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Appendix B Workshop Information Understanding Interventions that Encourage Minorities to Pursue Research Careers: Major Questions and Appropriate Methods Thursday-Friday, May 3-4, 2007 Auditorium American Association for the Advancement of Science 1200 New York Avenue, N.W. â¢ Washington, D.C. 20005 AGENDA THURSDAY, MAY 3, 2007 8:00 a.m. Registration opens 8:30 a.m. Welcome and Introductions â¢ nthony L. DePass (Committee Co-Chair), A Associate Dean of Research and Associate Professor of Biology, Long Island UniversityâBrooklyn â¢ arry V. Hedges (Committee Co-Chair), Board L of Trustees Professor of Statistics and Social Policy, Northwestern University 8:45 a.m. Sponsorâs Charge to Workshop Participants â¢ lifton A. Poodry, Director, Division of Minority C Opportunities in Research, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH 57
58 APPENDIX B 9:00 a.m. Setting the Context: Factors Affecting Career Choice and Training This session will look at the underlying issues of career choice from the perspective of different disciplines, such as psychology, higher education studies, and economics. The session will emphasize the systems aspect of studentsâ decision-making process, the way that many different factors contribute, and highlight different approaches to these questions. Session Chair: Carol B. Muller (Committee Member), Founder, President, and Chief Executive Officer, MentorNet â¢ obert W. Lent, Professor of Counseling and R Personnel Services and Co-Director, Counseling Psychology Program, College of Education, University of Maryland, College Park â¢ laude Steele, Director, Center for Advanced Study C in the Behavioral Sciences; Professor of Psychology and Lucie Stern Professor in the Social Sciences, Stanford University â¢ ichael T. Nettles, Senior Vice President and Edmund M W. Gordon Chair of the Policy Evaluation and Research Center, Educational Testing Service â¢ nne Preston, Associate Professor of Economics, A Haverford College 10:45 a.m. Break 11:10 a.m. Setting the Context: Responses and Discussion Session Chair: Karen Kashmanian Oates (Committee Member), Provost and Professor of Biochemistry, Harrisburg University of Science and Technology â¢ rlando L. Taylor, Vice Provost for Research, Dean of O the Graduate School, and Professor of Communication, Howard University 12:00 p.m. Lunch 1:00 p.m. Remarks from NIGMS Director â¢ eremy M. Berg, Director, National Institute of J General Medical Sciences, NIH
APPENDIX B 59 1:15 p.m. Keynote Address â¢ lias A. Zerhouni, Director, National Institutes of E Health 1:45 p.m. State of Knowledge and Avenues of Investigation This session will provide an overview of the existing knowledge base and introduce some of the questions and approaches that are currently being pursued. Session Chair: Daryl E. Chubin (Committee Member), Director, AAAS Center for Advancing Science & Engineering Capacity, American Association for the Advancement of Science â¢ David R. Burgess, Professor of Biology, Boston College â¢ olanda S. George, Deputy Director, Education and Y Human Resources Programs, American Association for the Advancement of Science 2:50 p.m. Break 3:10 p.m. Technical Assistance Workshop This session will focus on technical aspects of research in this area, with discussion of issues such as framing of researchable questions, experimental design, and quantitative analysis. Session Chair: Larry V. Hedges (Committee Co- Chair), Board of Trustees Professor of Statistics and Social Policy, Northwestern University Overview of NIH Efficacy of Interventions to Promote Research Careers R01 Program â¢ hiva P. Singh, Program Director, Division of S Minority Opportunities in Research, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH 1. roblem Formulation: Asking answerable P questions that will advance our understanding of how to increase minority representation in biomedical and behavioral sciences.
60 APPENDIX B This includes situating the research questions in the context of some body of existing knowledge (theory or empirical work). It also involves posing questions that relate to what is known and promises to advance it in a meaningful way. It requires research questions that are broad enough to be important but narrow enough to be answered (or informed in a meaningful way) from a feasible research study. This discussion will be grounded in the kinds of research problems that are relevant to understanding how to increase minority representation in biomedical and behavioral sciences. â¢ arry R. Komisaruk, Associate Dean of the B Graduate School, Professor II of Psychology, and Rutgers University Board of Governors Distinguished Service Professor, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey â¢ artin M. Chemers, Professor of Psychology, M University of California, Santa Cruz 2. esearch Design: Specifying procedures to R collect data that can inform that question. This begins with making clear what will be done (what the research design is). It will include providing a persuasive argument that the proposed research design is feasible (e.g., that it can be carried out, that the individuals invited are likely to participate in the study, etc.), and that the proposed design can provide clear answers to the research questions. At a minimum, this requires a persuasive argument that the proposed design minimizes possible biases and that the proposed analyses will have enough precision or statistical power to detect the effects or relations between variables that are crucial to answering the research questions. It also includes descriptions of how key research concepts used (such as interventions and measures of outcomes) will be operationalized. â¢ arry V. Hedges (Committee Co-Chair), Board L of Trustees Professor of Statistics and Social Policy, Northwestern University
APPENDIX B 61 3. Analysis: Specifying the procedure that will be used to reach conclusions from the data collected. This includes specifying a data reduction and/ or analysis procedure that is appropriate for the research design and will provide clear answers to the research questions. The session will not provide an exhaustive discussion of all relevant analysis procedures but will provide examples of some of the most relevant techniquesâand motivate why they should be considered. â¢ enneth I. Maton, Professor of Psychology, K University of Maryland, Baltimore County 5:30 p.m. Reception and informal discussion Sponsored by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute FRIDAY, MAY 4, 2007 8:00 a.m. B reakout discussions on research questions and approaches This session will follow on the earlier discussions, allowing participants to interact with other partici- pants from similar types of institutions in smaller groups and focus on the types of research questions and approaches that are of most interest. Each breakout group should prepare to make a 5- minute presentation on the most important research questions and issues during the 9:30 a.m. reporting back session. There will be three breakout sessions, based upon institution type: â¢ Research Institutions: Auditorium â¢ rimarily Undergraduate Institutions: Abelson/ P Haskins Conference Room â¢ rofessional Societies: Revelle Conference Room P Others (e.g., government employees) are welcome to attend the session of their choice.
62 APPENDIX B 9:30 a.m. Reporting back on breakout discussions Moderator: Anthony L. DePass (Committee Co- Chair), Associate Dean of Research and Associate Professor of Biology, Long Island UniversityâBrooklyn 10:10 a.m. Break 10:30 a.m. Panel on next steps, including community building and facilitating advancement This session will focus on the next steps for moving the research agenda forward. Among the panelists will be representatives from those who can help provide a venue for future work and discussion. Session Chair: Howard H. Garrison (Committee Member), Deputy Executive Director for Policy and Director, Office of Public Affairs, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology â¢ arol J. Burger, Associate Professor, Center for C Interdisciplinary Studies, and Director, Science & Gender Equity Program, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering â¢ uajuanda Jordan, Senior Program Officer for T Science Education, Howard Hughes Medical Institute â¢ aRuth C. McAfee, Executive Director for L Education, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University â¢ anda E. Ward, Deputy Assistant Director for W Social, Behavioral & Economic Sciences (currently on detail as Deputy Assistant Director for Education and Human Resources), National Science Foundation 12:30 p.m. Concluding session â¢ nthony L. DePass (Committee Co-Chair), A Associate Dean of Research and Associate Professor of Biology, Long Island UniversityâBrooklyn â¢ arry V. Hedges (Committee Co-Chair), Board L of Trustees Professor of Statistics and Social Policy, Northwestern University 12:45 p.m. Workshop adjourns
APPENDIX B 63 SPEAKER AND PANELIST BIOGRAPHIES Jeremy M. Berg became director of the National Institute of Gen- eral Medical Sciences (NIGMS), one of the National Institutes of Health, in November 2003. He oversees a $1.9 billion budget that funds basic research in the areas of cell biology, biophysics, genet- ics, developmental biology, pharmacology, physiology, biological chemistry, bioinformatics, and computational biology. The Institute supports more than 4,500 research grantsâabout 10 percent of the grants funded by NIH as a wholeâas well as a substantial amount of research training and programs designed to increase the number of minority biomedical scientists. Prior to his appointment as NIGMS director, Dr. Berg directed the Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences at Johns Hopkins Uni- versity School of Medicine in Baltimore, where he also served as professor and director of the Department of Biophysics and Bio- physical Chemistry. In addition, he directed the Markey Center for Macromolecular Structure and Function and co-directed the W.M. Keck Center for the Rational Design of Biologically Active Molecules at the university. Dr. Bergâs research focuses on the structural and functional roles that metal ions, especially zinc, have in proteins. He has made major contributions to understanding how zinc-containing proteins bind to the genetic material DNA or RNA and regulate gene activity. His work, and that of others in the field, has led to the design of metal-containing proteins that control the activity of specific genes. These tailored proteins are valuable tools for basic research on gene function, and such proteins could one day have medical applica- tions in regulating genes involved in diseases, as well. Dr. Berg has also made contributions to our understanding of systems that target proteins to specific compartments within cells and to the use of sequence databases for predicting aspects of protein structure and function. Dr. Berg served on the faculty at Johns Hopkins from 1986 to 2003. Immediately before his faculty appointment, he was a post- doctoral fellow in biophysics at the university. His honors include a Presidential Young Investigator Award (1988â1993), the Ameri- can Chemical Society Award in Pure Chemistry (1993), the Eli Lilly Award for Fundamental Research in Biological Chemistry (1995), and the Maryland Outstanding Young Scientist of the Year (1995). He also received teaching awards from both medical students and graduate students and served as an advisor to the Johns Hopkins Postdoctoral Association since its founding.Â Dr. Berg received BS and MS degrees in chemistry from Stanford
64 APPENDIX B University in 1980 and a PhD in chemistry from Harvard University in 1985. He is a coauthor of more than 130 research papers and three textbooks, Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry, Biochemistry (5th Edi- tion and 6th Edition) and A Clinical Companion to Accompany Biochem- istry. NIGMS supported Dr. Bergâs research from 1986 to 2003. Carol J. Burger is an associate professor in the Department of Inter- disciplinary Studies and coordinator of the Science and Gender Equity Program at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univer- sity (Virginia Tech). She received a BA in chemistry from Dominican University, River Forest, Illinois, and a PhD in cellular immunology from Virginia Tech. Dr. Burger has been interested in gender equity issues in sci- ence for many years. She is the founder and editor of the Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, now in its 12th year of publication. She served as senior program director, Program for Women and Girls, National Science Foundation in 1996. She teaches introduction to womenâs studies, biology of women, and women and science classes. She has been a co-investigator for the NSF-funded projects Coun- seling for Gender Equity; Women in Information Technology: Pivotal Tran- sitions from School to Careers; and Investigating the Gender Component: Cultures that Promote Equity in Undergraduate Engineering. Dr. Burger has authored monographs, over 50 peer-reviewed papers about tumor immunology research and women and STEM, and several book chapters and encyclopedia entries. She is the co-editor of the recently published book Reconfiguring the Fire- wall: Recruiting Women to Information Technology across Cultures and Continents. David R. Burgess is a professor of biology at Boston College and a past president of the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science, a 30-year-old organization committed to increasing the number of Hispanic and Native American scien- tists. His Cherokee great grandmother was a medicine woman, his father was a teacher and junior high school principal honored for serving minority students, and his mother was a homemaker. He was raised in New Mexico and Northern California. His current research, funded by the National Institutes of Health since 1977, is in the area of cell division and on the science education pipeline for American Indians. He has received several awards, including a Research Career Development Award from the NIH and the E.E. Just Award from the American Society for Cell Biology, where he
APPENDIX B 65 was recently elected to Council. He has been elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Dr. Burgess has served on numerous national panels, both in basic science review and on study sections whose goal is to increase the diversity of scientists. He serves on the Minority Action Com- mittee of the American Society for Cell Biology, as advisor to the National Science Foundation and the AAAS for the NSF Alliance for Graduate Education for the Professoriate program, and on the Committee on Opportunity in Science for AAAS. He has presented keynote addresses and lectures to tribal colleges, scientific societies, universities, and other organizations on his research and in the area of training disparities for minorities in the sciences. Dr. Burgess has served as an advisor to the Indian Health Service/National Insti- tutes of General Medical Sciences, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the National Science Foundation and has testified before the Congressional Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development. He served as a member of the Advisory Committee for the Office of Research on Minority Health at the NIH, the Advisory Com- mittee to the Director at NIH, the NIH National Human Genome Research Institute Advisory Council, the NSF Committee on Equal Opportunity in Science and Engineering, and the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee for the Department of Energy. Martin M. Chemers is professor of psychology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Dr. Chemers arrived at UC Santa Cruz in 1995 to accept an appointment as the dean of social sciences and professor of psychology. At UC Santa Cruz, he also served as interim executive vice-chancellor and provost (December 2003âApril 2004) and as acting chancellor (April 2004âFebruary 2005). Prior to his tenure at UC Santa Cruz, he was the Henry R. Kravis Professor of Leadership and Organizational Psychology and director of the Kravis Leadership Institute at Claremont McKenna College. He was previously on the faculties of the Universities of Illinois, Delaware, Washington, and Utah where he was chair of the Department of Psychology. Since receiving his PhD in social psychology from the University of Illinois in 1968, he has been an active researcher and has pub- lished books and articles on leadership, culture and organizational diversity, and academic success and adjustment. His popular, prac- titioner-oriented book Improving Leadership Effectiveness: The Leader Match Concept (written with Fred Fiedler) is widely used as a basis
66 APPENDIX B for leadership training. Dr. Chemersâ books have been translated into German, Chinese, Japanese, Swedish, Spanish, and Portuguese. His most recent book, An Integrative Theory of Leadership, was pub- lished in 1997. The Japanese edition was published in 1999. His current research is focused on psychological factors that affect the academic success and adjustment of underrepresented minority students. Yolanda S. George is deputy director and program director of the Education and Human Resources Directorate at the American Asso- ciation for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Her responsibilities include conceptualizing, developing, implementing, and planning multiyear projects related to increasing the participation of minori- ties, women, and persons with disabilities in science and engineer- ing. She directs or co-directs a number of projects including Science Linkages in the Community, the AAAS Black Church Project, and Science Education Reform for All (a joint science policy project with the Council of Chief State School Officers). These initiatives are all aimed at developing and strengthening out-of-school programs for school-age children operated by community-based groups includ- ing youth-serving organizations, churches, science museums, zoos, libraries, and others. She has served as director of development for the Association of Science-Technology Centers and director of a pre-college, university retention, and pre-graduate school program at the University of California, Berkeley. As a laboratory biologist, Ms. George worked with a biophysics group involved in cell cycle using the flow cytom- eter and the cell sorter. Ms. George has authored or co-authored over 35 papers, pam- phlets, and hands-on science manuals including Get into the Equation: Math and Science, Parents and Children; the In Touch with Science series (a series of six inquiry-based manuals for use with parent youth- serving organizations); and Science and Mathematics Reform: What Do Parents Need to Know to Get Involved? She has several service awards from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and University of Califor- nia, Berkeley. She also has received local appreciation awards from the New Orleans Mayorâs Office and Greater New Orleans Urban League. She received her BS and MS in biology from Xavier Univer- sity of Louisiana and Clark University in Georgia, respectively. Larry V. Hedges: See biographical sketch in Appendix C.
APPENDIX B 67 Tuajuanda Jordan is senior program officer for science education programs at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. While earning a BS degree in chemistry from Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, she engaged in research focused in organic synthesis as a MARC Scholar under the direction of the late Dr. I. Wesley Elliott. Dr. Jor- dan earned a PhD in biochemistry from Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, with Dr. Victor Rodwell as a MARC Predoctoral Fellow. She then did postdoctoral work with Dr. Judith Harmony at the University of Cincinnati, Medical Center, in pharmacognosy and cell biophysics. In 1994, she became a faculty member in the Department of Chemistry at Xavier University of Louisiana in New Orleans, where she advanced to associate professor before assuming the position of associate dean in the College of Arts and Sciences in 2003. In 2005, Dr. Jordan was named associate vice president for academic affairs at Xavier. During her time at Xavier, Dr. Jordan served as program director of the National Science Foundationâs Model Institution of Excellence Program. She was also a visiting scholar in the Depart- ment of Biophysics at the University of Michigan. Dr. Jordan has devoted much of her professional career to men- toring students and working with programs designed to retain underrepresented minorities in the STEM disciplines. She is cur- rently a member of the NIH MORE Divisionâs Minority Access to Research Careers subcommittee and has served as the chair of NIHâs Minority Biomedical Research Support program and on numerous NIH and NSF scientific review panels. Barry R. Komisaruk is a behavioral neuroscientist at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, serving as Professor II in the Depart- ment of Psychology, Rutgers University Board of Governors Distin- guished Service Professor, associate dean of the Graduate School, and adjunct professor in the Department of Radiology at University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. He has recently returned to Rutgers University from a three-year U.S. government service as program director in the MORE Division of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Komisaruk graduated from the City University of New York with a BS in biology, received his PhD in psychobiology from Rutgers Universityâs campus at Newark, was an NIH postdoctoral fellow in neuroendocrinology at the Brain Research Institute of UCLA, and joined the faculty of Rutgers in 1966. Dr. Komisaruk has received continuous research funding via numerous research grants and research awards, including those
68 APPENDIX B from the NIH, National Science Foundation, Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation, and, currently, The New Jersey Commission on Spinal Cord Research. His total grant funding has exceeded $7 million. His area of research specialty is the role of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system in the control of reproduc- tive behavior and physiology, and pain control, in humans and laboratory animals. His expertise in research methodology includes human brain imaging using functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and electrophysiology. Dr. Komisaruk has served on the Psychobiology Review Panel of the NSF, the editorial boards of biomedical and behavioral jour- nals, and grant review panels of the NIH. He has served as the chairman of the Institutional Review Board for the Protection of Human Subjects in Research at Rutgers University. He has been the doctoral dissertation supervisor of 22 PhD students and pri- mary supervisor of 14 postdoctoral researchers; established a fac- ulty-doctoral student exchange program with five universities and research centers in Mexico, including CINVESTAV (Centro de Inves- tigaciÃ³n y de Estudios Avanzados); and conceptualized and played a major role in the development of the Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience at Rutgers University. He has published more than 145 research papers, more than 150 conference abstracts, and three books, the most recent of which, coauthored with Carlos Beyer-Flores and Beverly Whipple, is entitled The Science of Orgasm, published by the Johns Hopkins University Press in 2006, now in its second printing. Robert W. Lent is professor and co-director of the Counseling Psy- chology Program in the Department of Counseling and Personnel Services at the University of Maryland, College Park. He received his PhD in counseling psychology from The Ohio State University in 1979. After serving as staff psychologist at the University of Min- nesotaâs Student Counseling Bureau from 1979 to 1985, he joined the counseling psychology faculty at Michigan State University (1985â 1995). He has been at the University of Maryland since 1995. Dr. Lent has published extensively on applications of social cognitive theory to academic and career behavior. His other research interests include counselor training and development, psychological well- ness, relationship adjustment processes, and promotion of health behaviors. Dr. Lent is a Fellow of Division 17 (Counseling Psychol- ogy) of the American Psychological Association and a recipient of the John L. Holland Award for Outstanding Achievement in Career and Personality Research. Dr. Lent is co-editor, with S.D. Brown,
APPENDIX B 69 of the Handbook of Counseling Psychology (1stâ3rd editions) and the newly released text Career Development and Counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work. Along with M.L. Savickas, he has also co-edited Convergence in Career Development Theories: Implications for Science and Practice. He serves as associate editor of the Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology and is also on the editorial boards of the Journal of Counseling Psychology and the Journal of Vocational Behavior. Kenneth I. Maton is professor of psychology and director of the Community-Social Psychology PhD Program in Human Services Psychology at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. His research focuses primarily on minority student achievement, includ- ing longitudinal evaluation of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program at UMBC. Recent books include Investing in Children, Youth, Families and Communities: Strengths-Based Research and Policy (edited volume; American Psychological Association) and Overcoming the Odds: Raising Academically Successful African American Females (co-author; Oxford University Press). Dr. Maton is past-president of the Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA; APA Division 27), and the most recent winner of SCRAâs Distinguished Contribution to Theory and Research Award. He serves on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Community Psychology, Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, and Journal of Community Psychology. LaRuth C. McAfee is executive director for education at the Cen- ter for Layered Polymeric Systems (CLiPS), headquartered at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. CLiPS is a new NSF Science and Technology Center established in August 2006. In her position, Dr. McAfee oversees all education and diversity programs in the Center, which comprises 11 member institutions. These pro- grams include initiatives to encourage pre-college students to pursue polymer science careers, research and course development efforts for undergraduate and graduate students, and a unique research and educational partnership called the Case-Fisk Alliance. Prior to joining CLiPS, Dr. McAfee completed a postdoctoral research project in engineering education at the Stony Brook Uni- versity Department of Technology and Society. That project was sponsored by the National Academy of Engineeringâs Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education. In the position, she studied promising practices in doctoral STEM educa- tion, with a special focus on programs to successfully recruit, retain, graduate, and place minority students. A native of Ann Arbor, Michigan, Dr. McAfee earned her BSE
70 APPENDIX B in chemical engineering at the University of Michigan and her PhD in chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- nology. At MIT she researched the use of liquid crystalline block copolymers for actuator applications. Michael T. Nettles is senior vice president for policy evaluation and research and holds the Edmund W. Gordon Chair for Policy Evaluation and Research at Educational Testing Service in Princeton, New Jersey. He has a national reputation as a policy researcher on educational assessment, student performance and achievement, edu- cational equity, and higher education finance. Dr. Nettlesâ research covers such issues as educational access, opportunity, attainment, the consequences of education for various population groups in the United States, state and national assessment, educational funding policies, and educational testing of students at all levels of educa- tion. His publications reflect his broad interest in public policy, stu- dent and faculty access, opportunity, achievement, and educational assessment at both the K-12 and post-secondary levels. Dr. Nettles is the co-author of Three Magic Letters: Getting to Ph.D. A native of Nashville, Dr. Nettles received his BA in political sci- ence at the University of Tennessee and masterâs degrees in political science and in higher education and a PhD in higher education from Iowa State University. Clifton A. Poodry is director of the Division of Minority Opportuni- ties in Research at the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, where he oversees the administration of grants designed to increase the number and capabilities of minority biomedical scientists. These grants support a variety of activities, including research training, infrastructure improvement, curriculum enrichment, and labora- tory research at minority institutions. A biologist turned scientific administrator with research expertise in developmental genetics, Dr. Poodry had a 22-year research and teaching career in cell biol- ogy and developmental genetics in Drosophila at the University of California, Santa Cruz, prior to joining NIH. Dr. Poodry wasÂ a member of the Smithsonian Council from 1997 to 2003. He served as vice-chairperson of the National Research Councilâs Committee on the High School Biology Curriculum in U.S. Schools (1988â1990) and was a recipient of a National Science Foundation grant to provide training activities to teachers at Ameri- can Indian schools (1988â1990). He has been a workshop leader for teacher training activities with the American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) since 1990.
APPENDIX B 71 Dr. Poodry is a native of the Tonawanda Seneca Indian Reserva- tion in western New York. He has twice been elected to the Board of Directors of the Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science. He is a former board member of AISES and a 1995 recipient of its highest award, the Ely S. Parker Award, for lifelong accomplishments in science and contributions to the Ameri- can Indian community. Poodry earned his PhD from Case Western Reserve University and received an honorary doctorate of science from the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1999. Â Dr. PoodryÂ has particular interest in science education and issues pertaining to American Indian participation in genetics research. He is the author of over 40 scientific papers andÂ book chapters.Â Anne Preston is professor and chair of the Department of Econom- ics at Haverford College and previously taught at Wellesley College and Stony Brook University. She received her BA from Princeton University and her PhD from Harvard University. One of her pri- mary research interests is the economics of the scientific labor force. Dr. Prestonâs book Leaving Science (Russell Sage Foundation, 2004) analyzes occupational exit of scientifically trained men and women with special attention to differences in levels of attrition, reasons for attrition, and consequences of attrition by gender. She is also co- author of The Competitive EdgeâManaging Human Resources in Non- union and Union Firms. Dr. Preston was awarded the Drucker Prize for best paper in the journal Nonprofit Leadership and Management in 1991 and was a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation from 1997 to 1998. Shiva P. Singh is a program director in the Division of Minor- ity Opportunities in Research (MORE) at the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). He manages a portfolio of research and training grants (including MBRS SCORE, RISE, and IMSD, MARC U-STAR, Bridges, Efficacy of Interventions, and K99/ R00 grants) in the MORE Division. Prior to this position, Dr. Singh served as a scientific review administrator (SRA), managing the review of research training grants and institutional program project- type applications at NIGMS. As SRA, he organized and managed the panel review of the first cycle of Efficacy of Interventions (R01) applications at NIGMS. Dr. Singh came to NIGMS from Alabama State University (ASU) in Montgomery, where he was professor and chair, Department of Biological Sciences, and director of the universityâs Biomedical Research and Training Programs.
72 APPENDIX B Dr. Singh earned a BS (with highest honors) in agriculture (1969) and MS in plant pathology and biochemistry (1971), both from Pant University of Agriculture and Technology in India, and a PhD in microbiology (1976) from Auburn University in Alabama. Dr. Singhâs research interests at ASU focused on the immunochemical struc- ture of the outer membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria, the expression of HIV epitopes in Salmonella, and genomic fingerprint- ing of pneumococci. He also directed the training of numerous high school, undergraduate, and graduate students; more than 75 of these students later pursued MD, PhD, or other professional degrees. Claude Steele is Lucie Stern Professor in the Social Sciences and past chair of the Department of Psychology at Stanford University. He is also the director of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behav- ioral Sciences. He received his BA from Hiram College and his MA and PhD from The Ohio State University. Steele has received the Deanâs Teaching Award at Stanford University, the William James Fellow Award from the American Psychological Society, the Kurt Lewin Award and the Gordon Allport Prize in Social Psychology from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award and the Senior Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Inter- est from the American Psychological Association, and the Cattell Faculty Fellowship. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences and he has been awarded honorary doctorates from the University of Michigan, University of Chicago, Yale University, and Princeton University. Orlando L. Taylor is vice provost for research, dean of the gradu- ate school, and professor of communications at Howard University. Prior to joining the Howard faculty in 1973, Taylor was a faculty member at Indiana University. He also has served as a visiting pro- fessor at Stanford University and visiting scholar at the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Dr. Taylor is a national leader in graduate education and within his discipline. He is currently or has served previously as a member of numerous national boards, including the board of directors of the Council of Graduate Schools, for which he served as board chair in 2001. He is also a past president of the Northeastern Association of Graduate Schools and the National Communication Association. He is a former member of the Advisory Committee of the Director- ate for Education and Human Resources of the National Science Foundation and of the Advisory Council at the National Institutes of
APPENDIX B 73 Health. He is also the former president of the Consortium of Social Science Associations and a current member of the Board of Trustees of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. He chairs the National Advisory Board for the Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning, a major NSF-funded center at the University of Wisconsin. Currently, Vice Provost Taylor serves as PI on major grants from the National Science Foundation to increase the production of minor- ity PhD recipients in science, technology, mathematics and engineer- ing and in the social, behavioral and economic sciences, as well as from the U.S. Department of Education to develop collaborative academic and research programs between universities in Brazil and in four European Union countries with those in the United States. He is the author of numerous articles, chapters, and books. Purdue University awarded Vice Provost Taylor an Honorary Doctor of Letters degree in 1994 and Hope College awarded him an Honorary Doctor of Letters degree in August 2001. DePauw University awarded him a Doctor of Pedagogy degree in 2004. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association awarded him its highest award, Honors of the Association, and the Alumni Associa- tion of the University of Michigan awarded him its Distinguished Service Alumni Award. In August 2007, Taylor received the Hon- orary Degree, Doctor of Higher Education from The Ohio State University. Dr. Taylor received his bachelorâs degree from Hampton Univer- sity, masterâs degree from Indiana University, and PhD degree from the University of Michigan. Wanda E. Ward is deputy assistant director for the Social, Behavioral and Economic (SBE) Sciences Directorate of the National Science Foundation (NSF). She attained her BA in psychology and the Afro- American Studies Certificate from Princeton University in 1976 and her PhD in psychology from Stanford University in 1981. After 10 years as assistant and associate professor of psychology at the University of Oklahoma, she left academe in 1991 to accept a new position as program director of career access programs with the National Science Foundation (NSF). Dr. Ward moved on to join the Education and Human Resources Directorate at NSF in January 1992, where she held increasing positions of leadership, from pro- gram officer to senior associate for policy and planning, and where she played a major role in the development and implementation of the Presidential Awards for Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring Program (the nationâs highest award for
74 APPENDIX B mentoring, established by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and administered by NSF). In 1997 Dr. Ward was appointed assistant to the deputy director in the Office of the Director, serving as principal advisor to the direc- tor, deputy director, and various management officials in promoting the goal of a diverse, globally oriented workforce of scientists and engineers and a more scientifically and technologically literate U.S. citizenry. She served as the NSF representative to the Interagency Working Group on the U.S. Science and Technology Workforce of the Future of the Presidentâs National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) Committee on Science. She co-chaired that working groupâs 1998 national workshop on the workforce and managed the publica- tion of the Proceedings of a Workshop on the U.S. Science, Engineering and Technology Workforce of the Future: National Strategy, National Port- folio, National Resource Base (1999). In addition, Ward serves as the executive liaison to the Congressionally mandated Committee for Equal Opportunities in Science and Engineering and to the Congres- sional Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering and Technology Development. In her new role as deputy assistant director for SBE, Dr. Ward is the primary assistant to the assistant director in providing lead- ership and direction to the Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economics Sciences Dr. Ward is a member of the American Psychological Associa- tion, where she served as NSF Liaison to the APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training in Psychol- ogy; the American Association for the Advancement of Science; the Association of Black Psychologists; and the American Educational Research Association. Elias A. Zerhouni is the director of the National Institutes of Health, where he leads the nationâs medical research agency and oversees the NIHâs 27 Institutes and Centers with more than 18,000 employees and a fiscal year 2006 budget of $28.6 billion. The NIH investigates the causes, treatments, and preventive strategies for both common and rare diseases helping to lead the way toward important medical discoveries that improve peopleâs health and save lives. More than 83 percent of the NIHâs funding is awarded through almost 50,000 competitive grants to more than 325,000 scientists and research sup- port staff at more than 3,000 universities, medical schools, and other research institutions in every state and around the world. About 10 percent of the NIHâs budget supports projects conducted by nearly
APPENDIX B 75 6,000 scientists in its own laboratories, most of which are on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. Zerhouni, a well-respected leader in the field of radiology and medicine, has spent his career providing clinical, scientific, and administrative leadership. Since being named by President George W. Bush to serve as the 15th director of the National Institutes of Health, beginning in May 2002, Dr. Zerhouni has overseen the completion of the doubling of the NIH budget, initiated the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, established an NIH-wide research initiative to address the obesity epidemic, supported the NIH Neu- roscience Blueprint, supported the reduction of health disparities and barriers to opportunity for minority individuals, ensured pub- lic access to NIH-funded research results, committed to earn the publicâs trust, and enhanced the leadership of NIH. Prior to joining the NIH, Dr. Zerhouni served as executive vice- dean of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, chair of the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sci- ence, and Martin Donner Professor of Radiology and professor of biomedical engineering. Before that, he was vice dean for research at Johns Hopkins. Dr. Zerhouni was born in Nedroma, Algeria, and came to the United States at age 24, having earned his medical degree at the University of Algiers School of Medicine in 1975. After completing his residency in diagnostic radiology at Johns Hopkins in 1978 as chief resident, he served as assistant professor in 1979 and associate professor in 1985. Between 1981 and 1985 he was in the Department of Radiology at Eastern Virginia Medical School and its affiliated DePaul Hospital. In 1988, Dr. Zerhouni returned to Johns Hopkins where he was appointed director of the MRI division, and then was appointed full professor in 1992, becoming the chairman of the radi- ology department in January 1996. Since 2000, he has been a member of the National Academy of Sciencesâ Institute of Medicine. He served on the National Cancer Instituteâs Board of Scientific Advisors from 1998â2002. In 1988, he was a consultant to the World Health Organization, and in 1985 he was a consultant to the White House under President Ronald Reagan. A resident of Baltimore, he has won several awards for his research including a Gold Medal from the American Roentgen Ray Society for CT research and two Paul Lauterbur Awards for MRI research. His research in imaging led to advances in Computer- ized Axial Tomography (CAT scanning) and Magnetic Resonance
76 APPENDIX B Imaging (MRI) that resulted in 157 peer-reviewed publications and 8 patents. WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS A complete list of the names and affiliations of the 200 work- shop participants is available at <http://www.nationalacademies. org/moreworkshop>.