Forum Member Biographies
Stanley M. Lemon, M.D. (Chair), is the John Sealy Distinguished University Chair and director of the Institute for Human Infections and Immunity at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston. He received his undergraduate A.B. degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude and his M.D. with honors from the University of Rochester. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and is board certified in both. From 1977 to 1983 he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, followed by a 14-year period on the faculty of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. He moved to UTMB in 1997, serving first as chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, then as dean of the School of Medicine from 1999 to 2004. Dr. Lemon’s research interests relate to the molecular virology and pathogenesis of the positive-stranded RNA viruses responsible for hepatitis. He has had a long-standing interest in antiviral and vaccine development and has served previously as chair of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). He is the past chair of the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of the World Health Organization (WHO) Programme on Vaccine Development. He currently serves as a member of the U.S. Delegation of the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program, and he chairs the Board of Scientific Councilors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He was co-chair of the Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of Their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats for the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), and he recently chaired an Institute of Medicine (IOM) study committee related to vaccines
for the protection of the military against naturally occurring infectious disease threats.
Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D. (Vice-chair), is vice president for Biological Programs at the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a charitable organization working to reduce the global threat from nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. She is in charge of the biological program area. She completed her internship and residency in internal medicine at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center and is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Hamburg is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. Before taking on her current position, she was the assistant secretary for planning and evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), serving as a principal policy advisor to the secretary of health and human services with responsibilities including policy formulation and analysis, the development and review of regulations and legislation, budget analysis, strategic planning, and the conduct and coordination of policy research and program evaluation. Prior to this, she served for nearly six years as the commissioner of health for the city of New York. As chief health officer in the nation’s largest city, her many accomplishments included the design and implementation of an internationally recognized tuberculosis control program that produced dramatic declines in tuberculosis cases, the development of initiatives that raised childhood immunization rates to record levels, and the creation of the first public health bioterrorism preparedness program in the nation. She currently serves on the Harvard University Board of Overseers. She has been elected to membership in the IOM, the New York Academy of Medicine, and the Council on Foreign Relations and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the American College of Physicians.
P. Frederick Sparling, M.D. (Vice-chair), is the J. Herbert Bate Professor Emeritus of Medicine, Microbiology, and Immunology at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill and is director of the North Carolina Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Center. Previously he served as chair of the Department of Medicine and chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UNC. He was president of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) from 1996 to 1997. He was also a member of the IOM’s Committee on Microbial Threats to Health (1991–1992). Dr. Sparling’s laboratory research is in the molecular biology of bacterial outer membrane proteins involved in pathogenesis, with a major emphasis on gonococci and meningococci. His current studies focus on the biochemistry and genetics of iron-scavenging mechanisms used by gonococci and meningococci and the structure and function of the gonococcal porin proteins. He is pursuing the goal of a vaccine for gonorrhea.
David W. K. Acheson, M.D., is chief medical officer at the FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. He received his medical degree at the Uni-
versity of London. After completing internships in general surgery and medicine, he continued his postdoctoral training in Manchester, England, as a Wellcome Trust research fellow. He subsequently was a Wellcome Trust training fellow in Infectious Diseases at the New England Medical Center and at the Wellcome Research Unit in Vellore, India. He was associate professor of medicine, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center, until 2001. He then joined the faculties of the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine and Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Maryland Medical School. Currently at FDA, Dr. Acheson’s research concentration is on foodborne pathogens and encompasses a mixture of molecular pathogenesis, cell biology, and epidemiology. Specifically, his research focuses on Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and understanding toxin interaction with intestinal epithelial cells using tissue culture models. His laboratory has also undertaken a study to examine Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in food animals in relation to virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns. More recently, Dr. Acheson initiated a project to understand the molecular pathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni. Other studies have undertaken surveillance of diarrheal disease in the community to determine causes, outcomes, and risk factors of unexplained diarrhea. Dr. Acheson has authored or coauthored more than 72 journal articles and 42 book chapters and reviews, and he is coauthor of the book Safe Eating (Dell Health, 1998). He serves as a reviewer for more than 10 journals and is on the editorial boards of Infection and Immunity and Clinical Infectious Diseases. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and he holds several patents.
Ruth L. Berkelman, M.D., is the Rollins Professor and director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness and Research at the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University in Atlanta. She received her A.B. from Princeton University and her M.D. from Harvard Medical School. Board certified in pediatrics and internal medicine, she began her career at CDC in 1980 and later became deputy director of NCID. She also served as a senior advisor to the director, CDC, and as assistant surgeon general in the U.S. Public Health Service. In 2001 she came to her current position at Emory University, directing a center focused on emerging infectious disease and other urgent threats to health, including terrorism. She has also consulted with the biologic program of the Nuclear Threat Initiative and is most recognized for her work in infectious diseases and disease surveillance. She was elected to the IOM in 2004. Currently a member of the Board on Life Sciences of The National Academies, she also chairs the Board of Public and Scientific Affairs at the American Society of Microbiology (ASM).
Enriqueta C. Bond, Ph.D., is president of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund. She received her undergraduate degree from Wellesley College, her M.A. from the University of Virginia, and her Ph.D. in molecular biology and biochemical
genetics from Georgetown University. She is a member of the IOM, the AAAS, the ASM, and the American Public Health Association. Dr. Bond serves on the council of the IOM as its vice chair; she chairs the Board of Scientific Counselors for NCID at CDC, and she chairs the IOM’s Clinical Research Roundtable. She serves on the board and the executive committee of the Research Triangle Park Foundation and on the board of the Medicines for Malaria Venture. Prior to being named president of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund in 1994, she had served on the staff of the IOM since 1979, becoming the IOM’s executive officer in 1989.
Roger G. Breeze, Ph.D., received his veterinary degree in 1968 and his Ph.D. in veterinary pathology in 1973, both from the University of Glasgow, Scotland. He was engaged in teaching, diagnostic pathology, and research on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases at the University of Glasgow Veterinary School from 1968 to 1977 and at Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine from 1977 to 1987, where he was professor and chair of the Department of Microbiology and Pathology. From 1984 to 1987 he was deputy director of the Washington Technology Center, the state’s high-technology sciences initiative, based in the College of Engineering at the University of Washington. In 1987, he was appointed director of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Plum Island Animal Disease Center, a biosafety level 3 facility for research and diagnosis of the world’s most dangerous livestock diseases. In that role he initiated research into the genomic and functional genomic basis of disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and control of livestock RNA and DNA virus infections. This work became the basis of U.S. defense against natural and deliberate infection with these agents and led to his involvement in the early 1990s in biological weapons defense and proliferation prevention. From 1995 to 1998, he directed research programs in 20 laboratories in the Southeast for the USDA Agricultural Research Service before going to Washington, DC, to establish biological weapons defense research programs for USDA. He received the Distinguished Executive Award from President Clinton in 1998 for his work at Plum Island and in biodefense. Since 2004 he has been chief executive officer of Centaur Science Group, which provides consulting services in biodefense. His main commitment is to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Biological Weapons Proliferation Prevention program in Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia.
Steven J. Brickner, Ph.D., is research advisor, antibacterials chemistry, at Pfizer Global Research and Development. He received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Cornell University and was a National Institutes of Health (NIH) postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He is a medicinal chemist with nearly 20 years of research experience in the pharmaceutical industry, all focused on the discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents. He is an inventor or coinventor on 21 U.S. patents and has published numerous scientific papers, primarily within the area of the oxazolidinones. Prior to join-
ing Pfizer in 1996, he led a team at Pharmacia and Upjohn that discovered and developed linezolid, the first member of a new class of antibiotics to be approved in the past 35 years.
Nancy Carter-Foster, M.S.T.M., is senior advisor for health affairs for the U.S. Department of State, assistant secretary for science and health, and the secretary’s representative on HIV/AIDS. She is responsible for identifying emerging health issues and making policy recommendations for U.S. foreign policy concerns regarding international health, and she coordinates the department’s interactions with the nongovernmental community. She is a member of the IDSA and the AAAS. She has helped bring focus to global health issues in U.S. foreign policy and has brought a national security focus to global health. In prior positions as director for congressional and legislative affairs for the Economic and Business Affairs Bureau of the U.S. Department of State, foreign policy advisory to the majority whip of the U.S. House of Representatives, trade specialist advisor to the House of Representatives Ways and Means Trade Subcommittee, and consultant to the World Bank, Asia Technical Environment Division, Ms. Carter-Foster has worked on a wide variety of health, trade, and environmental issues amassing in-depth knowledge and experience in policy development and program implementation.
Gail H. Cassell, Ph.D., is vice president of Scientific Affairs, Distinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly & Company. Previously she was the Charles H. McCauley Professor and, beginning in 1987, the chair of the Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department which, under her leadership, ranked first in research funding from NIH since 1989. She is a member of the Director’s Advisory Committee of CDC. Dr. Cassell is past president of the ASM and is serving her third 3-year term as chair of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of the ASM. She is a former member of the NIH Director’s Advisory Committee and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She has also served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office on Science and Technology and was previously chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of NCID at CDC. She served 8 years on the Bacteriology-Mycology-II Study Section and served as its chair for 3 years. She serves on the editorial boards of several prestigious scientific journals and has authored more than 275 articles and book chapters. She has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research on infectious diseases.
Bill Colston, Ph.D., is currently the division leader for the Chemical and Biological Countermeasures Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
(LLNL). This newly formed division consists of four programs whose missions include threat awareness, detection, response, and attribution. These programs are made up of approximately 190 researchers from a variety of disciplines. The mission of these programs is to provide science, technology, and deployed capabilities to defend the nation, its people, and warfighters against the threat of biological and chemical terrorism. The larger vision is to meet the challenges of an ever-changing threat by transforming our understanding of pathogenicity and host response and expanding our reach globally. Dr. Colston holds a Ph.D. in biomedical engineering and has published numerous publications and patents, largely in biological measurement sciences. Directly prior to this assignment, he founded the Department of Homeland Security’s Biodefense Knowledge Center.
Col. Ralph (Loren) Erickson, M.D., Dr.P.H., M.P.H., is the director of the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS) headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland. He holds a B.S. degree in chemistry from the University of Washington, an M.D. from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, an M.P.H. from Harvard, and a Dr.P.H. from Johns Hopkins. Residency trained and board certified in preventive medicine, Dr. Erickson has held a number of leadership positions within the Army Medical Department, including: director of the General Preventive Medicine Residency Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; director of Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance, U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine; commander of the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (Europe); and specialty leader for all U.S. Army preventive medicine physicians.
Mark B. Feinberg, M.D., Ph.D., is vice president for Policy, Public Health, and Medical Affairs in the Merck Vaccine Division of Merck & Co., Inc. He received his bachelor’s degree magna cum laude from the University of Pennsylvania in 1978 and his M.D. and Ph.D. from Stanford University School of Medicine in 1987. From 1985 to 1986, Dr. Feinberg served as a project officer for the Committee on a National Strategy for AIDS of the IOM and the NAS. Following receipt of his M.D. and Ph.D., he pursued postgraduate residency training in internal medicine at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital of Harvard Medical School and postdoctoral fellowship research in the laboratory of Dr. David Baltimore at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. From 1991 to 1995, Dr. Feinberg was an assistant professor of medicine, microbiology, and immunology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), where he also served as an attending physician in the AIDS/Oncology Division and as director of the Virology Research Laboratory at San Francisco General Hospital. From 1995 to 1997, he was a medical officer in the Office of AIDS Research in the office of the director of NIH, and chair of the NIH Coordinating Committee on AIDS Etiology and Pathogenesis Research. During this period, he also served as executive secretary of the NIH
Panel to Define Principles of Therapy of HIV Infection. Prior to joining Merck in 2004, Dr. Feinberg served as professor of medicine and microbiology and immunology at the Emory University School of Medicine and as an investigator at the Emory Vaccine Center. He also founded and served as the medical director of the Hope Clinic—a clinical research facility devoted to the clinical evaluation of novel vaccines and to translational research studies of human immune system biology. At UCSF and Emory, Dr. Feinberg and colleagues were engaged in the preclinical development and evaluation of novel vaccines for HIV and other infectious diseases and in basic research studies focused on revealing fundamental aspects of host–virus relationships that underlie the pathogenesis of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus infections. In addition to his other professional roles, he has also served as a consultant to, and member of, several committees of the IOM and the NAS.
J. Patrick Fitch, Ph.D., is laboratory director for the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) and the president of Battelle National Biodefense Institute, LLC (BNBI). BNBI manages and operates the NBACC national laboratory for the Department of Homeland Security as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center established in 2006. The NBACC mission is to provide the nation with the scientific basis for awareness of biological threats and attribution of their use against the American public. Dr. Fitch joined Battelle in 2006 as vice president for Biodefense Programs after more than 20 years of experience leading multidisciplinary applied science teams at the University of California’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. From 2001 to 2006, he led the LLNL Chemical and Biological National Security Program (CBNP), with applied science programs from pathogen biology and material science to deployed systems. CBNP accomplishments include performing more than 1 million assays on national security samples; setting up and operating 24/7 reach-back capabilities; setting up a nationwide bioalert system; receiving three R&D 100 awards; designing signatures for validated assays in the CDC Laboratory Response Network and the National Animal Health Laboratory Network; and designing, demonstrating, and deploying the BASIS biodetection system, leading to the nationwide BioWatch system. He has authored several books and book chapters, including An Engineering Introduction to Biotechnology. He has chaired and served on several panels of The National Academies. His advisory board activities have included U.S. Animal Health Association, Texas A&M University DHS Center of Excellence, Central Florida University (College of Engineering), Colorado State University (College of Engineering), California State Breast Cancer Research Program, and Biomolecular Engineering. Dr. Fitch was a fellow of the American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery and an associate editor of Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing. He has received two national awards for medical devices, a technical writing award for an article in Science, and an international best paper award from the Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). He also coinvented the technology, developed the initial business plan, and successfully raised venture investments for a high-tech medical device start-up company. Dr. Fitch received his Ph.D. from Purdue University and B.S. from Loyola College of Maryland.
Capt. Darrell R. Galloway, M.S.C., Ph.D., is chief of the Medical Science and Technology Division for the Chemical and Biological Defense Directorate at the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. He received his baccalaureate degree in microbiology from California State University in Los Angeles in 1973. After completing military service in the U.S. Army as a medical corpsman from 1969 to 1972, Captain Galloway entered graduate school and completed a doctoral degree in biochemistry in 1978 from the University of California, followed by 2 years of postgraduate training in immunochemistry as a fellow of the National Cancer Institute at the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation in La Jolla, California. Captain Galloway began his navy career at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, where from 1980 to 1984 he served as a research scientist working on vaccine development. In late 1984 Captain Galloway left active service to pursue an academic appointment at Ohio State University, where he is now a tenured faculty member in the Department of Microbiology. He also holds appointments at the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences. He has an international reputation in the area of bacterial toxin research and has published more than 50 research papers on various studies of bacterial toxins. In recent years Captain Galloway’s research has concentrated on anthrax and the development of DNA-based vaccine technology. His laboratory has contributed substantially to the development of a new DNA-based vaccine against anthrax that has completed the first phase of clinical trials. Captain Galloway is a member of the ASM and has served as president of the Ohio branch of that organization. He received an NIH Research Career Development Award. In 2005 Captain Galloway was awarded the Joel M. Dalrymple Award for significant contributions to biodefense vaccine development.
S. Elizabeth George, Ph.D., is deputy director, Biological Countermeasures Portfolio Science and Technology Directorate, Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Until merging into the new department in 2003, she was program manager of the Chemical and Biological National Security Program in the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nonproliferation Research and Engineering. Significant accomplishments include the design and deployment of BioWatch, the nation’s first civilian biological threat agent monitoring system, and PROTECT, the first civilian operational chemical detection and response capability deployed in the Washington, DC, area subway system. Previously, she spent 16 years at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development, National Health and Ecological
Effects Research Laboratory, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, where she was branch chief of the Molecular and Cellular Toxicology Branch. She received her B.S. in biology in 1977 from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and her M.S. and Ph.D. in microbiology in 1979 and 1984, respectively, from North Carolina State University. From 1984 to 1986, she was a National Research Council fellow in the laboratory of Dr. Larry Claxton at EPA. Dr. George is the 2005 chair of the Chemical and Biological Terrorism Defense Gordon Research Conference. She has served as councilor for the Environmental Mutagen Society and president and secretary of the Genotoxicity and Environmental Mutagen Society. She holds memberships in the ASM and the AAAS and is an adjunct faculty member in the School of Rural Public Health, Texas A&M University. She is a recipient of the EPA Bronze Medal and Scientific and Technological Achievement Awards and DHS Under Secretary’s Award for Science and Technology. She is the author of numerous journal articles and has presented her research at national and international meetings.
Jesse L. Goodman, M.D., M.P.H., is director of FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), which oversees medical, public health, and policy activities concerning the development and assessment of vaccines, blood products, tissues, and related devices and novel therapeutics, including cellular and gene therapies. He moved full-time to FDA in 2001 from the University of Minnesota, where he was professor of and director of the Division of Infectious Diseases. A graduate of Harvard College, he received his M.D. at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, did residency and fellowship training at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and at the University of California–Los Angeles (UCLA; where he was also chief medical resident), and is board certified in internal medicine, oncology, and infectious diseases. He trained in the virology laboratory of Jack Stevens at UCLA and has had an active laboratory program in the molecular pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In 1995 his laboratory isolated the etiologic agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and subsequently characterized fundamental events involved in infection of leukocytes, including their cellular receptors. He is editor of the book Tick Borne Diseases of Humans published by ASM Press in 2005 and is a staff physician and infectious diseases consultant at the NIH Clinical Center and the National Naval Medical Center/ Walter Reed Army Medical Center, as well as adjunct professor of medicine at the University of Minnesota. He is active in a wide variety of clinical, public health, and product development issues, including pandemic and emerging infectious disease threats, bioterrorism preparedness and response, and blood, tissue, and vaccine safety and availability. In these activities, he has worked closely with CDC, NIH, and other HHS components, academia, and the private sector, and he has put into place an interactive team approach to emerging threats. This model was used in the collaborative development and rapid implementation of nationwide donor screening of the U.S. blood supply for West Nile virus. He has
been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI) and to the IOM.
Eduardo Gotuzzo, M.D., is principal professor and director at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Alexander von Humbolt,” Universidad Peruana Cayetan Heredia (UPCH) in Lima, Peru, as well as chief of the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases at the Cayetano Heredia Hospital. He is also an adjunct professor of medicine at the University of Alabama, Birmingham School of Medicine. Dr. Gotuzzo is an active member in numerous international societies and has been president of the Latin America Society of Tropical Disease (2000– 2003), the IDSA Scientific Program (2000–2003), the International Organizing Committee of the International Congress of Infectious Diseases (1994–present), president-elect of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (1996–1998), and president of the Peruvian Society of Internal Medicine (1991–1992). He has published more than 230 articles and chapters as well as six manuals and one book. Recent honors and awards include being named an honorary member of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 2002, associate member of the National Academy of Medicine in 2002, honorary member of the Society of Internal Medicine in 2000, and distinguished visitor at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Cordoba, Argentina, in 1999. In 1988 he received the Golden Medal for Outstanding Contribution in the Field of Infectious Diseases awarded by Trnava University, Slovakia.
Jo Handelsman, Ph.D., received her Ph.D. in molecular biology from the University of Wisconsin–Madison (UW–M) in 1984 and joined the faculty of the UW–M Department of Plant Pathology in 1985, where she is currently a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) professor. Her research focuses on the genetic and functional diversity of microorganisms in soil and insect gut communities. The Handelsman lab has concentrated on discovery and biological activity of novel antibiotics from cultured and uncultured bacteria and has contributed to the pioneering of a new technique called metagenomics that facilitates the genomic analysis of assemblages of uncultured microorganisms. Handelsman is studying the mid-gut of the gypsy moth to understand the basis for resistance and susceptibility of microbial communities to invasion, developing it as a model for the microbial community in the human gut. In addition to her passion for understanding the secret lives of bacteria, Dr. Handelsman is dedicated to improving science education and the advancement of women in research universities. She is director of the HHMI New Generation Program for Scientific Teaching, which is dedicated to teaching graduate and postdoctoral students the principles and practices of teaching and mentoring. She is codirector of The National Academies Summer Institute for Undergraduate Education in Biology, a collaborative venture between HHMI and The National Academies that aims to train a nationwide network of faculty who are outstanding teachers and mentors. Dr. Handelsman
is codirector of the Women in Science and Engineering Leadership Institute at UW–M, whose mission is to understand the impediments to the successful recruitment and advancement of women faculty in the sciences and to develop and study interventions intended to reduce those barriers.
Carole A. Heilman, Ph.D., is director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). She received her bachelor’s degree in biology from Boston University in 1972 and earned her master’s degree and doctorate in microbiology from Rutgers University in 1976 and 1979, respectively. Dr. Heilman began her NIH career as a postdoctoral research associate with the National Cancer Institute, where she carried out research on the regulation of gene expression during cancer development. In 1986, she came to NIAID as the influenza and viral respiratory diseases program officer in DMID and, in 1988, she was appointed chief of the respiratory diseases branch, where she coordinated the development of acellular pertussis vaccines. She joined the Division of AIDS as deputy director in 1997 and was responsible for developing the Innovation Grant Program for Approaches in HIV Vaccine Research. She is the recipient of several notable awards for outstanding achievement. Throughout her extramural career, Dr. Heilman has contributed articles on vaccine design and development to many scientific journals and has served as a consultant to the World Bank and WHO. She is also a member of several professional societies, including the IDSA, the ASM, and the American Society of Virology.
David L. Heymann, M.D., is currently assistant director-general for communicable diseases and the representative of the director-general for polio eradication at the World Health Organization. Prior to that, from July 1998 until July 2003, Dr. Heymann was executive director of the WHO Communicable Diseases Cluster which includes WHO’s programs on infectious and tropical diseases, and from which the public health response to SARS was mounted in 2003. From October 1995 to July 1998 Dr. Heymann was director of the WHO Program on Emerging and other Communicable Diseases, and prior to that was the chief of research activities in the WHO Global Program on AIDS. Before joining WHO, Dr. Heymann worked for 13 years as a medical epidemiologist in sub-Saharan Africa (Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Malawi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo—formerly Zaire) on assignment from the CDC in CDC-supported activities. These activities aimed at strengthening capacity in surveillance of infectious diseases and their control, with special emphasis on the childhood immunizable diseases including measles and polio, African haemorrhagic fevers, poxviruses, and malaria. While based in Africa, Dr. Heymann participated in the investigation of the first outbreak of Ebola in Yambuku (former Zaire) in 1976, then again investigated the second outbreak of Ebola in 1977 in Tandala, and in 1995 directed the international response to the Ebola outbreak in Kikwit. Prior to these
13 years in Africa, Dr. Heymann worked two years in India as a medical epidemiologist in the WHO Smallpox Eradication Program. Dr. Heymann holds a B.A. from the Pennsylvania State University, an M.D. from Wake Forest University, a Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and has completed practical epidemiology training in the two-year Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) of CDC. He is a recipient of the American Public Health Association Award for Excellence and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Donald MacKay medal, and is a member of the IOM. Dr. Heymann has published over 140 scientific articles on infectious diseases and related issues in medical and scientific journals, and authored several chapters on infectious diseases in medical textbooks. He is currently editor of the 18th edition of the Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, a joint publication of WHO and the American Public Health Association.
Phil Hosbach is vice president of New Products and Immunization Policy at Sanofi Pasteur. The departments under his supervision are new product marketing, state and federal government policy, business intelligence, bids and contracts, medical communications, public health sales, and public health marketing. His current responsibilities include oversight of immunization policy development. He acts as Sanofi Pasteur’s principal liaison with CDC. Mr. Hosbach graduated from Lafayette College in 1984 with a degree in biology. He has 20 years of pharmaceutical industry experience, including the past 17 years focused solely on vaccines. He began his career at American Home Products in Clinical Research in 1984. He joined Aventis Pasteur (then Connaught Labs) in 1987 as clinical research coordinator and has held research and development positions of increasing responsibility, including clinical research manager and director of clinical operations. Mr. Hosbach also served as project manager for the development and licensure of Tripedia, the first diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine approved by FDA for use in U.S. infants. During his clinical research career at Aventis Pasteur, he contributed to the development and licensure of seven vaccines and has authored or coauthored several clinical research articles. From 2000 through 2002, Mr. Hosbach served on the board of directors for Pocono Medical Center in East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. Since 2003 he has served on the board of directors of Pocono Health Systems, which includes Pocono Medical Center.
James M. Hughes, M.D., received his B.A. in 1966 and M.D. in 1971 from Stanford University. He completed a residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington and a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Virginia. He is board certified in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and preventive medicine. He first joined CDC as an epidemic intelligence service officer in 1973. During his CDC career, he has worked primarily in the areas of foodborne disease and infection control in health-care settings. He became
director of NCID in 1992. The center is currently working to address domestic and global challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. He is a member of the IOM and a fellow of the American College of Physicians, the IDSA, and the AAAS. He is an assistant surgeon general in the Public Health Service.
Stephen A. Johnston, Ph.D., is currently director of the Center for Innovations in Medicine in the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. His center focuses on formulating and implementing disruptive technologies for basic problems in health care. The center has three divisions: Genomes to Vaccines, Cancer Eradication, and DocInBox. The Genomes to Vaccines group has developed high-throughput systems to screen for vaccine candidates and is applying them to predict and produce chemical vaccines. The Cancer Eradication group is working on formulating a universal prophylactic vaccine for cancer. The DocInBox group is developing technologies to facilitate presymptomatic diagnosis. Dr. Johnston founded the Center for Biomedical Inventions (a.k.a., Center for Translation Research) at the University of Texas–Southwestern, the first center of its kind in the medical arena. He and his colleagues have developed numerous inventions and innovations, including the gene gun, genetic immunization, TEV protease system, organelle transformation, digital optical chemistry arrays, expression library immunization, linear expression elements, and others. He also was involved in transcription research for years, first cloning Gal4, then later discovering functional domains in transcription factors and the connection of the proteasome to transcription. He has been professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and associate and assistant professor at Duke University. He has been involved in several capacities as an advisor on biosecurity since 1996 and is a member of the WRCE SAB and a founding member of BioChem 20/20.
Gerald T. Keusch, M.D., is provost and dean for Global Health at Boston University and Boston University School of Public Health. He is a graduate of Columbia College (1958) and Harvard Medical School (1963). After completing a residency in internal medicine, fellowship training in infectious diseases, and 2 years as an NIH research associate at the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) Medical Research Laboratory in Bangkok, Thailand, Dr. Keusch joined the faculty of Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in 1970, where he established a laboratory to study the pathogenesis of bacillary dysentery and the biology and biochemistry of Shiga toxin. In 1979 he moved to Tufts Medical School and New England Medical Center in Boston to found the Division of Geographic Medicine, which focused on the molecular and cellular biology of tropical infectious disease. In 1986 he integrated the clinical infectious diseases program into the Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, continuing as division chief until 1998. He has worked in the laboratory and in the field in Latin
America, Africa, and Asia on basic and clinical infectious diseases and HIV/ AIDS research. From 1998 to 2003, he was associate director for international research and director of the Fogarty International Center at NIH. Dr. Keusch is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI), the Association of American Physicians, the ASM, and the IDSA. He has received the Squibb (1981), Finland (1997), and Bristol (2002) awards of the IDSA. In 2002 he was elected to the IOM.
Rima F. Khabbaz, M.D., is director of NCID at CDC. She received her B.S. in 1975 and her M.D. in 1979 from the American University of Beirut in Lebanon. She trained in internal medicine and completed a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Maryland in Baltimore. She is board certified in internal medicine. She first joined CDC as an epidemic intelligence service officer in 1980. During her CDC career, she worked primarily in the areas of health care–associated infections and viral diseases. She is a fellow of the IDSA and an elected member of the American Epidemiologic Society. She served on FDA’s Blood Product Advisory Committee, on FDA’s Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee and on the Annual Meeting Scientific Program Committee of the IDSA. She played a leading role in developing CDC’s programs related to blood and food safety and in CDC’s responses to outbreaks of new and reemerging diseases.
Lonnie J. King, D.V.M., is currently the director of CDC’s new National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED). Dr. King leads the center’s activities for surveillance, diagnostics, disease investigations, epidemiology, research, public education, policy development, and disease prevention and control programs. NCZVED also focuses on waterborne, foodborne, vectorborne, and zoonotic diseases of public health concern, which also includes most of CDC’s select and bioterrorism agents, neglected tropical diseases, and emerging zoonoses. Before serving as director, he was the first chief of the agency’s Office of Strategy and Innovation. In 1996 Dr. King was appointed dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University. He served for 10 years as dean of the college. As dean, he was the chief executive officer for academic programs, research, the teaching hospital, diagnostic center for population and animal health, basic and clinical science departments, and outreach and continuing education programs. As dean and professor of large animal clinical sciences, Dr. King was instrumental in obtaining funds for the construction of the $60 million Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, initiated the Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the college, served as the campus leader in food safety, and had oversight for the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center. He brought the Center for Integrative Toxicology to the college and was the university’s designated leader for counterbioterrorism activities for his college and was involved in reestablishing public health programs at Michigan State University. Prior to this, Dr. King was
administrator for USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Dr. King served as the country’s chief veterinary officer for 5 years and worked extensively in global trade agreements within the North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization. Before beginning his government career in 1977, he was in private veterinary practice for 7 years in Ohio and Georgia. He received his B.S. and D.V.M. from Ohio State University in 1966 and 1970, respectively. He earned his M.S. in epidemiology from the University of Minnesota while on special assignment with USDA in 1980. He received his master’s in public administration from The American University in Washington, DC, in 1991. Dr. King has a broad knowledge of animal agriculture and the veterinary profession through his work with other governmental agencies, universities, major livestock and poultry groups, and private practitioners. Dr. King is a board-certified member of the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and has completed the senior executive fellowship program at Harvard University. He served as president of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges from 1999 to 2000 and was vice chair for the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues from 2000 to 2004. Dr. King helped start the National Alliance for Food Safety, served on the Governor’s Task Force on Chronic Wasting Disease for the state of Michigan, and was a member of four NAS committees; most recently he chaired The National Academies Committee on Assessing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases. Dr. King is one of the developers of the Science, Politics, and Animal Health Policy Fellowship Program, and he lectures extensively on the future of animal health and veterinary medicine. He served as a consultant and member of the Board of Scientific Counselors to CDC’s National Center for Infectious Diseases and is a member of the IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats. Dr. King is an editor for the OIE Scientific Review on Emerging Zoonoses, is a current member of FDA’s Board of Scientific Advisors, and is president of the American Veterinary Epidemiology Society. Dr. King was elected to the IOM in 2004.
Col. George W. Korch, Ph.D., is commander, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick, Maryland. Dr. Korch attended Boston University and earned a B.S. in biology in 1974, followed by postgraduate study in mammalian ecology at the University of Kansas from 1975 to 1978. He earned his Ph.D. from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Immunology and Infectious Diseases in 1985, followed by postdoctoral experience at Johns Hopkins from 1985 to 1986. His areas of training and specialty are the epidemiology of zoonotic viral pathogens and medical entomology. For the past 15 years, he has also been engaged in research and program management for medical defense against biological pathogens used in terrorism or warfare.
Joshua Lederberg, Ph.D., is professor emeritus of molecular genetics and informatics and Sackler Foundation Scholar at the Rockefeller University in New York
City. His lifelong research, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1958, has been in genetic structure and function in microorganisms. He has a keen interest in international health and from 1990 to 1992 was co-chair of a previous IOM Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health. Currently he is co-chair of the Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the Twenty-First Century. He has been a member of the NAS since 1957 and is a charter member of the IOM.
Lynn G. Marks, M.D., is board certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases. He was on the faculty at the University of South Alabama College of Medicine in the Infectious Diseases Department, focusing on patient care, teaching, and research, where his academic research interest was in the molecular genetics of bacterial pathogenicity. He subsequently joined the anti-infectives clinical group of SmithKline Beecham (now GlaxoSmithKline) and later advanced to be global head of the Consumer Healthcare Division Medical and Regulatory Group. He then returned to pharmaceutical research and development as global head of the Infectious Diseases Therapeutic Area Strategy Team for GlaxoSmithKline.
Edward McSweegan, Ph.D., is a program officer at NIAID. He graduated from Boston College with a B.S. in 1978. He has an M.S. in microbiology from the University of New Hampshire and a Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Rhode Island. He was a National Research Council Associate from 1984 to 1986 and did postdoctoral research at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. McSweegan served as an AAAS diplomacy fellow in the U.S. State Department from 1986 to 1988 and negotiated science and technology agreements with Poland, Hungary, and the former Soviet Union. After moving to NIH, he continued to work on international health and science projects in Egypt, Israel, India, and Russia. Currently, he manages NIAID’s bilateral program with India, the Indo–U.S. Vaccine Action Program, and represents NIAID in the HHS Biotechnology Engagement Program with Russia and related countries. He is a member of the AAAS, the ASM, and the DC Science Writers Association. He is the author of numerous journal and science articles.
Stephen S. Morse, Ph.D., is founding director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University and is an associate professor in the epidemiology department. He recently returned to Columbia after 4 years in government service as program manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he codirected the Pathogen Countermeasures Program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics Program. Before coming to Columbia, he was assistant professor of virology at Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. He is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1993; paperback, 1996), which was selected by American Scientist for its
list of 100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century, and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994). He currently serves as a section editor of the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases and was formerly an editor-in-chief of the Pasteur Institute’s journal Research in Virology. Dr. Morse was chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID/NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses, for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses/infections. He has served as a member of the IOM/NAS Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health, chaired its Task Force on Viruses, and was a contributor to the resulting report, Emerging Infections (1992). He was a member of the IOM’s Committee on Xenograft Transplantation and he currently serves on the Steering Committee of the IOM’s Forum on Emerging Infections (now the Forum on Microbial Threats). Dr. Morse also served as an adviser to WHO, the Pan-American Health Organization, FDA, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and other agencies. He is a fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and a past chair of its microbiology section, a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology of the American College of Epidemiology, and an elected life member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He was the founding chair of ProMED, the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases, and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Michael T. Osterholm, Ph.D., M.P.H., is director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota, where he is also professor at the School of Public Health. Previously, Dr. Osterholm was the state epidemiologist and chief of the acute disease epidemiology section for the Minnesota Department of Health. He has received numerous research awards from NIAID and CDC. He served as principal investigator for the CDC-sponsored Emerging Infections Program in Minnesota. He has published more than 240 articles and abstracts on various emerging infectious disease problems and is the author of the best-selling book, Living Terrors: What America Needs to Know to Survive the Coming Bioterrorist Catastrophe. He is past president of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. He currently serves on the IOM Forum on Microbial Threats. He has also served on the IOM Committee to Ensure Safe Food from Production to Consumption, the IOM Committee on the Department of Defense Persian Gulf Syndrome Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program, and as a reviewer for the IOM report on chemical and biological terrorism.
George Poste, Ph.D., D.V.M., is director of the Arizona Biodesign Institute and Dell E. Webb Distinguished Professor of Biology at Arizona State University. From 1992 to 1999, he was chief science and technology officer and president, Research and Development of SmithKline Beecham (SB). During his tenure at SB, he was associated with the successful registration of 29 drug, vaccine, and
diagnostic products. He is chairman of diaDexus and Structural GenomiX in California and Orchid Biosciences in Princeton. He serves on the board of directors of AdvancePCS and Monsanto. He is an advisor on biotechnology to several venture capital funds and investment banks. In May 2003, he was appointed as director of the Arizona Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. This is a major new initiative combining research groups in biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials science, advanced computing, and neuromorphic engineering. He is a fellow of Pembroke College in Cambridge and distinguished fellow at the Hoover Institution and Stanford University. He is a member of the Defense Science Board of the U.S. Department of Defense. In this capacity he chairs the Task Force on Bioterrorism. He is also a member of the NAS Working Group on Defense Against Bioweapons. Dr. Poste is a board-certified pathologist, a fellow of the Royal Society, and a fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences. He was awarded the rank of Commander of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in 1999 for services to medicine and for the advancement of biotechnology. He has published more than 350 scientific papers; has coedited 15 books on cancer, biotechnology, and infectious diseases; and serves on the editorial board of multiple technical journals. He is routinely invited to be the keynote speaker at a wide variety of academic, corporate, investment, and government meetings to discuss the impact of biotechnology and genetics on health care and the challenges posed by bioterrorism.
David A. Relman, M.D., is an associate professor of medicine (infectious diseases and geographic medicine) and of microbiology and immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine, and chief of the infectious disease section at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Palo Alto Health Care System. Dr. Relman received his B.S. in biology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his M.D. from Harvard Medical School. He completed his residency in internal medicine and a clinical fellowship in infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, after which he moved to Stanford for a postdoctoral fellowship in 1986, and joined the faculty there in 1994. His research focus is on understanding the structure and role of the human indigenous microbial communities in health and disease. This work brings together approaches from ecology, population biology, environmental microbiology, genomics, and clinical medicine. A second area of investigation explores the classification structure of humans and nonhuman primates with systemic infectious diseases, based on patterns of genome-wide gene transcript abundance in blood and other tissues. The goals of this work are to understand mechanisms of host–pathogen interaction, as well as predict clinical outcome at early time points in the disease process. His scientific achievements include the description of a novel approach for identifying previously unknown pathogens, the characterization of a number of new human microbial pathogens, including the agent of Whipple’s disease, and some of the most in-depth analyses to date of human indigenous microbial communities. Among his other activities,
Dr. Relman currently serves as chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIH), is a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and advises a number of U.S. government departments and agencies on matters related to pathogen diversity, the future life sciences landscape, and the nature of present and future biological threats. He was co-chair of the Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of Their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats for the NAS. He received the Squibb Award from the IDSA in 2001, the Senior Scholar Award in Global Infectious Diseases from the Ellison Medical Foundation in 2002, an NIH Director’s Pioneer Award in 2006, and a Doris Duke Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award in 2006. He is also a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology.
Gary A. Roselle, M.D., received his M.D. from the Ohio State University School of Medicine in 1973. He served his residency at the Northwestern University School of Medicine and his infectious diseases fellowship at the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine. He is the program director for infectious diseases for the VA Central Office in Washington, DC, as well as the chief of the medical service at the Cincinnati VA Medical Center. He is a professor of medicine in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Dr. Roselle serves on several national advisory committees. In addition, he is currently heading the Emerging Pathogens Initiative for the Department of Veterans Affairs. He has received commendations from the Cincinnati Medical Center director, the under secretary for health for the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the secretary of veterans affairs for his work in the infectious diseases program for the Department of Veterans Affairs. He has been an invited speaker at several national and international meetings and has published more than 80 papers and several book chapters.
Janet Shoemaker is director of the ASM’s Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regulatory affairs of this 42,000-member organization, the largest single biological science society in the world. She has served as principal investigator for a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to collect and disseminate data on the job market for recent doctorates in microbiology and has played a key role in ASM projects, including the production of the ASM Employment Outlook in the Microbiological Sciences and The Impact of Managed Care and Health System Change on Clinical Microbiology. Previously, she held positions as assistant director of public affairs for the ASM, as ASM coordinator of the U.S./U.S.S.R. Exchange Program in Microbiology, a program sponsored and coordinated by NSF and the U.S. Department of State, and as a freelance editor and writer. She received her baccalaureate, cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts, and is a graduate of the George Washington University programs in public policy and
in editing and publications. She has served as commissioner to the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology and as the ASM representative to the ad hoc Group for Medical Research Funding, and is a member of Women in Government Relations, the American Society of Association Executives, and the AAAS. She has coauthored published articles on research funding, biotechnology, biological weapons control, and public policy issues related to microbiology.
Brian J. Staskawicz, Ph.D., is professor and chair, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California–Berkeley. Dr. Staskawicz received his B.A. in biology from Bates College in 1974 and his Ph.D. from the University of California–Berkeley in 1980. Dr. Staskawicz’s work has contributed greatly to understanding the molecular interactions between plants and their pathogens. He was elected to the NAS in 1998 for elucidating the mechanisms of disease resistance, as his lab was the first to clone a bacterial effector gene from a pathogen and among the first to clone and characterize plant disease-resistance genes. Dr. Staskawicz’s research focuses on the interaction of the bacteria, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas, with Arabidopsis, tomato, and pepper. He has published extensively in this area and is a one of the leading scientists in the world working on elucidating the molecular basis of plant innate immunity.
Terence Taylor is president and director of the International Council for the Life Sciences (ICLS). He is responsible for the overall direction of the ICLS and its programs, which have the goal of enhancing global biosafety and biosecurity. From 1995 to 2005, he was assistant director of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), a leading independent international institute, and president and executive director of its U.S. office (2001 to 2005). He studies international security policy, risk analysis, and scientific and technological developments and their impact on political and economic stability worldwide. At IISS he was one of the Institute’s leading experts on issues associated with nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons and their means of delivery. In his previous appointments, he has had particular responsibilities for issues affecting public safety and security in relation to biological risks and advances in the life sciences. He was one of the commissioners to the United Nations (UN) Special Commission on Iraq, for which he also conducted missions as a chief inspector. He was a research fellow on the Science Program at the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University, where he carried out, among other subjects, studies of the implications for government and industry of the weapons of mass destruction treaties and agreements. He has also carried out consultancy work for the International Committee of the Red Cross on the implementation and development of the laws of armed conflict. He has served as chairman of the World Federation of Scientists’ Permanent Monitoring Panel on Risk Analysis. He served as a career officer in the British Army on operations in many parts of the world, including counterterrorist operations and UN peacekeeping. His publications include
monographs, book chapters, and articles for, among others, Stanford University, the World Economic Forum, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the Crimes of War Project, International Herald Tribune, Wall Street Journal, the International Defence Review, the Independent (London), Tiempo (Madrid), the International and Comparative Law Quarterly, the Washington Quarterly, and other scholarly journals, including unsigned contributions to IISS publications.