climate forcing SSO radiometer reflight components) GPSRO High-accuracy, all-weather temperature, water LEO GPS receiver 150 vapor, and electron density profiles for weather, climate, and space weather 2013-2016 XOVWM Sea surface wind vectors for weather and LEO, Backscatter 350 ocean ecosystems SSO radar aLEO, low Earth orbit; SSO, Sun-synchronous orbit.
Earth Science and Applications from Space TABLE 2 Launch, Orbit, and Instrument Specifications for Missions Recommended to NASA Decadal Rough Cost Survey Estimate Mission Mission Description Orbita Instruments (FY 06 $million) 2010-2013 CLARREO Solar and Earth radiation; spectrally LEO, Absolute, spectrally resolved 200 (NASA resolved forcing and response of the Precessing interferometer portion) climate system SMAP Soil moisture and freeze-thaw for weather LEO, SSO L-band radar 300 and water cycle processes L-band radiometer ICESat-II Ice sheet height changes for climate LEO, Laser altimeter 300 change diagnosis Non-SSO DESDynI Surface and ice sheet deformation LEO, SSO L-band InSAR 700 for understanding natural hazards Laser altimeter and climate; vegetation structure for ecosystem health 2013-2016 HyspIRI Land surface composition for agriculture LEO, SSO Hyperspectral spectrometer 300 and mineral characterization; vegetation types for ecosystem health ASCENDS Day/night, all-latitude, all-season CO2 LEO, SSO Multifrequency laser 400 column integrals for climate emissions SWOT Ocean, lake, and river water levels for LEO, SSO Ka- or Ku-band radar 450 ocean and inland water dynamics Ku-band altimeter Microwave radiometer GEO-CAPE Atmospheric gas columns for air quality GEO High-spatial-resolution 550 forecasts; ocean color for coastal hyperspectral ecosystem health and climate emissions spectrometer Low-spatial-resolution imaging spectrometer IR correlation radiometer ACE Aerosol and cloud profiles for climate LEO, SSO Backscatter lidar 800 and water cycle; ocean color for open Multiangle polarimeter ocean biogeochemistry Doppler radar 2016-2020 LIST Land surface topography for landslide LEO, SSO Laser altimeter 300 hazards and water runoff PATH High-frequency, all-weather temperature GEO Microwave array 450 and humidity soundings for weather spectrometer forecasting and sea surface temperatureb GRACE-II High-temporal-resolution gravity fields for LEO, SSO Microwave or laser ranging 450 tracking large-scale water movement system SCLP Snow accumulation for freshwater LEO, SSO Ku- and X-band radars 500 availability K- and Ka-band radiometers GACM Ozone and related gases for LEO, SSO UV spectrometer 600 intercontinental air quality and IR spectrometer stratospheric ozone layer prediction Microwave limb sounder 3D-Winds Tropospheric winds for weather LEO, SSO Doppler lidar 650 (Demo) forecasting and pollution transport aLEO, low Earth orbit; SSO, Sun-synchronous orbit; GEO, geostationary Earth orbit. bCloud-independent, high-temporal-resolution, lower-accuracy sea surface temperature measurement to complement, not replace, global operational high-accuracy sea surface temperature measurement.