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Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
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8
2190 Oil Mist

The U.S. Navy requested that the committee review and recommend inhalation exposure guidance levels for oil mist, specifically turbine oil with military nomenclature 2190 TEP. However, no relevant health-effects data specific to 2190 TEP were located in the public literature. Therefore, to determine exposure guidance levels, the committee had to define a petroleum distillate that it could use as a surrogate for evaluating health effects. In the absence of relevant data on 2190 TEP, the committee reviewed and evaluated literature on highly and severely refined distillate base stocks—a broad category of petroleum distillates that includes the base stock used in 2190 TEP (The Petroleum High Production Volume Testing Group 2003; CONCAWE 1986)—that were also insoluble in water. In general, lubricating base oils fit that characterization, and some information on the lubricating oil base stock of 2190 TEP (CAS no. 64742-54-7) was available. Other literature sources were evaluated when deemed appropriate.

This chapter summarizes relevant epidemiologic and toxicologic studies of the selected petroleum distillates mentioned above. Chemical and physical properties, toxicokinetic and mechanistic data, and inhalation exposure levels from other agencies are also presented. The committee considered all that information in its evaluation of the Navy’s proposed 1-h, 24-h, and 90-day exposure guidance levels for oil mist. The committee’s recommendations for oil mist exposure levels are provided at the conclusion of the chapter with a discussion of the adequacy of the data for defining the levels and the research needed to fill remaining data gaps. The effects of specific additives possibly present in the final petroleum products, such as sulfur or phosphate additives, were considered to be outside the scope of this assessment. Additives are usually proprietary materials and are used to improve the physical properties of products (Mackerer 1989). However, one additive, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-nitrophenol, is discussed in Chapter 4 of this report.

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

2190 TEP is a hydrotreated heavy paraffinic distillate that may have been further refined by severe solvent extraction, severe hydrocracking, or severe hydrotreating (Chevron 2001). It is described as a clear colorless to pale yellow liquid. Few physical and chemical property data are available; however, Table 8-1 provides information from material-safety data sheets provided by Navy suppliers.

OCCURRENCE AND USE

Mineral oil of inhalable particle size is called oil mist. The size of the particles depends on the process by which they are generated. Oil mists can potentially be generated in a variety of applications, which include metalworking, textile machinery, mist lubrication, and machining processes (ACGIH 2003; CONCAWE 1986). In submarines, generation of oil mist occurs primarily in the engine room. Inhalation and dermal contact are two possible exposure routes. The focus of this review is inhalation because adverse health effects resulting from dermal exposure are considered minimal provided that adequate personal-hygiene measures, such as wearing protective clothing and washing hands, are followed. Dermal toxicity of highly refined oils in humans is briefly summarized in CONCAWE (1986) and consists primarily of dermatitis and acne induced by oil.

TABLE 8-1 Physical and Chemical Data on Turbine Oil (Symbol 2190 TEP)

Synonyms and trade names

Lubricating oila

CAS registry number

64742-54-7

Molecular formula

Molecular weight

Boiling point

<315°C

Melting point

NA

Flash point

NA

Explosive limits

NA

Specific gravity

0.86-0.87 at 15.6°C

Vapor pressure

<0.01 mm Hg at 38°C

Solubility

Soluble in hydrocarbons; insoluble in water

Conversion factors

Note: The Navy provided material-safety data sheets from two other suppliers (Equilon and Imperial). The little information on chemical and physical properties from those other sources was consistent with the data provided by Chevron (2001).

aThe Petroleum HPV Testing Group (2003).

Abbreviations: NA, not applicable or not available.

Source: Data from Chevron 2001.

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

SUMMARY OF TOXICITY

A summary of the literature on occupational exposure to lubricating oil base stocks with and without additives is presented in Table 8-2. Animal data are summarized in Table 8-3. In addition, six articles (CONCAWE 1986; Mackerer 1989; Kenny et al. 1997; NRC 1997; NIOSH 1998; The Petroleum HPV Testing Group 2003) have summarized the available literature.

No relevant information on accidental exposures or experimental studies in humans was identified. However, occupational exposure to petroleum oil mists was associated primarily with effects on the respiratory system. Symptoms observed in automobile workers included coughing, wheezing, and phlegm, as reported by Kriebel et al. (1997), Greaves et al. (1997), and Ameille et al. (1995) at exposures (geometric means) of 0.19 mg/m3, 0.43 mg/m3, and 2.2 mg/m3, respectively. Effects on respiratory function—as measured by reductions in cross-shift response in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1)—were demonstrated by Kriebel et al. (1997) and Kennedy et al. (1989) at the exposures defined previously. Marine engineers exposed to oil mists demonstrated similar effects on the respiratory system at a time-weighted average (TWA) of 0.45 mg/m3 (Svendsen and Hilt 1997, 1999). A synergistic effect on respiratory function between inhaled tobacco smoke and oil mist has been suggested (Ameille et al. 1995).

Results of pulmonary exposure of laboratory animals to lubricating oils are similar to those observed in humans in occupational settings except that the animals were generally exposed at much higher concentrations. The target organ in animals was the respiratory tract. The most prevalent effect was the occurrence of foamy macrophages in the lungs. In general, the rat and the dog were the most sensitive species compared with rabbits, mice, and hamsters (Wagner et al. 1964). Acute exposures to metalworking fluids have been shown to be sensory and pulmonary irritants in mice (Schaper and Detwiler 1991). Straight oils caused sensory irritation that decreased within 1 h; pulmonary irritation was not observed until 2 h of exposure. The highest concentration tested was 2,816 mg/m3. That is consistent with the low toxicity (primarily mucous membrane irritation of the upper respiratory tract) observed after acute exposure to oil mists with profile characteristics outside those defined in the present review (CONCAWE 1986; Dalbey and Biles 2003). Four-and 13-week exposures to oil mists with the same CAS number as 2190 TEP resulted in lung pathology at concentrations of 50 mg/m3 and greater; pulmonary function was not affected at concentrations as great as 1,000 mg/m3 (Dalbey et al. 1991; Dalbey 2001). Dogs and rats exposed to oil mist for up to 26 months at 5.5-105.8 mg/m3 did not have an increase in tumor incidence (Stula and Kwon 1978; Wagner et al. 1964).

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

TABLE 8-2 Effects of Inhalation of Mist Oil on Humans

Oil Type, Characteristica

Exposure Concentration

Exposure Duration

Subjects and Effects

Reference

Group S: cutting oil, straight (CO)

Group E: mineral oil, soluble (MO)

Group D: CO + MO

Group C: control, unexposed assembly workers

Arithmetic mean: 2.6 + 1.8 mg/m3

Geometric mean: 2.2 + 1.9 mg/m3

Chronic for at least 1 year

Subjects from automobile industry in France: Group S, 40 males; Group E, 51 males; Group D, 139 males; Group C, 78 males.

Effects evaluated: respiratory symptoms (by questionnaire), pulmonary function (FEV1 and FVC), ventilatory impairment, bronchial reactivity

There was no difference in prevalence of respiratory symptoms among groups; however, Groups S and D combined had significantly higher prevalence of cough or phlegm than Groups C and E; prevalence of cough and phlegm increased in straight-oil-exposed groups when adjusted for duration of exposure and smoking; interaction between ventilatory impairment and smoking was observed in straight-oil-exposed groups; bronchial reactivity was not affected by exposure to mineral oil; the committee found that no significant adverse effects were noted in Group S alone, and there was apparent interaction between cutting oil and smoking

Ameille et al. 1995

Cutting oil mist, not defined

Heavy, moderate, minimal

>5 years, workers in oil-mist-exposed jobs 1938-1967

2,485 male subjects who worked as machinists

Mortality from various cancers evaluated

No effect on incidence of respiratory cancer relative to expected; increase in cancer of large intestine and stomach was observed

Decoufle 1978

Metalworking fluid

Straight, paraffinic or naphthenic, with or without sulfur or chlorine

Cross-sectional survey: selection of 2-year exposure window was based on report in which symptoms of cough, wheeze, and phlegm were

2 years

Subjects from automobile industry (UAW-General Motors). 1,676 male subjects (20.0% exposed to straight metalworking fluids, 24.9% exposed to soluble metalworking fluids, 12.6% exposed to synthetic metalworking fluids, 42.5% worked on assembly or were off

Eisen et al. 1997 (Study appears to be reanalysis of

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

Soluble

Synthetic

Assembly (controls)

found to predate diagnosis of asthma by about 2 years

 

work)

Standard respiratory survey was used, and pulmonary-function tests were conducted; Cox proportional-hazards model was used

Slight increase in RR for straight oil depending on whether year of hire was before or after 1970 (pre-1970: RR, 1.8; post-1970: RR, 2.0); increase was greater for synthetic oils; results provided possible evidence that exposure to straight oils may cause occupational asthma; primary objective of reanalysis study was to evaluate bias by selecting asthmatics out of work environment

Greaves et al. [1997])

Metalworking fluid

Straight, paraffinic or naphthenic, with or without sulfur or chlorine

Soluble

Synthetic

Assembly (controls)

Extrathoracic particle size: >9.8 µm

Thoracic particle size: <9.8 µm

Respirable particle size: <3.8 µm

>0-0.1 mg/m3; >0.1-0.5 mg/m3; >0.5 mg/m3

Note: Exposures are estimates; results are expressed as mg/m3-years = quantitative estimate of past metalworking fluid exposure

1917-1985

Subjects had worked for at least 3 years; average duration of employment was 20 years

108 male subjects from automobile industry; 538 males in control group; subjects were from three plants (I, II, III)

Case-control study to evaluate larynx cancer (squamous-cell carcinoma)

Results suggested about 2-fold excess in larynx-cancer risk in workers exposed to straight metalworking fluid (combined plants I, II, III); OR for cancer increased with increasing exposure: >0.5 mg/m3-years, OR, 2.23 (95% CI, 1.25-3.980); exposure, 0.5 mg/m3; separate analysis of plants demonstrated increase in OR for metalworking fluid exposure in Plant I only

Committee notes that confounding factors, such as sulfur content, also showed association with increased OR; association with sulfur may be associated in increased PAH content; authors did not attribute finding to smoking or alcohol intake, because there was no increase in lung cancer or cirrhosis

Eisen et al. 1994

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

Oil Type, Characteristica

Exposure Concentration

Exposure Duration

Subjects and Effects

Reference

Mineral oil mist

Components of mist not defined

Mortality-study exposure concentrations: 0.07 mg/m3 (minimum), 1.5 mg/m3 (median), 3.7 mg/m3 (mean), and 110 mg/m3 (maximum)

Prevalence-study exposure concentrations: 0.07 mg/m3 (minimum), 1.0 mg/m3 (median), 5.2 mg/m3 (mean), and 110 mg/m3 (maximum)

≥5 years

Mortality during 1942-1961

Subjects worked in machine shops (Kodak); mortality study had 3,122 in control group and 343 in “mist oil” group; over 1,700 were in prevalence study

In mortality study, causes of death were compared; in prevalence study, authors evaluated FVC and FEV1 and used questionnaire to assess cough, phlegm, dyspnea, wheezing, smoking status, and age

In mortality study, no effects of oil mist on mortality were observed; in prevalence study, no evidence of adverse association between respiratory effects and mist oil was noted

Ely et al. 1970

Metalworking fluid:

Straight mineral oil

Soluble oil emulsions

Water-based synthetic

0.43 ± 0.26 mg/m3 (straight mineral oil)

0.55 ± 0.17 mg//m3 (soluble oils)

0.41 ± 0.08 mg/m3 (synthetics)

Size-selective cut points were 9.8 µm (thoracic aerosol fraction) and 3.5 µm (respirable aerosol fraction) with geometric standard deviation of 1.2 for each

≥2 years

Current employees

Subjects worked at General Motors facilities; 1,811 male machinists exposed to variety of mineral oils (364 to straight mineral oil, 452 to soluble oil emulsions, 226 to water-based synthetic oils); 769 males in internal reference group

Effects evaluated with respiratory questionnaire: cough, phlegm, dyspnea, wheezing, chest tightness, self reported asthma and bronchitis

Exposure-response relationships suggested association of respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, wheezing) with exposure to straight and synthetic fluids; synthetic oils had highest prevalence of symptoms, followed by straight oils and soluble oils (least)

Greaves et al. 1997

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

Turning Dept. – acid-refined mineral oils in 1926-1976 plus sulfur

Average exposure concentration was estimated to be 5 mg/m3 or more before 1965

Turning Dept. – 2.0 mg/m3 (median; range, 0.3-3.4 mg/m3)

>5 years

Subjects employed 1950-1966; had to be alive on 1/1/58 to participate

Subjects (788) working in metal industry

Study evaluated cancer morbidity pattern of employees based on employee register

Exclusive of cancer of scrotum, 39 cases of cancer were observed compared with 154.3 expected; cancer of scrotum was observed in 4 turners; committee notes that oils used now are more highly refined than oil used during 1950-1967

Jarvholm et al. 1981

Grinding Dept. – “complex”

Grinding Dept. – 2.6 mg/m3 (range, 1.0 – 7.3 mg/m3)

Also sodium nitrite and chromium

Aerosols of cutting oils and cooling lubricants:

Straight mineral oil

Oil emulsions

Synthetic fluids

Total aerosol concentration:

Assembly workers, 0.07-0.44 mg/m3

Machinists, 0.16-2.03 mg/m3

Low: <0.20 mg/m3

Medium: 0.20-0.55 mg/m3

High: >0.55 mg/m3

End points measured Monday and Friday, before and after shift of workweek to demonstrate acute pulmonary response

Particle size distribution was similar across oil types

≥ 6 months

Subjects were automobile workers and included

89 machine operators and 42 unexposed male assembly workers

End points evaluated included acute pulmonary responses (FEV1, FVC, PEF, MMEF [measured by spirometry] as measure of cross-shift lung-function changes)

Machine operators exposed to aerosols of coolants and mineral oils had significant drop in cross-shift FEV1 response relative to assembly workers; response was associated with inhalable aerosol >0.20 mg/m3; there was no difference from Monday to Friday in FEV1 response

Kennedy et al. 1989

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

Oil Type, Characteristica

Exposure Concentration

Exposure Duration

Subjects and Effects

Reference

Metalworking fluid:

Straight and soluble

Straight:

Mean: 0.243 mg/m3 (SD, 0.265)

Geometric mean: 0.193 (GSD, 1.79; range, 0.079-2.023).

Airborne concentrations of inhalable particles, culturable bacteria, and endotoxins were measured

Personal full-shift inhalable mass particle sample was collected with seven-hole sampler

≥ 1 month

Subjects were automobile workers (170 nonmachinists, 216 machinists); number of samples, 74 (straight metalworking fluid) and 139 (soluble metalworking fluid)

Pulmonary-function tests were conducted with FEV1 and FVC; respiratory symptoms were assessed with a questionnaire; end points were measured on single day

There was evidence that chronic and acute respiratory symptoms were more prevalent in machinists than in nonmachinists; effects were also observed in nonmachinists; it should be noted, however, that many “nonmachinists” were at one time machinists in same plant; results were consistent with Kennedy et al. (1989)

Present study tried to determine causal agent (such as endotoxins, fungal contaminants, various oil components) within oils responsible for toxicity

Authors stated that “the ability of this study to quantify the acute irritant effects of MWF [metalworking fluids] accurately, and to identify the MWF constituents or exposure conditions amenable to environmental control was limited by the relatively low exposures in the plant selected for study and by the smaller than anticipated number of workers with exposure to straight or soluble MWF”

Kriebel et al. 1997

Mists and vapors of mineral oils and kerosene

Medium to heavy naphthenic, acid-treated, hydrotreated

0.15-0.30 mg/m3; spike, 2,000-4,000 mg/m3

5-35 years of exposure

Subjects included 25 cable plant workers; 25 in control group

Effects evaluated included pulmonary fibrosis with radiography, FEV1, FVC; respiratory function was evaluated with questionnaire; McNemar ’s test for statistical analysis

Fibrosis was observed in seven of 25 exposed workers and one of 25 controls; prevalence of respiratory symptoms did not differ

Skyberg et al. 1986

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

Medium to heavy paraffin, solvent-refined, severely hydrotreated

 

 

Committee notes that composition of mineral oil is unclear, because it is defined as kerosene and may contain aromatic hydrocarbons

 

Mists and vapors of mineral oils and kerosene

Medium to heavy naphthenic, acid-treated, hydrotreated

Medium to heavy paraffin, solvent-refined, severely hydrotreated

Mineral oil vapor: 50-100 mg/m3

Mineral oil mist: 0.5-1.5 mg/m3

At least 3 years; 1963-1983 (followed up in 1990)

Subjects included 37 cable plant workers and 25 controls (radiographic analysis)

Effects evaluated included pulmonary fibrosis (radiography) and lung function

Fibrosis was observed in 10 of 25 cable workers and one of 25 controls; carbon monoxide transfer factor was decreased in exposed group

Committee notes that composition of mineral oil is unclear, because it is defined as kerosene and may contain aromatic hydrocarbons

Skyberg et al. 1992

Mineral oil, composition undefined

Undefined

Undefined

288 subjects with scrotal cancer

Study evaluated second primary tumors after detection of scrotal tumors

Significant excess in second primary tumors of larynx, bronchus, and lip observed with mineral oil exposure

Waldron 1975

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

Oil Type, Characteristica

Exposure Concentration

Exposure Duration

Subjects and Effects

Reference

Mist oil:

Lubricating oil, bp 300-700°C

Fuel oil, bp 175-300°C

Mean concentration in engine room: 0.20 mg/m3; mean concentration during tasks: 1.3 mg/m3; two tasks with highest concentration were pressure testing of valves (2 mg/m3) and maintenance of propeller shaft (1.5 mg/m3)

TWAC: 0.45 mg/m3 for 5-h day at mean value and 2-h day at task (range, 0.12-0.74 mg/m3); lowest TWAC: 0.12 mg/m3; highest TWAC: 0.74 mg/m3

>5 years

152 engineers

Ferry trips take 10-20 min; 20-70 departures/day; 2 weeks onboard followed by 2 weeks off

Subjects were marine seamen (169 current marine engineers, 28 former marine engineers); 295 controls

Effects evaluated with questionnaire (respiratory symptoms, MMI, cough, wheezing, dyspnea, chronic bronchitis).

Significant increase (0.05 level) in MMI and dyspnea observed in marine engineers

Confounding factors: engineers also had history of exposure to oil mist, asbestos (1950-1970), welding fumes, and other irritating gases

Svendsen and Hilt 1997

Mist oil:

Lubricating oil, bp 300-700°C

Fuel oil, bp 175-300°C

TWAC: 0.45 mg/m3 for 5-h day at mean value and 2-h day at task (range, 0.12-0.74 mg/m3)

>5 years

152 engineers

Ferry trips take 10-20 min; 20-70 departures/day; 2 weeks onboard followed by 2 weeks off

Subjects included marine seamen (68 engineers with chest x-rays films classified according to ILO system), 101 controls; spirometry was evaluated in 44 engineers and 71 controls

Effects evaluated included respiratory function

Borderline statistical significance (0.08) for emphysema based on ILO; FEV% was significantly decreased in marine engineers; reduced FEV% in absence of decreased FEV1 can be interpreted as sign of emphysema

Authors interpreted findings as possibly indicating that mist oil can impair respiratory function and increase abnormal findings in lungs; however, they concluded that findings were weak and further investigation was warranted

Svendsen and Hilt 1999

aElemental sulfur is added to metalworking fluid to retard oil breakdown and improve lubricating properties under extreme temperature and pressure conditions.

Abbreviations: bp, boiling point; FEV1, forced expiratory volume at 1 sec; FVC, forced vital capacity; MMEF, maximum midexpiratory flow; MMI, mucus membrane irritation; MWF, metalworking fluid; OR, odds ratio; PAH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; PEF, peak expiratory flow; RR, rate ratio; SD, standard deviation; TWAC, time-weighted average concentration; UAW, United Automobile Workers.

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

TABLE 8-3 Effects in Animals: Inhalation of Mist Oil

Species (no.)

Oil Type, Characteristic

Exposure Concentration

Exposure Duration

Effects

Reference

Mice, Swiss-Webster (4 mice per experiment per group)

Metalworking fluids (aerosolized) from 3

General Motors plants: 10 fluids, one of which was unused (new, neat) straight oil (100% sulfonized mineral oil, sample F) and another was used straight oil (sample F’; no additional chemical analysis available)

Soluble and synthetic oils also tested but not considered relevant for this review

F: about 200-2,492 mg/m3

F’: about 400-2,816 mg/m3

RD50 values obtained from concentration-response relationships; for samples F and F’, RD50 had to be extrapolated because at concentrations tested RD50 was not achieved

RD50/mMAD/GSD

F: 325,000 mg/m3 (extrapolated; highest concentration tested, 2,492 mg/m3)/2.7 µm/2.1

F’: 110,100 mg/m3 (extrapolated; highest concentration tested, 2,816 mg/m3)/2.6 µm/2.0

Single 3-h exposures

Effects evaluated were changes in animal respiration; sensory and pulmonary irritation response at 1, 2, and 3 h; lung histopathology immediately after exposure, 24 h after exposure, 14 days after exposure.

Effects evaluated included sensory irritation, defined as stimulation of trigeminal nerve ending in nasal mucosa resulting in lengthening of expiratory phase of each breath, and pulmonary irritation, defined as stimulation of vagal nerve endings resulting in pause between breaths

With exposure to straight oils (samples F and F’), sensory irritation was observed immediately on exposure but decreased within 1 h or sooner; pulmonary irritation was observed after about 2 h of exposure and became more pronounced by end of 3-h exposure

Respiratory frequency decreased rapidly on exposure reaching plateau at about 2 h; recovery was immediate at lower concentrations, slower at higher concentration 24 h after exposure, mild interstitial pneumonitis was seen in mice exposed to Samples F and F’; little difference was seen relative to controls immediately after exposure and 14 days after exposure

Straight oils were least potent of oils tested; authors concluded that additives are important in determining potency of oils; samples F and F’ had fewest additives of oils tested; straight oils were not considered irritating

Schaper and Detwiler 1991

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

Species (no.)

Oil Type, Characteristic

Exposure Concentration

Exposure Duration

Effects

Reference

Wistar rats (8 males per group; 6 males in control group)

Mineral oil mist: mildly refined and derived from naphthenic crude oil.

Mineral oil A: low viscosity used as impregnation fluid; 29 wt% aromatic hydrocarbons, 70 wt% saturated hydrocarbons.

Mineral oil B/C (1:1): used in cable splicing; B, 31 wt% aromatics, 68 wt% saturated; C, 45 wt% aromatics, 54 wt% saturated.

Also tested 3 synthetic crude oils: C15-C20 alkylbenzenes and polybutene; these groups are not discussed in this review

Total aerosol/vapor:

Mineral Oil A: 126-770 mg/m3

Mineral Oil B/C: 75-748 mg/m3

7 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks

Clinical observations included body weight, histopathology, oil deposition in fat tissue and brain.

No deaths occurred in mineral-oil-exposed groups; all groups gained weight; however, mineral oil A (high concentration) had significantly lower mean body weight at necropsy; lung weights were increased at both concentrations of mineral oil A, but response was not dose-related; liver weights were increased in mineral oil A and B/C groups but only at highest concentration; statistical significance was not achieved.

No macroscopic changes were seen in any of exposed groups; mineral oil B/C induced statistically significant increases in number of alveolar macrophages (748 mg/m3) and degree of vacuolization (≥75 mg/m3); damage to bronchial mucosa was also seen in mineral oil B/C groups (p<0.01, 748 mg/m3).

Slight fatty liver degeneration was seen in high-dose mineral oil A group; sinusoidal dilatation was also observed in animals exposed to mineral oil B/C.

Mineral oil A (only oil evaluated) was detected in fatty tissues and was retained 2 weeks after completion of exposure.

Data excluded from assessment; chemical and physical data on mineral oil tested are different from 2190 TEP; materials tested are not representative of lubricating oils but are more representative of kerosenes

Skyberg et al. 1990

Follow-up to cable worker studies

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

Rats

15 males and 15 females per group

Additional 10 male rats for specialized testing of pulmonary function

Generic cutting oil (GCO): CAS no. 64742-65-0 (85%) plus additives

Gear oil (GO): CAS no. 64742-54-7 and CAS no. 64742-57-0 (combined 97%) plus small amount of additives

Commercial engine oil (CEO): CAS no. 64762-65-0 (100 and 300 SUS) (94%) plus additives

GCO: 50, 150, 500 mg/m3

GO: 60, 150, 520 mg/m3

CEO: 50, 150, 400 mg/m3

6 h/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks

Effects evaluated included hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, histopathology, and pulmonary function (GCO: quaisistatic deflation pressure-volume curves, pulmonary hydroxyproline; GO: same as GCO plus lung volume; CEO: same as GO but no pulmonary hydroxyproline measured)

Effects of three formulations were similar; the lung was target organ

GCO: alveolar macrophages with addition of minor hyperplasia of alveolar epithelial cells at 50 mg/m3 increasing in number and severity with increasing dose; thickening of alveolar walls at 500 mg/m3; granulopoiesis in sternum at 500 mg/m3; increase in lung weight at middle and high doses; shift in WBC differential at high dose (increase in circulating neutrophils and decrease in lymphocytes)

GO: changes were similar to those with GCO with addition of minor hyperplasia of alveolar epithelial cells; increase in lung weight at middle and high concentrations; shift in WBC differential at middle and high concentrations.

CEO: similar to changes with two previous formulations without hyperplasia

Pulmonary function was generally unaffected.

Dalbey 2001

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

Species (no.)

Oil Type, Characteristic

Exposure Concentration

Exposure Duration

Effects

Reference

Rats

Hydrotreated base oil (HBO); CAS no. 64742-54-7

Solvent-refined oil (SRO); CAS no. 64742-70-7

White oil (WTO); CAS no. 8042-47-5

50, 210, 1, 000 mg/m3

4 weeks

Effects evaluated included hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, and histopathology

Only lung and associated lymph node changes were observed; the main histologic changes observed included accumulation of foamy macrophages in alveoli, infiltration of neutophils and lymphocytes associated with foamy macrophages and slight thickening of alveolar wall

Dalbey et al. 1991

Dogs, rabbits, mice, rats, hamsters (males) mongrel dogs, Dutch rabbits, Golden hamsters, Holtzman SD rats, CF No. 1 mice, CAF1/Jax mice (pulmonary-tumor-susceptible strain)

Light mineral oil: naphthene base saturated hydrocarbons (95% naphthenes: 27% noncondensed, 68% 2-to 6-ring naphthenes; 5% paraffins)

Low dose: mean, 5.2 mg/m3; range, 3.8-6.6 mg/m3

High dose: mean, 93.1 mg/m3; range, 83.0-104.2 mg/m3

12-26 months

Interim sacrifices were performed at 3 and 6 months and terminally after 1 year of exposure at 5 mg/m3; at 100 mg/m3, interim sacrifices occurred at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months and at 26-month termination; no exposed or control dogs at either concentration were included in 3-month sacrifice or 100-mg/m3

Effects evaluated included body weight, hematology, and respiratory function (including histopathology, enzyme activities [serum and lung: BAP, MgAP], respirometry [rabbits only]).

Body weights:

All species: no significant differences were observed between exposed and control groups

Hematology:

All species: no significant changes were observed between exposed and control groups (NOAEL, 93.1 mg/m3)

Respiratory function:

Rabbits: no significant differences were observed between exposed and control groups based on minute ventilation or oxygen consumption (NOAEL, 93.1 mg/m3)

Biochemistry:

Dogs: no significant differences were observed between exposed and control groups at 5 mg/m3 for 12 months; at 100 mg/m3 (dogs, serum) BAP and MgAP were significantly increased at 12 months; BAP and MgAP were increased at 18 months, but only BAP reached

Wagner et al. 1964

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

sacrifice CAF1/Jax mice were exposed at 100 mg/m3

significance

Rabbits: no significant differences were observed between exposed and control groups (serum, lung tissue)

Rats: no significant differences were observed between exposed and control groups at 5 mg/m3 for 12 months (serum, tissue); BAP and MgAP were significantly increased at 100 mg/m 3 during the 6-month and 1-year evaluations

Hamsters: significant differences were observed at 100 mg/m3 (lung tissue); NOAEL, 93.1 mg/m3

Pathology:

Dogs: at 6-month sacrifices, concentrations demonstrated differing degrees of reaction to inhaled oil (foamy macrophages, clear droplets); this response was also evident at 5-mg/m3 terminal sacrifice at 1 year; significant pulmonary alveolar and hilar lymph node oil deposition and/or lipid granuloma formation after about 12 months at 100 mg/m3.

Rabbits: essentially no response to inhaled oil mist

Rats: prominent presence of macrophages with oil-containing cytoplasm; there was some evidence of interstitial pneumonia; pulmonary tissue alterations were of significance only at 100 mg/m3

Mouse: no major pathologic response was evident (NOAEL, 5.2 mg/m3)

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

Species (no.)

Oil Type, Characteristic

Exposure Concentration

Exposure Duration

Effects

Reference

Dogs (4)

Rats (5-20)

Gerbils (3-9)

CD mice (12-19)

JAX mice (17-27)

Mineral oils, complex (70% paraffinic) with acetone and finish adjuvants, textile fiber finishes

5.5 ± 1.2 mg/m3

105.8 ± 17.8 mg/m3

Each concentration also contained 1,000 ppm acetone.

Chronic, 6 h/day, 5 days/week

Effects evaluated included pulmonary pathology

Study not considered relevant, because complex mixture contained acetone and multiple additives; intent of study was to compare results with those of Wagner et al. (1964); results were comparable

Data support absence of carcinogenicity in variety of animals exposed to mineral oils

Stula and Kwon 1978

Dogs: 24 months

Rats: 12 months with recovery at 1, 2, 6, 10 months; 12-24 months without recovery

Gerbils: 12 months with recovery at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 months.

Mice (CD): 10 months without recovery

Mice (JAX): 12 months without recovery

Abbreviations: BAP, basic alkaline phosphatase; CEO, commercial engine oil; GCO, generic cutting oil; GO, gear oil; GSD, geometric standard deviation; MgAP, magnesium activated alkaline phosphatase; MMAD, mass median aerodynamic diameter; NOAEL, no-observed-adverse-effect level; RD50; a statistically estimated concentration resulting in 50% reduction in respiratory rate.

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

Effects in Humans

Accidental Exposures

No relevant information was identified.

Experimental Studies

No relevant information was identified.

Occupational and Epidemiologic Studies

Fifteen studies of the general health effects of occupational exposure to lubricating oil mists were reviewed (see Table 8-2). In all cases, exposure was chronic, from at least 1 month to 35 years. No relevant studies of acute exposure to oil mists were identified. However, two studies (Kennedy et al. 1989; Kriebel et al. 1997) measured “acute pulmonary responses” (health effects measured on a single day) to metalworking fluid but after an exposure period of at least 1 month. Automobile workers (machine operators) exposed to aerosols of cutting oils and coolant fluids for at least 6 months demonstrated a significant drop in FEV1 relative to assembly (control) workers (Kennedy et al. 1989); the response was associated with exposures greater than 0.20 mg/m3. In a study by Kriebel et al. (1997), workers exposed to mineral oil at 0.24 mg/m3 for at least 1 month, with respiratory effects being measured on a single day, provided some evidence of acute and chronic pulmonary respiratory symptoms. The results of Kriebel et al. (1997) are considered equivocal at best because nonmachinists (control population) demonstrated similar respiratory effects.

Most of the reviewed literature addressed chronic respiratory effects elicited after exposure of more than 1 year. Of the studies reviewed, only five (Ameille et al. 1995; Greaves et al. 1997; Eisen et al. 1997; Svendsen and Hilt 1997, 1999) were considered relevant for EEGL and CEGL development; of the five studies, three were specific to automobile workers, and two to marine engineers. In a study conducted by Ameille et al. (1995), automobile workers did not demonstrate an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms when exposed to straight cutting oils at a geometric mean concentration of 2.2 mg/m3 for a duration of at least 1 year. However, a combined analysis of workers exposed to straight cutting oil or a mixture of straight cutting oil and soluble cutting oil did exhibit an increased prevalence in cough or phlegm. Respiratory function and pulmonary function were also impaired in straight-cutting-oil-exposed workers who smoked.

Results of Greaves et al. (1997) suggested an association of increased reporting of respiratory effects (cough, phlegm, and wheezing) with exposure to metal-working fluids (synthetic oils > straight oils > soluble oils) after exposure of at least 2 years. The average exposure concentration was 0.43 mg/m3. Eisen et al. (1997) reanalyzed those data to evaluate bias in the selection of asthmatics out of the work-

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

place. Their analysis demonstrated a slight increase in the rate ratio for asthma in workers exposed to straight metalworking fluid. As was observed in the Greaves et al. study (1997), the effects were greatest in the workers exposed to synthetic fluids.

A significant increase in mucous membrane irritation and dyspnea (Svendsen and Hilt 1997) and a decrease in respiratory function (Svendsen and Hilt 1999) were observed in marine engineers exposed to mist oil at a TWA of 0.45 mg/m3 for more than 5 years. The engineers also had previous potential exposure to asbestos, welding fumes, and other irritating gases. The authors concluded that the findings of the respiratory-function evaluation were weak and that additional investigational work was needed.

Effects in Animals

Acute Toxicity

Schaper and Detwiler (1991) exposed Swiss-Webster mice to different aerosolized metalworking fluids obtained from three General Motors plants. Mice were exposed to straight (new or “neat” and used), soluble, or synthetic oils; only the results with straight oil are discussed here. Exposure concentrations ranged from about 200 to 2,492 mg/m3 and from about 400 to 2,816 mg/m3 for the neat and used metalworking fluid, respectively. For both neat and used oils, six concentrations were tested at 3-h exposure periods with four mice per exposure. Sensory irritation, as defined in Table 8-3, was observed immediately on exposure to both oils at all concentrations tested, but the irritation decreased within 1 h or less. Pulmonary irritation was apparent at 2 h on exposure to all oil mists. Mild interstitial pneumonia was observed after exposure to both the neat and used straight oils at the highest concentration tested.

Repeated Exposure and Subchronic Toxicity

As a follow-up to occupational-exposure studies of cable-plant workers exposed to mists and vapors of mineral oil and kerosene (Skyberg et al. 1986), Skyberg and co-workers (1990) exposed Wistar rats to two mineral oil mists derived from a mildly refined naphthenic crude oil for 7 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. One of the oils was representative of an oil used as an impregnation fluid (mineral oil A), and the other was used in cable splicing (mineral oil B/C). Exposure concentrations ranged from 126 to 770 mg/m3 for mineral oil A and 75 to 748 mg/m3 for mineral oil B/C. A significantly reduced necropsy body weight was observed in the high-dose group exposed to mineral oil A. Increased liver and lung weights were observed, but statistical significance was not achieved. Macroscopic changes were not observed in the lungs of any of the exposed groups. Mineral oil B/C induced significant increases in the number of alveolar macrophages (at 748 mg/m3) and the degree of vacuolization (at greater than 75 mg/m3). Damage to the bronchial mucosa (including ciliary loss), increased number of goblet cells, and cellular disorien-

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
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tation were observed after exposure to all oils, except mineral oil A, at 748 mg/m3. Liver pathology was noted as slight fatty liver degeneration (mineral oil A, 770 mg/m3) and sinusoidal dilatation (mineral oil B/C, ≥75 mg/m3). Mineral oil A was detected in the fat tissue of exposed animals and was retained 2 weeks after the completion of exposure.

Several inhalation studies of oil mists, with the characteristic profile outlined by the committee, were conducted by Dalbey et al. (1991) and Dalbey (2001). Two of the petroleum distillates tested, including one hydrotreated base stock and one gear oil, had the same lubricating base stock as 2190 TEP (CAS no. 64742-54-7). In a standard 4-week toxicity study, whole-body exposure to hydrotreated base oil at 50, 210, and 1,000 mg/m3 for 6 h/day, 5 days/week, only lung and associated lymph node changes were observed (Dalbey et al. 1991). The main histologic changes observed at 210 and 1,000 mg/m3 were accumulation of foamy macrophages in alveoli, infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes associated with the foamy macrophages, and a slight thickening of the alveolar wall; concentration dependence was demonstrated. Similar pathology of the lung and slight hyperplasia of alveolar epithelial cells were observed on exposure to gear oil (CAS no. 64742-54-7 and 64742-57-0) for 13 weeks at 60, 150, and 520 mg/m3 (Dalbey 2001). Additional changes included an increase in lung weight and a shift in the white-blood-cell (WBC) differential (≥150 mg/m3). Pulmonary function was not affected in any treatment group.

Chronic Toxicity

Wagner et al. (1964) exposed five species—dogs, rabbits, mice (CF No. 1 strain and CAF1/Jax strain), rats, and hamsters—to two concentrations of light mineral oil (naphthenic base) for 1 year (5 mg/m3) to 26 months (100 mg/m3). CF No. 1 mice were used to determine responses to exposures both histologically and physiologically and were used to assess longevity. CAF1 mice, which were used as a model to evaluate tumorigenic potential, were exposed only at 100 mg/m3. No significant changes in body weight or hematologic characteristics were observed in any of the test species. Respiratory function was not affected in the rabbits, the only species tested this way. Basic alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and magnesium-activated alkaline phosphatase (MgAP) were monitored in all species. No significant differences from control animals were observed in rabbits (5 and 100 mg/m3) or in dogs, rats, and hamsters (5 mg/m3). In general, BAP and MgAP were increased in dogs, rats, and hamsters at 100 mg/m3 as early as 6 months of exposure. No pathologic response was evident in the lung tissue of mineral-oil-exposed rabbits and mice. Pathologic responses (as evidenced by foamy macrophages and oil-droplet formation) were observed in dogs and rats. Those effects were apparent at 12 months of exposure in dogs (5 mg/m3). Significant pulmonary alveolar and hilar lymph node oil deposition and granuloma formation were also observed at 12 months but only at 100 mg/m3. In rats, pulmonary tissue alterations were of significance only at 100 mg/m3.

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

Stula and Kwon (1978) evaluated the chronic toxicity of a complex mineral oil containing adjuvants and acetone in dogs, rats, mice, and gerbils. The primary objective was to determine whether the toxicity profile observed with pure mineral oil mist (Wagner et al. 1964) would be altered by the addition of adjuvants and acetone. The animals were exposed to the complex mixture for 12-24 months 6 h/day, 5 days/week at 5 and 100 mg/m3 in combination with 1,000-ppm acetone. Relative to the results of Wagner et al. (1964), inhalation toxicity was not significantly altered by the addition of adjuvants and acetone. Oil mist was detectable in lung macrophages of all species tested at both concentrations. Oil microgranulomas were observed in rats and dogs only at the higher concentration. The data were not considered relevant to the present analysis, because of the composition of the test material. However, the data do confirm the results of Wagner et al. (1964).

Reproductive Toxicity in Males

Sperm morphology and counts were not adversely affected in male rats exposed to hydrotreated base oil at 1,000 mg/m3 6 h/day for 4 weeks (Dalbey et al. 1991).

Immunotoxicity

No relevant information was identified.

Genotoxicity

Solvent-refined hydrotreated heavy paraffinic distillate was negative in the modified salmonella mutagenicity assay (Blackburn et al. 1986).

Carcinogenicity

Four studies of the carcinogenic potential of mineral oil in humans were reviewed (Waldron 1975; Decoufle 1978; Jarvholm et al. 1981; Eisen et al. 1994). Results are detailed in Table 8-2. Although it has been reported that workers exposed to mist oils have an increased risk of cancer, contamination of the mineral oils with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, some known to be carcinogenic) confounds interpretation of the observed results. Metalworking fluids, such as 2190 TEP, that are highly or severely refined have low concentrations of PAHs when “unused” and are classified as A4 (not classifiable as a human carcinogen).

Severe processing can significantly reduce or eliminate the carcinogenic potential of crude oils, as has been demonstrated in mouse-skin painting studies (Kane et al. 1984). On the basis of the results of a modified salmonella mutagenicity assay (Blackburn et al. 1986), solvent-refined hydrotreated heavy paraffinic distillate was not predicted to be carcinogenic.

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

As discussed above, Wagner et al. (1964) exposed dogs, rabbits, mice (CF No. 1 strain and CAF1/Jax strain), rats, and hamsters to two concentrations of light mineral oil (naphthenic base) daily for 1 year (5 mg/m3) to 26 months (100 mg/m3). Significant pulmonary alveolar and hilar lymph node oil deposition or lipid granuloma formation were observed after 12 months in the dog. Although Stula and Kwon (1978) evaluated whether the toxicity profile observed with pure mineral oil mist would be altered by the addition of adjuvants and acetone, their results discussed above support those of Wagner et al. (1964).

Wagner et al. (1964) evaluated the tumorigenic potential of light mineral oil in a lung-tumor-sensitive strain of mice (CAF1/Jax). Mice were exposed to light mineral oil at 100 mg/m3 6 h/day, 5 days/week. Animals were sacrificed monthly from 7 months to 13 months of exposures, and the lungs were processed for histologic evaluation. The collective results of the studies were equivocal. Percentage differences in tumor incidences of 20% and 15% were observed in oil-exposed mice compared with control mice at 10 and 11 months, respectively. However, at 12 and 13 months, the percentage difference was 10% and 13%, respectively; and control mice exhibited more tumors than the oil-exposed mice.

The negative results of the mutagenicity study and rodent carcinogenicity studies support the view that there is no carcinogenic potential in animals. The material-safety data sheet provided by the supplier states that 2190 TEP is not classified as a carcinogen by the National Toxicology Program or by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Chevron 2001).

TOXICOKINETIC AND MECHANISTIC CONSIDERATIONS

Although there is recent concern about the cardiac and pulmonary toxicity of respirable particulate matter from ambient air pollution, mechanistic understanding is insufficient to implicate oil mist particles as a health hazard for otherwise healthy adults. On the basis of animal studies, 2190 TEP would be expected initially to cause an inflammatory reaction if inhaled into the alveolar (deep) region of the lung. Deposition in the deep lung will depend to some extent on the size of the droplets; that is, if smaller than 3-5 µm, they can be expected to reach this area. Furthermore, “fine” oils, such as 2190 TEP, can spread over the surface of the airways and alveoli, depending on the dose. Oil deposited in the airways can be expected to be removed from the lung within a few days by normal physiologic mechanisms, such as the mucoescalator apparatus. However, oil deposited in the alveolar region cannot be removed from the lung to any substantial extent. In that region, the oil will first induce an inflammatory reaction whose extent will be directly dose-dependent. Initially, as demonstrated in animal studies (Skyberg et al. 1990), the oil is taken up (phagocytized) by alveolar macrophages. After a period of weeks, the oil can be found in macrophages of the draining lymph nodes, where it is essentially inert (it causes little reaction at this site). If the dose is large enough in the lung, the macrophages can coalesce and form foreign-body giant cells (Dalbey 2001). If the lung reaction is severe enough, the chronic inflammation can result in

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

interstitial pneumonitis and fibrosis (Wagner et al. 1964). Because the oil cannot be metabolized what reaches the deep lung can be expected to remain there or in the draining lymph nodes for long periods. However, there is no evidence that the lesions are progressive or that they will result in cancer in either the lung or lymph nodes.

INHALATION EXPOSURE LEVELS FROM THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

There are no inhalation exposure levels for 2190 TEP oil mist. However, there are a few occupational standards for mineral oil mist, and they are listed in Table 8-4.

COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

The committee’s recommendations for EEGL and CEGL values for oil mist are summarized in Table 8-5. The proposed U.S. Navy values are provided for comparison.

1-Hour EEGL

Because of the lack of human data on the health effects of short-term exposure to oil mist, data from animal studies were used. The point of departure for estimating the 1-h EEGL was 200 mg/m3, which is the lowest observed-adverse-effect level from Schaper and Detwiler (1991). The committee concluded that that concentration would not affect task completion by a submariner. At that concentration for 3 h, aerosolized metalworking fluid produced sensory irritation

TABLE 8-4 Inhalation Exposure Levels for Mineral Oil Mist

Organization

Type of Level

Exposure Level

Reference

Occupational

 

 

 

ACGIH

TLV-TWA

0.2 mg/m3, inhalable particulate mass (draft)

ACGIH 2003

NIOSH

REL-STEL

10 mg/m3

NIOSH 1997

REL-TWA

5 mg/m3

OSHA

PEL-TWA

5 mg/m3

29 CFR 1915.1000

Abbreviations: ACGIH, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists; NIOSH, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; OSHA, Occupational Safety and Health Administration; PEL, permissible exposure limit; REL, recommended exposure limit; STEL, short-term exposure limit; TLV, Threshold Limit Value; TWA, time-weighted average.

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
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TABLE 8-5 Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Oil Mist

Exposure Level

U.S. Navy Proposed Values (mg/m3)a

Committee Recommended Values (mg/m3)

EEGL

 

 

1-h

10 (values forward)

20

24-h

2 (values forward)

2.5

CEGL

 

 

90-day

0.3 (values forward)

0.3

aU.S. Navy values are for forward section of submarine. No current or proposed values were provided for aft section of submarine.

Abbreviations: CEGL, continuous exposure guidance level; EEGL, emergency exposure guidance level.

in mice that decreased in 1 h or less and became more pronounced at 3 h. Interstitial pneumonitis was observed at 24 h but not 14 days after exposure. The effect was reversible after exposure ended. Pulmonary irritation was not observed until 2 h of exposure. An uncertainty factor of 3 to account for interspecies differences was applied because animal species and humans respond similarly regarding pulmonary effects. A database uncertainty factor of 3 was applied to account for the lack of data specific to 2190 oil mist and the need to use data on surrogate oils to derive an exposure guidance level. No intraspecies uncertainty factor was applied, because the submariner population would be expected to react similarly to the pulmonary effects. Application of the interspecies and database uncertainty factors results in a 1-h EEGL of 20 mg/m3. That estimate is considered to be protective because it is based on a response after a 3-h exposure.

24-Hour EEGL

No relevant human information was available for determining the 24-h EEGL value. The committee considered the publication by Skyberg et al. (1986) but decided that the composition of the petroleum distillate was too dissimilar from 2190 TEP and lubricating oils. Therefore, the point of departure for estimating the 24-h EEGL was the recommended 1-h EEGL, 20 mg/m3. Because the animals were exposed to the test metalworking fluid for 3 h, a time-duration adjustment factor of 8—(24 h)/(3 h) = 8—was applied to the 1-h EEGL, resulting in a 24-h EEGL of 2.5 mg/m3.

90-Day CEGL

To determine the 90-day CEGL, the committee considered two studies of petroleum distillates with the same lubricating base stock as 2190 TEP (CAS no.

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

64742-54-7) tested on rats (Dalbey 2001; Dalbey et al. 1991). In a standard 4-week inhalation-toxicity study, whole-body exposure to hydrotreated base oil at 50, 210, and 1,000 mg/m3 resulted in lung and associated lymph node changes (Dalbey et al. 1991). The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 50 mg/m3. The main histologic changes observed were accumulation of foamy macrophages in alveoli, infiltration of neutophils and lymphocytes associated with the foamy macrophages, and a slight thickening of the alveolar wall. Those effects were considered minimal. Similar pathology of the lung and slight hyperplasia of alveolar epithelial cells were observed on inhalation exposure of rats to gear oil (combination of CAS no. 64742-54-7 and 64742-57-0) for 13 weeks at 60, 150, and 520 mg/m3 (Dalbey 2001). Additional changes included an increase in lung weight and a shift in the WBC differential (≥150 mg/m3). Pulmonary function was not affected. Because the latter study combined two lubricating base stocks, the committee used the first study (NOAEL, 50 mg/m3) as the initial point of departure. In a study conducted by Ameille et al. (1995), automobile workers did not demonstrate an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms when exposed to straight cutting oils at a geometric mean concentration of 2.2 mg/m3 for at least 1 year. However, a combined analysis of workers exposed to straight cutting oil or a mixture of straight cutting oil and soluble cutting oil did exhibit an increased prevalence in cough or phlegm. Respiratory function and pulmonary function were also impaired in straight-cutting-oil-exposed workers who smoked. In humans, exposures to metalworking fluids at 0.243 mg/m3 for at least 1 month (Kriebel et al. 1997) and 0.20 mg/m3 for at least 6 months (Kennedy et al. 1989) resulted in similar respiratory responses (significant drop in FEV1 response). Because exposure data in humans are not as well controlled as in the animal studies and the oils were different from 2190 TEP, the rat studies were considered more appropriate for setting the 90-day CEGL. Starting with 50 mg/m3 as the initial point of departure, an uncertainty factor of 3 was applied to account for interspecies differences because animals and humans demonstrate similar respiratory symptoms on exposure to oil mist. A duration adjustment factor of 16.8—(7/5 [days])(24/6 [h])(3/1 [months])—was applied. A database uncertainty factor of 3 was also applied to account for the lack of data specific to 2190 oil mist and the need to use data on surrogate oils to derive an exposure guidance level. No intraspecies uncertainty factor was applied, because the submariner population would be expected to react similarly to the pulmonary effects. Application of the uncertainty and duration-adjustment factors results in a 90-day CEGL of 0.3 mg/m3.

DATA ADEQUACY AND RESEARCH NEEDS

The committee recommends analysis of the oil mist to which the submariners are exposed. That mist oil should then be evaluated in animals for potential adverse health effects. If the Navy does not agree with the approach taken by the committee to estimate exposure guidance levels in this profile, acute and 90-day animal studies should be conducted with 2190 TEP. The committee recommends that used 2190

Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
×

TEP (used in the same manner as in a submarine) be characterized to determine the aromatic components present.

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Suggested Citation:"8 2190 Oil Mist." National Research Council. 2008. Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12032.
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